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Shanghai, China

Jiang W.,Shanghai Normal University | Zhu J.,Shanghai Zoological Park | Chen M.,Shanghai Normal University | Yang Q.,Shanghai Normal University | And 5 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

The maternally inherited obligate bacteria Wolbachia is known for infecting the reproductive tissues of a wide range of arthropods. In this study, we surveyed Wolbachia infections in Polytremis nascens (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from 14 locations in China by amplifying the 16S rRNA gene with a nested PCR method and revealed the effect of Wolbachia on host mitochondrial DNA. The results show that 31% (21/67) are Wolbachia positive among all specimens and mainly prevails in southern populations in China. No significant difference in the prevalence is found between the sexes. Notably, the nucleotide diversity of Wolbachia infected butterflies is smaller compared to that of uninfected butterflies. The mitochondrial DNA of infected group appear to be not evolving neutrally (Tajima's D value = -2.3303 and Fu's F values = -3.7068). The analysis of molecular variance shows significant differentiation of mitochondrial haplotypes between infected and uninfected specimens (FST = 0.6064). The mismatch analysis speculated the different expansion pattern in Wolbachia infected specimens and all P. nascens specimens. These results suggest that the populations of P. nascens may have recently been subjected to a Wolbachia-induced sweep. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis differentiated the mitochondrial haplotypes of P. nascens into three major clades. The clades are in perfect agreement with the pattern of Wolbachia infection. One of the clades grouped with the butterflies infected with Wolbachia. The remaining two clades grouped with uninfected butterflies from the central-west of China populations and Eastern and Southern China populations respectively, which are isolated mainly by the Yangtze River. The analysis of haplotype networks, geographic distribution and population size change shows that Haplotype 1 in central-west of China is the ancestral haplotype and the populations of P. nascens are expanded. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Jiang W.,Shanghai Normal University | Zhu J.,Shanghai Zoological Park | Song C.,Shanghai Normal University | Li X.,Shanghai Normal University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: The genus Polytremis, restricted to the continental part of the southeastern Palaearctic and northern Oriental regions, is one of the largest and most diverse lineages of the tribe Baorini. Previous studies on the genus were focused mainly on morphological classification and identification of new species. Due to the lack of effective and homologous traits of morphology, there were many challenges in the traditional classification. In this report, we reconstruct the phylogeny to provide a solid framework for these studies and to test the traditional limits and relationships of taxa. Methodology and Principal Findings: We sequenced a mitochondrial and three nuclear gene fragments, coupled with an evaluation of traditional morphological characters, to determine the phylogenetic relationships for a total of 15 species representing all major species groups of the Polytremis genus in China, and to elucidate their taxonomic status. Conclusions and Significance: Analysis of mitochrondial and nuclear DNA showed considerable congruent phylogenetic signal in topology at the inter-species level. We found strong support for the monophyly of Polytremis and some clades were recognized with morphological data. Thus, the COI sequence in our study could be used as a DNA barcode to identify almost all members of the genus. However, incongruences of phylogenetic analyses occurred: in contrast to the phylogenetic trees of mitochondrial COI, it was not possible for nuclear rDNA to discriminate P. gotama from P. caerulescens, suggesting a possible recent separation of these two species. Additionally, P. theca was the only species with a greater intra-specific genetic distance compared to some inter-specific genetic distances in this study and some problems associated with the cryptic diversity of the species are discussed. The results of this study will helpful to reveal the causes of the high degree of diversity of butterflies, and possibly other groups of insects in China. © 2013 Jiang et al. Source

Weibin J.,Shanghai Normal University | Jianqing Z.,Shanghai Zoological Park | Ling Z.,Shanghai Normal University | Minghai C.,Shanghai Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2014

Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized from a Chinese endemic species Polytremis nascens Leech. The isolated loci in 53 individuals from six regional populations in China had 3-12 alleles. Analyses revealed that 53 individuals had different multilocus genotypes, with the expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.61 to 0.90 and observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.33 to 0.71. Eleven loci showed no deviation from Hardy-Weinberg proportions, and eight were amplified successfully in at least one of the eight related species. The described isolated markers will facilitate the study of population genetic structure and gene flow in P. nascens as well as in congeneric and related species. © 2013 The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology. Source

Jiang W.,Shanghai Normal University | Wu Y.,Shanghai Normal University | He H.,Shanghai Normal University | Zhu J.,Shanghai Zoological Park | Yu W.,Shanghai Normal University
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology | Year: 2016

Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that infect arthropod and nematode hosts. Only a few studies have been made on Wolbachia in butterflies. In this study, we identified and determined the molecular characteristics of Wolbachia strains in Polytremis fukia (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), from seven locations in China. We also sequenced three portions of the mitochondrial DNA from the individuals of P. fukia to infer the effect of Wolbachia on host mitochondrial variation. The results show that 47% (15/32) are Wolbachia positive among all specimens. The infection rates in female and male are 69% (11/16) and 25% (4/16). Phylogenetic analysis of variation in the ftsZ gene from the two strains of Wolbachia (wFuk1 and wFuk2) showed they belonged to supergroup A. On the phylogeny of the mitochondrial DNA from P. fukia, the sequences are split into three clades. Clade I and II are consistent with the distribution of geographical population. Clade III consists of eight females invariably infected with wFuk1 which showed a weak association existed between mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and wFuk1 infection status. © 2016. Source

Zhu J.-Q.,Shanghai Zoological Park | Chiba H.,B. P. Bishop Museum | Wu L.-W.,National Taiwan University
ZooKeys | Year: 2016

Skippers of the tribe Baorini are evidently a monophyletic group in the subfamily Hesperiinae. In this study, a new Baorini member Tsukiyamaia albimacula gen. n. et sp. n. is described from north Myanmar, southwest China and north Vietnam. Despite its peculiar and striking wing-pattern, this new genus has some important characters of Baorini, such as a broad and bifid uncus and a well-developed gnathos. Based on an analysis of male genitalia and the molecular phylogenies inferred from both mitochondrial and nuclear genes (28 taxa, total aligned length: 2968 bp), it is proposed that the genus Tsukiyamaia is closely related to the genus Polytremis, which has high species diversity in China. This study not only describes a new skipper but also highlights that Tsukiyamaia is important in clarifying phylogenetic relationship of Polytremis and its allies. © Jian-Qing Zhu et al. Source

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