Li J.,South China Agricultural University |
Dong F.,South China Agricultural University |
Lu Y.,South China Agricultural University |
Yan Q.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
Shim H.,University of Macau
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
Foods produced on soils impacted by Pb-Zn mining activities are a potential health risk due to plant uptake of the arsenic (As) associated with such mining. A field survey was undertaken in two Pb-Zn mining-impacted paddy fields in Guangdong Province, China to assess As accumulation and translocation, as well as other factors influencing As in twelve commonly grown rice cultivars. The results showed that grain As concentrations in all the surveyed rice failed national food standards, irrespective of As speciation. Among the 12 rice cultivars, "SY-89" and "DY-162" had the least As in rice grain. No significant difference for As concentration in grain was observed between the rice grown in the two areas that differed significantly for soil As levels, suggesting that the amount of As contamination in the soil is not necessarily the overriding factor controlling the As content in the rice grain. The iron and manganese plaque on the root surface curtailed As accumulation in rice roots. Based on our results, the accumulation of As within rice plants was strongly associated with such soil properties such as silicon, phosphorus, organic matter, pH, and clay content. Understanding the factors and mechanisms controlling As uptake is important to develop mitigation measures that can reduce the amount of As accumulated in rice grains produced on contaminated soils. © 2014 Li et al.
Chen X.,China Agricultural University |
Cui Z.,China Agricultural University |
Fan M.,Stanford University |
Vitousek P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
And 28 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2014
Agriculture faces great challenges to ensure global food security by increasing yields while reducing environmental costs1,2. Here we address this challenge by conducting a total of 153 site-year field experiments covering the main agro-ecological areas for rice, wheat and maize production in China. As et of integrated soil-crop systemmanagement practices based ona modern understanding of crop ecophysiology and soil biogeochemistry increases average yields for rice, wheat and maize from 7.2 million grams per hectare (Mg ha-1), 7.2Mg ha-1 and 10.5Mgha-1 to 8.5Mgha-1, 8.9Mgha-1 and 14.2Mgha-1, respectively, without any increase in nitrogen fertilizer. Model simulation and life-cycle assessment3 show that reactive nitrogen losses and greenhouse gasemissions are reduced substantially by integrated soil-crop system management. If farmers in China could achieve average grain yields equivalent to 80%of this treatment by 2030, over the sameplanting area as in 2012, total production of rice, wheat and maize in China would be more than enough to meet the demand for direct human consumption and a substantially increased demand for animal feed, while decreasing the environmental costs of intensive agriculture. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Cui Z.,China Agricultural University |
Yue S.,China Agricultural University |
Wang G.,China Agricultural University |
Meng Q.,China Agricultural University |
And 6 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2013
Although the goal of doubling food demand while simultaneously reducing agricultural environmental damage has become widely accepted, the dominant agricultural paradigm still considers high yields and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity to be in conflict with one another. Here, we achieved an increase in maize yield of 70% in on-farm experiments by closing the yield gap and evaluated the trade-off between grain yield, nitrogen (N) fertilizer use, and GHG emissions. Based on two groups of N application experiments in six locations for 16 on-farm site-years, an integrated soil-crop system (HY) approach achieved 93% of the yield potential and averaged 14.8 Mg ha-1 maize grain yield at 15.5% moisture. This is 70% higher than current crop (CC) management. More importantly, the optimal N rate for the HY system was 250 kg N ha-1, which is only 38% more N fertilizer input than that applied in the CC system. Both the N2O emission intensity and GHG intensity increased exponentially as the N application rate increased, and the response curve for the CC system was always higher than that for the HY system. Although the N application rate increased by 38%, N2O emission intensity and the GHG intensity of the HY system were reduced by 12% and 19%, respectively. These on-farm observations indicate that closing the yield gap alongside efficient N management should therefore be prominent among a portfolio of strategies to meet food demand while reducing GHG intensity at the same time. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhang L.,Shanxi University |
Liu R.,Cornell University |
Niu W.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
The phytochemical content, antioxidant activity and antiproliferative properties of three diverse varieties of proso millet are reported. The free phenolic content ranged from 27.48 (Gumi 20) to 151.14 (Mi2504-6) mg gallic acid equiv/100 g DW. The bound phenolic content ranged from 55.95 (Gumi20) to 305.81 (Mi2504-6) mg gallic acid equiv/100 g DW. The percentage contribution of bound phenolic to the total phenolic content of genotype samples analyzed ranged between 62.08% and 67.05%. Ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid are the predominant phenolic acid found in bound fraction. Caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid were also detected. Syringic acid was detected only in the free fraction. The antioxidant activity was assessed using the hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The PSC antioxidant activity of the free fraction ranged from 57.68 (Mi2504-6) to 147.32 (Gumi20) μmol of vitamin C equiv/100 g DW. The PSC antioxidant activity of the bound fraction ranged from 95.38 (Mizao 52) to 136.48 (Gumi 20) μmol of vitamin C equiv/100 g DW. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) of the extract was assessed using the HepG2 model. CAA value ranged from 2.51 to 6.10 μmol equiv quercetin/100 g DW. Antiproliferative activities were also studied in vitro against MDA human breast cancer and HepG2 human liver cancer cells. Results exhibited a differential and possible selective antiproliferative property of the proso millet. These results may be used to direct the consumption of proso millet with improved health properties. © 2014 Zhang et al.
Bai L.,Shanxi University |
Liang J.,Shanxi University |
Sui C.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
Dang C.,City University of Hong Kong
Information Sciences | Year: 2013
The fast global k-means (FGKM) clustering algorithm is one of the most effective approaches for resolving the local convergence of the k-means clustering algorithm. Numerical experiments show that it can effectively determine a global or near global minimizer of the cost function. However, the FGKM algorithm needs a large amount of computational time or storage space when handling large data sets. To overcome this deficiency, a more efficient FGKM algorithm, namely FGKM+A, is developed in this paper. In the development, we first apply local geometrical information to describe approximately the set of objects represented by a candidate cluster center. On the basis of the approximate description, we then propose an acceleration mechanism for the production of new cluster centers. As a result of the acceleration, the FGKM+A algorithm not only yields the same clustering results as that of the FGKM algorithm but also requires less computational time and fewer distance calculations than the FGKM algorithm and its existing modifications. The efficiency of the FGKM+A algorithm is further confirmed by experimental studies on several UCI data sets. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li L.,Copenhagen University |
Li L.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
Holm P.E.,Copenhagen University |
Marcussen H.,Copenhagen University |
Bruun Hansen H.C.,Copenhagen University
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2014
We studied the bonding and release kinetics of Cd, Cu and Pb from different soils in the older metropolitan area of Copenhagen. Total Cd, Cu and Pb concentrations were elevated 5-27 times in the urban soils compared to an agricultural reference soil, with Cd and Pb in mainly mobilisable pools and Cu in strongly bound pools. The soils were subjected to accelerated leaching studies in Ca(NO3)2 or HNO3 solutions resulting in release up to 78, 18 and 15% of total Cd, Cu and Pb soil concentrations over a period of 15 weeks. The relative initial Cd and Pb release rates increased 10 fold when pH decreased 2 and 3 units, respectively, while increases in Cu release rates were only seen at pH below 4. The total leachable Cu and Pb pools were higher in urban soils compared the agricultural reference soil but not for Cd. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Qin W.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
Qin W.,Wageningen University |
Chi B.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
Oenema O.,Wageningen University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Increasing crop yield and water use efficiency (WUE) in dryland farming requires a quantitative understanding of relationships between crop yield and the water balance over many years. Here, we report on a long-term dryland monitoring site at the Loess Plateau, Shanxi, China, where winter wheat was grown for 30 consecutive years and soil water content (0-200 cm) was measured every 10 days. The monitoring data were used to calibrate the AquaCrop model and then to analyse the components of the water balance. There was a strong positive relationship between total available water and mean cereal yield. However, only one-third of the available water was actually used by the winter wheat for crop transpiration. The remaining two-thirds were lost by soil evaporation, of which 40 and 60% was lost during the growing and fallow seasons, respectively. Wheat yields ranged from 0.6 to 3.9 ton/ha and WUE from 0.3 to 0.9 kg/m3. Results of model experiments suggest that minimizing soil evaporation via straw mulch or plastic film covers could potentially double wheat yields and WUE. We conclude that the relatively low wheat yields and low WUE were mainly related to (i) limited rainfall, (ii) low soil water storage during fallow season due to large soil evaporation, and (iii) poor synchronisation of the wheat growing season to the rain season. The model experiments suggest significant potential for increased yields and WUE. © 2013 Qin et al.
Zhao F.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
Zhao F.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
Zhang W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
Hoffmann A.A.,University of Melbourne |
Ma C.-S.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Animal Ecology | Year: 2014
Summary: An asymmetric increase in night-time temperatures (NTs) on hot days is one of the main features of global climate change. But the biological effects of an increased night-time temperature combined with high daytime temperature are unclear. We used six thermal regimens to simulate NTs on hot days and investigated the effects of night warming on life-history traits of the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae. Experimental temperatures fluctuated in continuous diurnal cycles, increasing from 27°C to a maximum 35°C and then declining to 27°C gradually before further dropping to different minima (13, 16, 19, 21, 23 or 25°C) representing NTs. When compared to expectations based on constant temperatures, night warming raised the optimum temperature for development by 3°C, in contrast to results from experiments where temperature variability was altered symmetrically or in a parallel manner. Night warming also reduced aphid survival under heat from 75% to 37% and depressed adult performance by up to 50%. Overall, night warming exacerbated the detrimental effects of hot days on the intrinsic rate of population increase, which was predicted to drop by 30% when night-time minimum temperatures exceeded 20°C. Our novel findings on development challenge the 'Kaufmann effect', suggesting this is inapplicable to night warming likely to be encountered in nature. Although many average temperature models predict increasing pest outbreaks, our results suggest that outbreaks of some species might decrease due to the effects of night warming on population dynamics. Night warming often occurs in hot days under climate change. Here the authors investigate life-history traits of aphids at six night-time temperatures combined with a high daytime temperature regimen. Night warming raises optimum temperature for development which challenges the 'Kaufmann effect' and reduces nymphal survival unexpectedly. © 2013 The Authors.
Niu Y.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences |
Meng Q.-X.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Asian Natural Products Research | Year: 2013
This paper presents the chemical and preclinical anticancer research on Hedyotis diffusa Willd. in detail, one of the most renowned herbs often prescribed in the polyherbal formulas for cancer treatment in traditional Chinese medicine. Anthraquinones, flavonoids, and terpenoids constitute the majority of the 69 compounds that have been isolated and identified from H. diffusa. The anticancer effects of the methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts in various preclinical cancer models have been described. This review also summarized the anticancer activity of constituents of the herb and the mechanisms of action. All the studies suggest that H. diffusa has enormous potential in the therapy of cancer and warrants further chemical and pharmacological investigation. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.
Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Date: 2013-04-15
A transformation method, including the following steps: preparing an Agrobacterium Ti-plasmid, Escherichia coli plasmid, or other DNA vectors carrying exogenous genetic fragments as a genetic donor; collecting a male gamete (pollen) of the plant as a recipient; preparing a 5-50% sucrose solution after aeration and low temperature pretreatment; mixing the pollen with the exogenous genetic fragments in the 5-50% sucrose solution; transferring the exogenous genetic fragments into the pollen in the presence of ultrasonication; pollinating a pistil stigma of the plant with the treated pollen; harvesting seeds at maturity; sowing the seeds in a subsequent growing season; screening a germinating seed and a seedling; and performing PCR amplification and Southern hybridization using DNA samples of plants to further determine transformants.