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Hua J.,Tongji University | Mu Z.,Shanghai Urban Environmental Meteorology Center | Mu Z.,Tongji University | Nwaru B.I.,University of Tampere | And 5 more authors.
BMC International Health and Human Rights | Year: 2014

Background: The one-child policy introduced in China in 1979 has led to far-reaching changes in socio-demographic characteristics. Under this policy regime, each household has few children. This study aims to describe the prevalence of child neglect in one-child families in China and to examine the correlates of child neglect. Methods. A cross-sectional study of 2044 children aged 6 to 9 years and recruited from four primary schools in Suzhou City, China was conducted. Neglect subtypes were determined using a validated indigenous measurement scale reported by parents. Child, parental and family characteristics were obtained by questionnaires and review of social security records. Linear regression analyses were performed to estimate the associations between these factors and the subtypes of child neglect. Results: The prevalence of child any neglect was 32.0% in one child families in Suzhou City, China. Supervisory (20.3%) neglect was the most prevalent type of child neglect, followed by emotional (15.2%), physical (11.1%), and educational (6.0%) neglect After simultaneous adjustment to child and family characteristics and the school factor, boys, children with physical health issues and cognitive impairment, younger and unemployed mother, were positively associated with neglect subtypes. We also found that parents with higher education and three-generation families were negatively associated with neglect. Conclusion: The rates of child neglect subtypes vary across different regions in China probably due to the different policy implementation and socio-economic levels, with a lower level of physical and educational neglect and a higher level of emotional neglect in this study. The three-generation family structure was correlates of neglect which may be unique in one child families. This indicates that future intervention programs in one-child families should target these factors. © 2014 Hua et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Tan J.,Shanghai Urban Environmental Meteorology Center | Zheng Y.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Tang X.,Shanghai Meteorological Bureau | Guo C.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2010

With global warming forecast to continue into the foreseeable future, heat waves are very likely to increase in both frequency and intensity. In urban regions, these future heat waves will be exacerbated by the urban heat island effect, and will have the potential to negatively influence the health and welfare of urban residents. In order to investigate the health effects of the urban heat island (UHI) in Shanghai, China, 30 years of meteorological records (1975-2004) were examined for 11 first- and second-order weather stations in and around Shanghai. Additionally, automatic weather observation data recorded in recent years as well as daily all-cause summer mortality counts in 11 urban, suburban, and exurban regions (1998-2004) in Shanghai have been used. The results show that different sites (city center or surroundings) have experienced different degrees of warming as a result of increasing urbanization. In turn, this has resulted in a more extensive urban heat island effect, causing additional hot days and heat waves in urban regions compared to rural locales. An examination of summer mortality rates in and around Shanghai yields heightened heat-related mortality in urban regions, and we conclude that the UHI is directly responsible, acting to worsen the adverse health effects from exposure to extreme thermal conditions. © ISB 2009. Source


Wu R.-J.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster | Wu R.-J.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Zheng Y.-F.,Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster | Zheng Y.-F.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Natural Disasters | Year: 2010

Based on daily high temperature and lower temperature data for Nanjing, Shanghai and Hangzhou stations at Yangtze River Delta, strong high - temperature process and the occurrence of extreme high temperature were analyzed and described, by normal statistics approaches and Mann - Kendal test. The interannual and seasonal variations of occurrence of extreme maximum temperatures above 35 °C at three cities were analyzed; meanwhile, the relationships between occurrence of selected maximum temperature ( ≥32°C and ≥38° ) and the mean summer temperature was discussed. These results would give a reference to research of numerical simulation and the development of early warning and forecasting of heat wave. Source


Pan L.,Shanghai Urban Environmental Meteorology Center | Che H.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | Geng F.,Shanghai Urban Environmental Meteorology Center | Xia X.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | And 5 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2010

The characteristics of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Angstrom exponent were analyzed and compared using Cimel sunphotometer data from 2007 to 2008 at five sites located in the Yangtze River Delta region of China. The simultaneous measurements between Lin'an and ZFU showed a very high consistency of AOD at all wavelengths. The differences are less than 0.02 for Angstrom exponent and AOD at all wavelengths. The mean values of AOD at 440nm at the Pudong, Taihu and Lin'an were about 0.74±0.43, 0.85±0.46, and 0.89±0.46, respectively. The mean values of Angstrom exponents were about 1.27±0.30, 1.20±0.28 and 1.32±0.35, respectively. The variation of monthly averaged AOD over Pudong showed a single peak distribution, with the maximum value occurring in July (AOD440nm 1.26±0.61) and minimum in January (AOD440nm 0.50±0.27). However, the variations of monthly averaged AOD at Taihu and Lin'an showed a bi-modal distribution. There were peak values of AOD occurring in July (AOD440nm 1.41±0.49) and September (AOD440nm 1.22±0.52) for Taihu. For Lin'an, the two peak values of AOD occurred in June (AOD440nm 1.17±0.69) and September (AOD440nm 1.28±0.46). The AOD accumulated mainly between 0.30-0.90(68%), 0.30-1.20(75%) and 0.30-1.20 (∼75%) at Pudong, Taihu, and Lin'an, respectively. The Angstrom exponent accumulated mainly between 1.10-1.60 (75%), 1.10-1.50 (63%) and 1.20-1.60, 50% (50%) at Pudong, Taihu, and Lin'an, respectively. The synchronized observation showed that the AOD at Pudong was larger than those at Dongtan by 0.03, 0.03, 0.04, 0.07, and 0.08 at wavelengths of 1020nm, 870nm, 670nm, 500nm and 440nm, respectively. The synchronized observations at Pudong, Taihu and Lin'an showed that the three stations had high level AOD with means at 440nm about 0.68, 0.73, and 0.78, respectively. The relationship between MODIS retrieved and ground-based measured AOD shows good agreement with R2 ranging from 0.68 to 0.79 at Pudong, Taihu, Lin'an and Dongtan. The MODIS results were overestimated comparing the ground measurements at Pudong, Taihu, and Dongtan but exceptional at Lin'an. The analysis results between aerosol optical properties and wind measurement at Pudong showed that the wind speed from the east correlates with the lower observed AOD. The back trajectory analysis indicates that more than 50% airmasses were from the marine area at Pudong, while back trajectories distribution is relatively homogeneous at Lin'an. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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