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Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom

Velis C.A.,Cranfield University | Velis C.A.,University of Leeds | Wagland S.,Cranfield University | Longhurst P.,Cranfield University | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Material flows and their contributions to fuel properties are balanced for the mechanical section of a mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant producing solid recovered fuel (SRF) for the UK market. Insights for this and similar plants were secured through a program of sampling, manual sorting, statistics, analytical property determination, and material flow analysis (MFA) with error propagation and data reconciliation. Approximately three-quarters of the net calorific value (Qnet,p,ar) present in the combustible fraction of the biodried flow is incorporated into the SRF (73.2 ± 8.6%), with the important contributors being plastic film (30.7 MJ kg ar -1), other packaging plastic (26.1 MJ kg ar -1), and paper/card (13.0 MJ kgar -1). Nearly 80% w/w of the chlorine load in the biodried flow is incorporated into SRF (78.9 ± 26.2%), determined by the operation of the trommel and air classifier. Through the use of a novel mass balancing procedure, SRF quality is understood, thus improving on the understanding of quality assurance in SRF. Quantification of flows, transfer coefficients, and fuel properties allows recommendations to be made for process optimization and the production of a reliable and therefore marketable SRF product. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Velis C.,Cranfield University | Wagland S.,Cranfield University | Longhurst P.,Cranfield University | Robson B.,Shanks Waste Management Ltd | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Solid recovered fuel (SRF) produced by mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of municipal waste can replace fossil fuels, being a CO 2-neutral, affordable, and alternative energy source. SRF application is limited by low confidence in quality. We present results for key SRF properties centered on the issue of chlorine content. A detailed investigation involved sampling, statistical analysis, reconstruction of composition, and modeling of SRF properties. The total chlorine median for a typical plant during summer operation was 0.69% w/w d, with lower/upper 95% confidence intervals of 0.60% w/w d and 0.74% w/w d (class 3 of CEN Cl indicator). The average total chlorine can be simulated, using a reconciled SRF composition before shredding to <40 mm. The relative plastics vs paper mass ratios in particular result in an SRF with a 95% upper confidence limit for ash content marginally below the 20% w/w d deemed suitable for certain power plants; and a lower 95% confidence limit of net calorific value (NCV) at 14.5 MJ kg ar -1. The data provide, for the first time, a high level of confidence on the effects of SRF composition on its chlorine content, illustrating interrelationships with other fuel properties. The findings presented here allow rational debate on achievable vs desirable MBT-derived SRF quality, informing the development of realistic SRF quality specifications, through modeling exercises, needed for effective thermal recovery. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

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