Liu X.,Chinese Academy of Sciences |
Zhang W.,Chinese Academy of Sciences |
Zhang B.,Chinese Academy of Sciences |
Yang Q.,Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute |
Chang J.,Shanxi Academy of Forestry science
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2016
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the diurnal variation in soil respiration under different land use types on Taihang Mountain, North China, and to understand its response to environmental factors (e.g., soil temperature and moisture) and forest management. Diurnal variations in soil respiration from plantations (Robinia pseudoacacia, Punica granatum, and Ziziphus jujuba), naturally regenerated forests (Vitex negundo var. heterophylla), grasslands (Bothriochloa ischaemum), and farmlands (winter wheat/summer maize) were measured using an LI-8100 automated soil CO2 flux system from May 2012 to April 2013. The results indicated that land use type had a significant effect on the diurnal variation of soil respiration. The diurnal soil respiration from farmlands was highest, followed by Ziziphus jujube, R. pseudoacacia, P. granatum, the lower soil CO2 efflux was found from B. ischaemum and V. negundo var. heterophylla. The diurnal soil respiration across different land use types was significantly affected by soil temperature and moisture, and their interaction. Precipitation-stimulated soil respiration increased more in soil with low water content and less in soil with high water content. The lower diurnal soil respiration from naturally regenerated forests suggests that naturally regenerated vegetation is the optimal vegetation type for reducing global warming. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Liu X.P.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology |
Zhang W.J.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology |
Wang X.Y.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology |
Cai Y.J.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment |
Chang J.G.,Shanxi Academy of Forestry science
Tree Physiology | Year: 2015
During periods of water deficit, growing roots may shrink, retaining only partial contact with the soil. In this study, known mathematical models were used to calculate the root-soil air gap and water flow resistance at the soil-root interface, respectively, of Robinia pseudoacacia L. under different water conditions. Using a digital camera, the root-soil air gap of R. pseudoacacia was investigated in a root growth chamber; this root-soil air gap and the model-inferred water flow resistance at the soil-root interface were compared with predictions based on a separate outdoor experiment. The results indicated progressively greater root shrinkage and loss of root-soil contact with decreasing soil water potential. The average widths of the root-soil air gap for R. pseudoacacia in open fields and in the root growth chamber were 0.24 and 0.39 mm, respectively. The resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface in both environments increased with decreasing soil water potential. Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that soil water potential and soil temperature were the best predictors of variation in the root-soil air gap. A combination of soil water potential, soil temperature, root-air water potential difference and soil-root water potential difference best predicted the resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface. © 2015 The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
PubMed | CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, CAS Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment and Shanxi Academy of Forestry science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tree physiology | Year: 2015
During periods of water deficit, growing roots may shrink, retaining only partial contact with the soil. In this study, known mathematical models were used to calculate the root-soil air gap and water flow resistance at the soil-root interface, respectively, of Robinia pseudoacacia L. under different water conditions. Using a digital camera, the root-soil air gap of R. pseudoacacia was investigated in a root growth chamber; this root-soil air gap and the model-inferred water flow resistance at the soil-root interface were compared with predictions based on a separate outdoor experiment. The results indicated progressively greater root shrinkage and loss of root-soil contact with decreasing soil water potential. The average widths of the root-soil air gap for R. pseudoacacia in open fields and in the root growth chamber were 0.24 and 0.39 mm, respectively. The resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface in both environments increased with decreasing soil water potential. Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that soil water potential and soil temperature were the best predictors of variation in the root-soil air gap. A combination of soil water potential, soil temperature, root-air water potential difference and soil-root water potential difference best predicted the resistance to water flow at the soil-root interface.
Cai J.,CAS Institute of Botany |
Cai J.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences |
Chen J.,CAS Institute of Botany |
Chen J.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences |
And 4 more authors.
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2015
Trisodium phosphate (TSP) has been shown to be effective for control of food-borne bacteria, but little is known about its activity against phytopathogenic fungi that cause plant diseases. Here we show that TSP application reduced disease development of brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola on jujube and peach fruits. The efficiency of TSP was positively correlated with its concentrations. Analysis of the influence of pH on efficiency of TSP indicated that the inhibitory effect of TSP against M. fructicola was only partially influenced by its alkaline pH. TSP directly inhibited spore germination, germ tube elongation, and mycelial growth of M. fructicola in the culture medium. To further investigate the mechanisms by which TSP inhibited fungal growth, we detected the integrity of the plasma membrane of M. fructicola. Our result show that TSP treatment resulted in the loss of plasma membrane integrity, leading to the release of intracellular contents such as soluble proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Taken together, our data suggest that TSP was effective for controlling postharvest disease caused by M. fructicola on jujube and peach fruits and this antifungal activity was directly related to the disruption of cell membrane of the fungal pathogen. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Tane H.,Living Water Foundation |
Sun T.,Shanxi Academy of Forestry Science |
Zheng Z.,Shanxi Academy of Forestry Science |
Liu J.,Shanxi Academy of Forestry Science
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2014
Mapping watershed ecosystems, evaluating their ecological status and modelling land use futures are the aims of a project undertaken by an interdisciplinary team from Shanxi Forestry Academy and Watershed Systems Living Water Foundation. The project introduces geospatial methodologies and iGiS technologies for (a) mapping and modelling watersheds and (b) monitoring and evaluating rangeland restoration after reassigning collective forest lands to local farmers in accordance with land reform policies. Two contemporary geospatial technologies were instrumental in the Fangshan project. These technologies are driving a paradigm shift in the way primary industries like mining, farming and forestry utilize GIS, engage in land evaluations, resource mapping, environmental assessments and product certification. Firstly, high resolution, true image 3D orthophoto mapping was produced as the iGiS map platform for the Fangshan project. The true colour orthophoto maps produced by the team proved very suitable, with the high resolution imagery achieving cartographic standards allowing draft mapping at 1:2000. Because unique x,y,z geocentroid coordinates are generated for each and every pixel in the orthophoto mapping process, detailed iGiS data bases with multiple attributes ranked parametrically were readily captured and recorded for every habitat and regolith.Secondly, the Shanxi Forest Academy team were trained in geospatial methodologies for mapping watershed ecosystems and modelling their habitat/regolith/energy relationships. Using GiS imaging technologies, these cartographic simulation methodologies enable ecological modelling of watersheds and their subterranean water systems, while providing a framework for monitoring and evaluating the environmental health of watersheds using permanent benchmarks and ecological indicators. Habitat mapping and modelling of Fangshan watersheds revealed how ecological restoration is gradually occurring through strategic combinations of planned reforestation, traditional terrace farming systems and natural regeneration. These ecological strategies are shown to be beneficial land use partners in restoring the mountain rangelands, riparian ecostructures and ecosystem functions of degraded loess plateau watersheds. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Du J.,Shanxi University |
Chang Y.,Shanxi Academy of Forestry science |
Liu Y.,Shanxi Academy of Forestry science
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014
Walnut kernels contain abundant fat, and there is a large amount of planting area of walnut in Shanxi province where high-oil type cultivars are increasingly being focused on. To learn the fat characteristics of walnut cultivar kernels from Shanxi Province, 12 cultivars of walnut were analyzed for their oil content of the kernel and for their fatty acid composition by using the soxhlet extraction method and gas chromatography. A preliminary classification and comparison was made on the basis of the data. The results show that the oil content of different cultivars from the same region ranges from 59.4-71.5%, with an average of 65.9%, and 'Xifu No.1' was the highest at 71.5%. The value of unsaturated fatty acid averages 92.4%, and the ratio of unsaturated to saturated acid is 7.6:1. Among the different cultivars there existed differences in fatty acid composition. An oleic acid-rich cultivar was 'Jinlong No.2' (40.5%), a linoleic acid-rich cultivar was 'Liaoning No.1' (66.5%) and a linolenic acid-rich cultivar was 'Xifu No.1' (13.5%). The ratio of N-6:N-3 was closest to 4:1 in 'Zhonglin No.1' (4.6:1). The cultivars of walnut had different nutritional characteristics to meet specific requirements and can thus form special population groups. Some cultivars of low SFA value like 'Beijing861', 'Jinlong No.2' and 'Zha343' could become important export cultivars.
Gao R.M.,Shanxi Agricultural University |
Shi X.D.,Shanxi Agricultural University |
Guo Y.D.,Shanxi Agricultural University |
Fan L.Y.,Shanxi Academy of Forestry science
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2015
Larix principis-rupprechtii is one of dominant deciduous coniferous tree species in subalpine temperate forests of North China. It plays significant roles in water conservation, ecotourism and biodiversity maintenance in its distributional areas. It is also one of major economic tree species in this region due to its fast growth and good-quality timber. Previous studies suggest that L. principis-rupprechtii experiences natural regeneration failure, as indicated by low proportion of saplings and seedlings in natural conditions. The failure of regeneration is a threat to persistence of L. principis-rupprechtii forests in its distributional areas. However, the causes of natural regeneration failure are still poorly understood. This study was to examine whether the natural regeneration failure of this species was driven by seed limitation. We investigated seed rain, soil seed bank and seedling regeneration in five typical larch stand types, i.e., pure L. principis-rupprechtii stand, L. rincipis-rupprechtii + Betula platyphylla stand, L. principis-rupprechtii + Populus davidiana stand, L. principis-rupprechtii + P. davidiana + B. platyphylla stand, L. principis-rupprechtii + Picea wilsonii stand. Fifteen 50 cm × 50 cm seed traps were deployed in each plot for seed rain collecting. For each plot, 15 quadrats of 20 cm×20 cm with 10cm depth and 50 quadrats of 1 m × 1 m were examined nearby seed traps for soil seed bank and recruitment survey, respectively. We found that most of seeds were dispersed from September to October. In 2011, which was a seed year of L. principis-rupprechtii, seed production was amounted to (961.93±377.40) seeds/m2, (89.31±16.13)% of which was full seeds. In 2012, a common seed year, both seed production and full seeds proportion were lower than those in previous year, with (252.73±115.12) seeds/m2 and (36.04±4.26)%, respectively. Furthermore, seed rain of L. principis-rupprechtii was mainly from the surrounding mother trees. Seed rain densities of pure L. principis-rupprechtii stand and L. principis-rupprechtii + P. wilsonii stand were higher than those of the other three stand types, which were mixed with broad-leave trees. Thirdly, soil seed bank of L. principis-rupprechtii was mainly from the seed rain that produced in previous year. Seed bank in April of 2012 was (695.18±297.23) seeds/m2, accounting for (76.05±13.79)% of seed rain in autumn of 2011. More than 85% of seeds were found in the litter layer. About (59.73±9.56)% of the seed bank was full seeds. There were (78.98±24.76) seeds/m2 remained viable to germinate before natural regeneration, accounting for (19.02±5.00)% of full seeds in soil seed bank. The germination capacity decreased with time being in forest floor, hence, forming a short-term persistent soil seed bank for L. principis-rupprechtii. Lastly, the emergence of seedlings uncoupled with the seed storage. The frequency of seedling emergence was 1.6%. Seedlings could hardly survive understory. Collectively, this study demonstrates that seed source, especially in seed year, is not the limiting factor for the poor natural regeneration of L. principis-rupprechtii. Our study suggests that further studies should be carried out to examine the detrimental or limiting factors, such as effects of soil moisture and litter, for the natural regeneration failure of the species. © 2015, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.
Zhao J.,Beijing Forestry University |
Zhao J.,Shanxi Academy of Forestry science |
Li X.-P.,Shanxi Academy of Forestry science |
Jia L.-M.,Beijing Forestry University
Beijing Linye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing Forestry University | Year: 2016
The evaluation of vegetation degradation monitoring and vegetation restoration in the coal exploration area was rarely conducted from the perspective of landscape. However, researches on the coal exploration area at landscape scale will be helpful to understand the spatial distribution pattern of vegetation. In this study, we took eastern Shanxi (Yangquan Nanzhuang coal) coal mining areas as the interference sources, and set up six equidistant lines with the distance of 800, 1 500, 2 100, 2 800, 3 500 and 4 200 m according to the quadrant sampling. Meantime, five sample lines with each length of 100 m were deployed along the direction perpendicular to the contour by using LFA (Landscape Function Analysis) method. The patch area index and landscape structure index were calculated by measuring patch quantity, patch width per unit length and average distance and size between patches per unit length. The surface soil health was evaluated around the sample lines. The evaluation index involved four vegetation indexes, i. e., surface coverage (rainfall erosion protection), perennial vegetation coverage, litterfall status and cryptogam vegetation coverage, and seven indicators of soil physical and chemical properties, i. e., degree of soil erosion, soil sediment, surface soil roughness, surface soil characteristics, soil collapse coefficient and soil texture. The purpose of the study was to reveal the distance which coal mining affected local landscape structure and function and its mechanism. The results showed that the effect of coal mining on soil total porosity and soil saturated water content weakened along the increase of distance from the coal mining area. This induced index of soil stability, soil permeability and nutrient cycling to rise accordingly. With the increase of distance from the coal mining area, each indicator related with LFA presented the trend of slow increase to rapid increase and to a stable level. Landscape function developed towards in favor of water and nutrient conservation. When the intensity of coal mining was 3.2 million tons/ year, nature reserve and city planning and construction should guarantee the minimum ecological safety distance of 4 370 m. © 2016, Editorial Department of Journal of Beijing Forestry University. All right reserved.
Gao R.-M.,Shanxi Agricultural University |
Shi X.-D.,Shanxi Agricultural University |
Fan L.-Y.,Shanxi Academy of Forestry science |
Sun Y.-Y.,Shanxi Agricultural University |
Guo X.-H.,Shanxi Agricultural University
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2016
Taxus chinensis var. mairei is a national Category I protective species in China, with its northernmost natural distribution to the southeast of Shanxi Province, China. This study was conducted to investigate the natural distribution of T. chinensis var. mairei in Shanxi Province. The community classification, species diversity, population structure and competition intensity of T. chinensis var. mairei were studied. The results showed that T. chinensis var. mairei mainly formed four community types, including the community of T. chinensis var. mairei + Carpinus turczaninowii, the community of T. chinensis var. mairei-Vitex negundo var. heterophylla, the community T. chinensis var. mairei-Clerodendrum trichotomum and the community of T. chinensis var. mairei + Quercus variabilis. T. chinensis var. mairei was concentratedly distributed in Mohe of Linchuan County and Manghe Nature Reserve of Yangcheng County, and scattered in some other areas. The communities had an obviously vertical structure, with T. chinensis var. mairei trees growing into main canopy which were about 8-10 m high in mixed forests and 5-6 m high in pure forests. The species diversity index and evenness index had significant difference among the four community types. The average height of T. chinensis var. mairei was 5.16 m. The individuals in tree layer and succession layer were 43.4% and 56.6%, respectively, while they were scarce in the regeneration layer. 67.6% of the trees were small-diameter (DBH<16 cm) and only 4.0% were large-diameter (32 cm≤DBH<40 cm). T. chinensis var. mairei was considered to be lack of seedlings because only 4 seedlings were found, which might result in the declination of this species in future. T. chinensis var. mairei in Shanxi Province showed relatively concentrated distribution, with most individuals being small-diameter, resulting in tense intraspecific competition which accounted for 61.8% of the total intensity. The interspecific competition to T. chinensis var. mairei was mainly from C. turczaninowii and Q. variabilis, which were two dominant tree species with larger population in this area. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.
Wang G.,Shanxi Academy of Forestry science |
Wang J.Y.,Shanxi Academy of Forestry science |
He Q.,Shanxi Academy of Forestry science |
Wu J.,Shanxi Academy of Forestry science |
Zhang C.H.,Shanxi Academy of Forestry science
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014
Cold resistance, disease and pest resistance, and the heritability of traits of Jin RS-2 and Jin RS-3 rootstocks were investigated and compared for 9 years. The results show that the cold-resistance, drought tolerance, disease and pest resistance, and fecundity of Jin RS-2 and Jin RS-3 are better than those of other cultivars tested. Jin RS-2 and Jin RS-3 are ideal and superior rootstocks for use in northern China's walnut growing regions.