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Liu W.,East China Normal University | Zhai X.,Changhai Hospital | Li H.,Shanghai University of Sport | Ji L.,East China Normal University
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2014

Major depressive disorder (MDD) and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are highly co-morbid, and there may be a bi-directional connection between the two. Herein, we have described a mouse model of a depression-like and insulin-resistant (DIR) state induced by the co-treatment of high-fat diet (HFD) and corticosterone (CORT). 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d- ribofuranoside (AICAR), a pharmacological activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), was originally used to improve insulin resistance (IR). Interestingly, our results show a clear potential for AICAR as a putative antidepressant with a chronic action on the DIR mice. In contrast to the traditional antidepressants, AICAR as a promising antidepressant avoids reducing insulin actions of skeletal muscle in the context of long-term HFD. Exercise also produced antidepressant effects. Our data suggest that the effects of AICAR and exercise on DIR may further increase our understanding on the link between depression and diabetes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Liu W.,Tianjin University of Sport | Zhou C.,Shanghai University of Sport
Psychoneuroendocrinology | Year: 2012

Both chronic mild stress and an injection of corticosterone induce depression-like states in rodents. To further link mitochondrial dysfunction to the pathophysiology of major depression, here we describe two rat models of a depressive-like state induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) or corticosterone treatment (CORT). It is also a model that allows the simultaneous study of effects of exercise preconditioning on behavioral, electrophysiological, biochemical and molecular markers in the same animal. Exercise preconditioning ahead of CUMS and CORT treatment prevents many behavioral abnormalities resulted from CUMS. The changes in mitochondrial activity in brain and reduced expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD1, SOD2), mitofusin (Mfn1, Mfn2) as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) suggest that both CORT and CUMS may impair mitochondrial function and/or expressions of mitofusion and antioxidant enzymes that, in turn, may increase oxidative stress and reduce energy production in brain with depression-like behaviors. These findings suggest an underlying mechanism by which CORT, as well as CUMS, induces brain mitochondrial dysfunction that is associated with depressive-like states. Remarkably, physical exercise is identified as a helpful and preventive measure to promote mitochondrial function and expressions of mitofusin, BDNF and antioxidant enzymes in brain, so as to protect brain energy metabolism against CUMS, rather than the compound of corticosterone. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Wang L.,Shanghai University of Sport | Ha A.S.,Chinese University of Hong Kong
Sport, Education and Society | Year: 2012

This study aims to examine the factors influencing pre-service Physical Education (PE) teachers' perception of a specific constructivist approach - Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) in Hong Kong. By adopting a qualitative approach, 20 pre-service PE teachers were recruited for individual semi-structured interviews. Deductive data analysis was utilised to identify unique themes with broad aspects of influencing factors. Using Piaget's cognitive constructivism and Vygotsky's social constructivism as the theoretical frameworks, individual factors such as game knowledge, teacher beliefs, learning and teaching experience and social factors including government policy, teacher support and professional culture were identified as key influences in pre-service teachers' perception of TGfU. Furthermore, individual and social factors interplay with each other. In conclusion, cognitive and social constructivism was identified as a useful theoretical framework for illustrating and analysing the factors influencing pre-service teachers' perception of TGfU. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Wang L.,Shanghai University of Sport | Qi J.,Beifang University of Nationalities
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly | Year: 2015

This study examined the behavioral beliefs of physical education (PE) teachers about teaching students with disabilities in their general PE (GPE) classes and to identify the factors that contribute to their beliefs. A total of 195 PE teachers from a region in eastern China were surveyed. Results of the Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals With Disabilities-III survey indicate that although some teachers felt that including students with disabilities in GPE classes provides benefit for them, they were concerned about the practical difficulties of teaching students with disabilities in GPE classes, the lack of support, and the possible rejection of students with disabilities by their peers. Moreover, the behavioral beliefs of teachers vary according to the disability conditions of the students. Results show that there is no significant effect of demographic factors on the beliefs of PE teachers. Quality of experience predicts positive beliefs. The study has important implication for teacher training, provision of equipment, and support from teacher assistants. © 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc. Source

Fu W.,Shanghai University of Sport | Liu Y.,Shanghai University of Sport | Zhang S.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
International Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to explore the footwear effects on impact forces and soft-tissue vibrations during landing. 12 male basketball players were instructed to perform drop jumps and unanticipated drop landings from 30 cm, 45 cm, and 60 cm heights in basketball shoes (BS) and control shoes (CS). 3D kinematics, ground reaction force (GRF), and soft-tissue vibrations of the leg, and acceleration of the shoe heel counter were measured simultaneously. The results showed no significant shoe effect on the characteristics of the impact force nor on the resonance frequency and peak transmissibility of soft-tissue vibrations during the impact phase of the drop jump. For the unanticipated drop landings, however, the magnitude of both peak GRF and peak loading rate were significantly lower with BS compared to CS across all 3 heights (p<0.05); meanwhile BS showed a significant decrease in GRF frequency compared to CS at 45 cm (p<0.05) and 60 cm (p<0.01) heights. Furthermore, the peak transmissibility in BS was significantly lower than that in CS for both the quadriceps and hamstrings during the 60 cm unanticipated drop landing (p<0.05). These findings provide preliminary evidence suggesting that if the neuromuscular system fails to prepare properly for an impact during landing, a shoe intervention may be an effective method for minimizing impact force and reducing soft tissue resonance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York. Source

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