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Sasakia funebris, a member of the lepidopteran family, Nymphalidae (superfamily Papilionoidea) is a rare species and is found only in some areas of South China. In this study, the 15,233 bp long complete mitochondrial genome of S. funebris was determined, and harbors the gene arrangement identical to all other sequenced lepidopteran insects. The nucleotide composition of the genome is highly A+T biased, accounting for 81.2%. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with typical ATN codons, except for COI which begins with the CGA codon. All tRNAs have a typical clover-leaf secondary structure, except for tRNASer(AGN), the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of which forms a simple loop. The S. funebris A+T-rich region of 370 bp contains several features common to the Lepidoptera insects, including the motif ATAGA followed by a 19 bp poly-T stretch, and two tandem repeats consisting of 18 bp repeat units and 14 bp repeat units. The phylogenetic analyses of Apaturinae based on mitogenome sequences showed: (S. funebris+Sasakia charonda)+(Apatura metis+Apatura ilia). This result is consistent with the morphological classification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Jiang Q.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Hu Z.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Pan X.-L.,Shanxi Academy of Agriculture science | Zhang H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Integrative Agriculture | Year: 2013

Hybrid necrosis is the gradual premature death of leaves or plants in certain F1 hybrids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Comparison of protein expression in necrotic and normal wheat leaves showed that the abundance of 33 proteins was changed significantly, and 24 of these proteins were identified. These proteins were involved in plant growth and development, antioxidation, photosynthesis and carbon assimilation, amino acid and protein biosynthesis, cytological signal transduction, DNA and RNA modification, protein transport, folding and assembly according to their functions. The down-regulation of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase and the up-regulation of lipoxygenases in necrotic leaves may be related to the oxidative stress in the necrotic cells. The heat shock proteins may play the cytoprotective role. The differential expression of photosynthesis and carbon assimilation related proteins indicated chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast development were inhibited and might finally cause the gradual chlorosis and cell death in necrotic leaves. The results of this study give a comprehensive picture of the post-transcriptional response to necrosis in hybrid wheat leaves and serve as a platform for further characterization of gene function and regulation in wheat hybrid necrosis. © 2013 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Yang Z.,Shanxi Agricultural University | Yang W.,University of Science and Technology of China | Li S.,Shanxi Agricultural University | Hao J.,Shanxi Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summeryearbyyear. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing of one 16S rDNA fragment were used to analyze the bacterial diversity and species identification. DGGE profiles showed the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil samples varied among various crops under different cropping systems, more diverse under intercropping system than under sole-cropping. Some intercropping-specific bands in DGGE profiles suggested that several bacterial species were stimulated by intercropping systems specifically. Furthermore, the identification of these dominant and functional bacteria by DNA sequencing indicated that intercropping systems are more beneficial to improve soil fertility. Compared to intercropping systems, we also observed changes in microbial community of rhizosphere soil under sole-crops. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure in spring crops showed a strong crop species-specific pattern. More importantly, Empedobacter brevis, a typical plant pathogen, was only found in the carrot rhizosphere, suggesting carrot should be sown prudently. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crop species and cropping systems had significant effects on bacterial community diversity in the rhizosphere soils. We strongly suggest sorghum, glutinous millet and buckwheat could be taken into account as intercropping crops with peanut; while hulled oat, mung bean or foxtail millet could be considered for sowing in wheat fields after harvest in North China. © 2016 Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Li M.,Shanxi University | Li Z.,Shanxi Academy of Agriculture science | Li S.,Shanxi University | Karsten L.,Shanxi University | Karsten L.,University of Saskatchewan
Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology | Year: 2015

In order to reveal interspecific associations among the dominant plants in naturally-colonized plant communities on coal gob piles, we analyzed data of field investigation using χ2-tests, Pearson correlation coefficients and Spearman rank correlation coefficients to study the 16 dominant species in naturally-colonized plant communities on coal gob piles in the Yangquan mining area of Shanxi, China. The results revealed that: (i) among 120 species-pairs, the ratios of positive and negative associations in χ2-tests and Pearson correlation coefficients (3.0 and 1.80, respectively) were greater than 1, while the ratio of positive and negative associations in Spearman rank correlations (0.94) was less than 1; (ii) compared with χ2-tests and Pearson correlation coefficients, the sensitivity of the Spearman rank correlation test was higher, indicating that it could better identify the inter-specific associations among the plants; (iii) among the 120 species pairs, those pairs that displayed no significant correlation outnumbered those displaying significant correlation, indicating that the naturally-colonized plant communities on coal gob piles had simple community structures and were still in the early or middle stage of succession; and (iv) based on Spearman rank correlation coefficients, the 16 dominant species fell into 3 ecological species groups, with soil moisture being the key environmental factor responsible for the differentiation of these species groups. Therefore, planted communities, rather than naturally-colonized communities, are recommended in the initial stage of vegetation restoration on coal gob piles of the Yangquan mining area in order to speed up the progress of succession. The dominant species-pairs of Bothriochloa ischaemum and Ailanthus altissima, Vitex negundo var. heterophylla and Robinia pseudoacacia, Periploca sepium and Vitex negundo var. heterophylla or Robinia pseudoacacia, and Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia showed extremely significantly or significantly positive correlations. These five species pairs were the pioneer species with the strongest ecological adaptability for tolerating drought and poor soil fertility, and are thus recommended species-pairs for mixed planting revegetation of local coal gob piles.

Li Q.,Shandong Agricultural University | Li Q.,Shanxi Academy of Agriculture science | Tan W.,Shanxi Academy of Agriculture science | Xue M.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Arthropod-Plant Interactions | Year: 2013

Bemisia tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) is a worldwide pest. To determine whether MEAM1 nymphs produce the same symptoms in different host plants, we measured the plant growth and chlorophyll content of tobacco and cotton plants that were infested by MEAM1 nymphs. Furthermore, to investigate the spatial and temporal changes in photosynthesis caused by MEAM1 nymphs, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and chlorophyll a fluorescence of local and systemic tobacco leaves were assayed at 8, 11, 14, and 20 days after MEAM1 adult removal, which represent the stages of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instar nymphs, respectively. The results showed that MEAM1 nymph infestation reduced the plant height and internode length of tobacco at 14 and 20 days, as well as the dry weight of infested and systemic tobacco leaves. However, MEAM1 nymph infestation did not affect the plant height or internode length of cotton. Also, the dry weight and chlorophyll and carotenoid content of infested and systemic leaves of cotton plants were not influenced by MEAM1 nymph infestation. However, the contents of chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids in infested tobacco leaves decreased over time; the chlorophyll a content of systemic tobacco leaves decreased at 11, 14, and 20 days. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in infested and systemic leaves of cotton plants were not influenced by MEAM1 nymph infestation. In addition, the Pn of infested tobacco leaves decreased at 14 and 20 days, while the Pn in systemic tobacco leaves decreased after 11 days. The greatest decrease in performance index on absorption basis (PIABS) of infested and systemic tobacco leaves occurred on day 14. The fluorescence intensity at 2 ms (J peak) and 300 μs (K peak) increased on day 14, which indicates that 3rd instar nymphs caused serious damage to the primary photochemical reactions and donor side of PSII. These results suggest that MEAM1 nymph infestation had different effects on tobacco and cotton plants. The infestation caused spatial and temporal changes in photosynthesis in tobacco plants. The lower chlorophyll a content may have been related to the lower net photosynthetic rate of systemic and infested tobacco leaves. The decreased stability of the oxygen-evolving complex and the reaction center of PSII and the decrease in electron transport were the main reasons for the decrease in the level of photosynthesis in tobacco leaves caused by MEAM1 nymphs during various stages of infestation. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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