Zhang W.,Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding |
Yue B.,University of Sichuan |
Wang X.,University of Sichuan |
Zhang X.,University of Sichuan |
And 16 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2011
In order to investigate the mitochondrial genome of Panthera tigris amoyensis, two South China tigers (P25 and P27) were analyzed following 15 cymt-specific primer sets. The entire mtDNA sequence was found to be 16,957 bp and 17,001 bp long for P25 and P27 respectively, and this difference in length between P25 and P27 occurred in the number of tandem repeats in the RS-3 segment of the control region. The structural characteristics of complete P. t. amoyensis mitochondrial genomes were also highly similar to those of P. uncia. Additionally, the rate of point mutation was only 0.3% and a total of 59 variable sites between P25 and P27 were found. Out of the 59 variable sites, 6 were located in 6 different tRNA genes, 6 in the 2 rRNA genes, 7 in non-coding regions (one located between tRNA-Asn and tRNA-Tyr and six in the D-loop), and 40 in 10 protein-coding genes. COI held the largest amount of variable sites (9 sites) and Cytb contained the highest variable rate (0.7%) in the complete sequences. Moreover, out of the 40 variable sites located in 10 protein-coding genes, 12 sites were nonsynonymous. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Wang Y.,Northeast Forestry University |
Liu Q.,Shanghai Zoo |
Tian X.,Northeast Forestry University |
Li S.,Northeast Forestry University
Acta Theriologica Sinica | Year: 2014
To analyze the daily feed intake and apparent digestibility to forage nutrition of red goral (Nemorhaedus cranbrooki) and determine diet composition, from June to August 2012, 8 healthy adult red gorals from the Shanghai Zoo were selected and separated into 2 groups, group I and group II, based on different dietary roughage, to compare the daily food intake and apparent digestibility by red goral to different forages. The results showed that: (1)The average daily food intake of adult red gorals was (2801.44 ± 245.02) g during the summer; (2) Male daily food intake(P<0.05), apparent digestibility of crude fiber and apparent digestibility of dried matter and crude protein were significantly different between the two groups(P<0.05), and the difference in crude fat between the 2 groups was not significant. Red gorals showed preferences toward palatability of the Group II diet with higher daily intake and digestibility; therefore, Group II is the recommended diet for captive red gorals. ©, 2014, Science Press. All right reserved.
Lan C.,Northeast Forestry University |
Liu Z.,Northeast Forestry University |
Liu Z.,Key Labortory of Wildlife Conservation |
Wang A.,Shanghai Zoo |
And 3 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2011
From March to December 2009, we investigated the behavior of captive sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) at Shanghai Zoo using manual observation and infrared cameras in order to supplement valuable information for captive management of this species. Ethograms were composed of resting, locomotion, pacing, begging, feeding, climbing, exploring, rubbing, playing, chase, sniffing, warning, fighting, mounting, cunnilingus, mating, and elimination. These behaviors were categorized as resting, locomotion, begging, stereotyped (e. g., pacing or waving), social, or other behaviors for comparison and analysis. Each animal was scanned every 6 min by one observer between 8:30 and 16:30 and by infrared camera recordings for a period of 24 hours. Observations were carried out on 5 bears (3 males and 2 females) during spring and summer, and 6 bears (4 males and 2 females) during autumn and winter. The bears ranged in age from 5 to 13 years. Sun bears spent more time resting (45. 66%) in the daytime (from 8:30 to 16:30), followed by locomotion (30. 01%) and begging (12. 29%). Sun bears showed different patterns of activity across seasons. Locomotion(F = 62.748,P<0. 001)and social behavior(F =26. 041,P<0. 001)varied significantly among seasons. Locomotion was lower during spring and summer, and lowest in summer (13. 96%). Locomotion was significantly higher during autumn and winter, and highest in autumn (43. 99%). Social behavior was highest during spring and summer. Stereotyped behavior differed significantly among seasons (F = 4. 667, P <0. 05)and was highest in spring (7. 65%) and lowest in summer (0.69%). No significant differences were found in resting(F =1. 857, P>0. 05)and begging(F =1. 180, P>0. 05)among different seasons. There were significant differences in the proportions of locomotion (P =0. 002) and stereotyped behavior (P =0. 001) between spring and summer. Sun bears exhibited significantly higher levels of locomotion and stereotyped behavior in spring than in summer. There was no significant difference between autumn and winter in the remaining six types of behaviors. Sun bears showed different daily patterns of activities in captivity. Resting behavior exhibited a ''W'' type curve on a daily basis. Resting was recorded mainly from 00:00-5:00 hrs and from 20:00-24:00 hrs. Activity generally began around 6:00 hrs, and a peak in feeding was recorded at 8:00-8:54 hrs. During the same time intervals, locomotion, begging, and social behaviors gradually increased. The bears were housed in cages to which access was available from playground. In the playground, peaks of begging occurred around 10:00 and 16:00 hrs when there were many tourists in Shanghai Zoo. Activity gradually declined after 19:00 hrs as resting increased. Comparison of behaviors by age class during spring and summer indicated that age was a significant variable affecting resting, locomotion, social, begging and stereotyped behaviors. Males showed significantly more social behavior (in spring: P =0. 000, in summer: P = 0. 002) than females. Activity levels were higher in the playground than in cages. Resting and stereotyped behaviors mainly occurred in cages, and locomotion mostly occurred in the playground. Resting behavior in cages plotted a curve of the ''W'' type on a daily basis. Our study showed that the behavior of sun bear is influenced by season, sex, and presence of visitors.
Chen M.,East China Normal University |
Chen M.,Shanghai Key Laboratory for Urban Ecological Processes and Eco Restoration |
Pu A.,East China Normal University |
Pu A.,Shanghai Key Laboratory for Urban Ecological Processes and Eco Restoration |
And 11 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2015
This communication reports some evidence of the reintroduced Chinese water deer surviving in the Nanhui Wildlife Sanctuary, Shanghai, China. Deer were still present in the sanctuary in 2014 and evidence of breeding was also recorded. Historically, the deer was last recorded in Shanghai in 1890. The Chinese Water Deer Reintroduction Project was started in Shanghai in 2006, in order to restore the native Chinese water deer population. Copyright 2015 Zoological Society of Pakistan.
Hou X.-Y.,Northeast Forestry University |
Liu Z.-S.,Northeast Forestry University |
Liu Z.-S.,Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology |
Teng L.-W.,Northeast Forestry University |
And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Ecology | Year: 2014
In recent years, many zoos have transformed their objectives from pure entertainment to public education, species conservation, and animal welfare, which were mainly accomplished by environmental enrichment. We conducted an enrichment experiment (two environmental enrichments and one feeding enrichments) of 10 captive red gorals (Naemorhedus cranbrooki) in Shanghai Zoo Breeding Center, China from November 2010 to February 2013, to analyze the effect of different forms of the enrichments on the activity budgets of red gorals. Ethograms were composed of standing, resting, moving, eating, grooming, stereotypic behavior, and other behaviors. The time on resting (P<0. 01) and stereotypic (P<0. 05) behaviors significantly decreased after adding the enrichment equipment firstly, while the time allocated for eating (P < 0. 05), moving (P<0. 01) and grooming (P<0. 01) behaviors increased dramatically, which was consistent with our expectations. Then we improved complexity of the environmental enrichment equipment (second environmental enrichment), and the time on resting behavior (P < 0.05) reduced, whereas the time allocated for moving (P<0.05) and grooming (P<0.01) behaviors increased significantly. Meanwhile, there was no significant variation in time spending on several other behaviors, which was not identical to our expectations. Resting (P = 0. 44), stereotypic (P =0. 19), and standing (P = 0. 31) behaviors did not show significant differences at the feeding enrichment and non-enrichment stages. Feeding enrichment and increasing complexity of environmental enrichment equipment helped red gorals make use of the enrichment equipment effectively. Red gorals added the time resting on the enrichment equipment from 2. 07% during the feeding enrichment and 1.44% during the second environmental enrichment to 12.17% and 10. 83%, respectively. After we increased the first enrichment equipment, the major activity on the equipment was standing behavior, followed by eating behavior. Nonetheless, the main activity transformed to resting behavior, and the secondary activity was standing behavior when we conducted the second enrichment equipment. Before the feeding enrichment experiment, the major activity of red gorals was standing behavior, followed by grooming behavior. During the feeding enrichment experiment, red gorals showed more time for eating behavior, and less time for standing behavior. © 2014, Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Ecology. All rights reserved.