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Tan W.,Shandong Agricultural University | Tan W.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultual Science | Li Q.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultual Science | Liang T.,Shandong Agricultural University | Zhai H.,Shandong Agricultural University
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2013

Herbicides are widely applied to control weeds in vineyards. However, they may also impose abiotic stresses on non-target crops. Paraquat, acetochlor and fluoroglycofen are three types of herbicides that are sprayed onto the soil beneath grapevines after the fruit develops. The study aimed to characterize the effects of these herbicides in combination on the photosynthetic characteristics and nutrition storage of grapevine branches throughout the growing season in Qufu, Shandong, China. The results were compared to control vines treated with artificial weeding. The application of the three herbicides reduced the net photosynthesis rate (Pn) in a dose-dependent manner. At the highest concentration, the Pn was reduced by 34.6% 35 d after treatment. By 58 d, there was no significant difference between the lower concentration of herbicides and artificial weeding. Moreover, the combination of herbicides with the highest concentration of each reduced the free amino acid and soluble protein content by 10.4% and 15.1%, respectively, in the fourth node branches. The results of the pot experiment showed that acetochlor and fluoroglycofen both reduced Pn in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, both herbicides also enhanced the malonaldehyde content and accelerated the production rate of superoxide anions in grapevines. Taken together, these results suggested that acetochlor and fluoroglycofen produced different degrees of poisonous effects in grapevines. We suggest that orchard management strategies should reduce the number and dosage of herbicides, or cover crops instead. Source


Tan W.,Shandong Agricultural University | Tan W.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultual Science | Liang T.,Shandong Agricultural University | Li Q.-L.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultual Science | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2013

Acetochlor and fluoroglycofen are herbicides used in vineyards to eradicate weeds. This present study characterized the effects of these chemicals on growth of grape shoot. Taking one-year old sand-cultured Chardonnay/SO4 grapevines as test materials, results showed that 9.4 g ai ha-1 fluoroglycofen and 1123 g ai ha-1 acetochlor significantly improved the growth of new shoots in Chardonnay/SO4, while 187 g ai ha-1 fluoroglycofen and 11230 g ai ha-1 acetochlor reduced root activity and suppressed the growth of shoots, i.e. by 86.6%, 70.6% respectively in the 50th day. Compared with the control, fluoroglycofen decreased IAA content and increased ABA content in a dose-dependent manner. This paper also measured the shoot length and hormone content in Kyoho grapevines which were spraying acetochlor and fluoroglycofen especially in 2011. Results showed that the length of shoots decreased significantly with the fluoroglycofen concentration increased, while the length only in 22460 g ai ha-1 acetochlor treatment was obviously lower than that of control; the IAA content decreased and ABA content increased obviously in the shoot of 375 g ai ha-1 groups. Taken together, the herbicide under the concentration lower than recommended dosages enhanced the shoot growth of Chardonnay/SO4 grapevines, while the concentration were under five times of recommended maximum dosages, it lowed the root activity and inhibited the shoot growth. Application of fluoroglycofen under the dose or the ones higher than field maximum recommended in first year obviously inhibited the growth of Kyoho in the second year, which suggested that herbicide have some aftereffects on crop. Source


Tan W.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultual Science | Tang X.-P.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultual Science | Li X.-M.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultual Science | Dong Z.-G.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultual Science | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2013

This paper analyzed the inheritance of main economic characters (soluble solids and titratable acidity) of berry in 695 hybrid plants of 10 crossing table grape groups. Results showed that the genetic pattern of soluble solids, acidity and the ratio of soluble solids to titratable acid was in accordance with the pattern of quantitative character and continuous variation genetic character. The soluble solids content of progenies was almost equal to their parents, the average combination heritability was 104.02%. In four cross combinations (Guibao×Muscat Hamburg, Muscat Hamburg×Guibao, Red globe×Muscat Hamburg and Okuyama Ruby×Christmas Rose), the proportion of ultra-high parent progenies was higher, which showed obvious heterosis. The acid content of progenies was higher or lower than their parents; except the Okuyama Ruby×Zaoheibao, the other hybrid combinations had no grade 5 and 6 acidiferous progeny; the proportion of lower acidiferous progeny in Qiuhongbao×Wuhe Cuibao was higher. The inheritance in ratio of soluble solids and titratable acidity showed great additive effect. There was no progeny lower than parents in Guibao×Muscat Hamburg and Muscat Hamburg×Guibao combinations; while the proportion of ultra-high parent progenies was higher in Muscat Hamburg×Guibao, Red globe×Muscat Hamburg hybrid-combinations. The genetic predisposition of traits was different in different cross combination types. Source

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