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Wu K.,Hubei University | Tian S.,Shanghai University of Sport | Zhou H.,University of California at Riverside | Wu Y.,University of California at Riverside
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2013

3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) exert pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system, in part through a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and reduction of vascular inflammation. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in these effects, we investigated the effect of statins on TNF-α-induced ROS production, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Exposure of HAECs to TNF-α caused production of ROS via Rac-1 membrane translocation and activation. The Rac-1 activation and ROS liberation mediated TNF-stimulated NF-κB activation and the subsequent VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) plays a central role in inhibiting endothelial inflammation. Immune complex kinase assay of protein extracts from HAECs treated with atorvastatin revealed increased ERK5 activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, pretreatment with atorvastatin inhibited TNF-α-induced ROS production and VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. Chemical or genetic inhibition of ERK5 ablated the statins inhibition of Rac-1 activation, ROS formation, NF-κB, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression induced by TNF-α. Taken together, statins, via ERK5 activation, suppress TNF-stimulated Rac-1 activation, ROS generation, NF-κB activation and VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression in human ECs, which provides a novel explanation for the pleiotropic effects of statins that benefit the cardiovascular system. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Liu W.,East China Normal University | Zhai X.,Changhai Hospital | Li H.,Shanghai University of Sport | Ji L.,East China Normal University
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2014

Major depressive disorder (MDD) and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are highly co-morbid, and there may be a bi-directional connection between the two. Herein, we have described a mouse model of a depression-like and insulin-resistant (DIR) state induced by the co-treatment of high-fat diet (HFD) and corticosterone (CORT). 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d- ribofuranoside (AICAR), a pharmacological activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), was originally used to improve insulin resistance (IR). Interestingly, our results show a clear potential for AICAR as a putative antidepressant with a chronic action on the DIR mice. In contrast to the traditional antidepressants, AICAR as a promising antidepressant avoids reducing insulin actions of skeletal muscle in the context of long-term HFD. Exercise also produced antidepressant effects. Our data suggest that the effects of AICAR and exercise on DIR may further increase our understanding on the link between depression and diabetes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Wang L.,Shanghai University of Sport | Qi J.,Beifang University of Nationalities
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly | Year: 2015

This study examined the behavioral beliefs of physical education (PE) teachers about teaching students with disabilities in their general PE (GPE) classes and to identify the factors that contribute to their beliefs. A total of 195 PE teachers from a region in eastern China were surveyed. Results of the Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals With Disabilities-III survey indicate that although some teachers felt that including students with disabilities in GPE classes provides benefit for them, they were concerned about the practical difficulties of teaching students with disabilities in GPE classes, the lack of support, and the possible rejection of students with disabilities by their peers. Moreover, the behavioral beliefs of teachers vary according to the disability conditions of the students. Results show that there is no significant effect of demographic factors on the beliefs of PE teachers. Quality of experience predicts positive beliefs. The study has important implication for teacher training, provision of equipment, and support from teacher assistants. © 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Fu W.,Shanghai University of Sport | Liu Y.,Shanghai University of Sport | Zhang S.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
International Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to explore the footwear effects on impact forces and soft-tissue vibrations during landing. 12 male basketball players were instructed to perform drop jumps and unanticipated drop landings from 30 cm, 45 cm, and 60 cm heights in basketball shoes (BS) and control shoes (CS). 3D kinematics, ground reaction force (GRF), and soft-tissue vibrations of the leg, and acceleration of the shoe heel counter were measured simultaneously. The results showed no significant shoe effect on the characteristics of the impact force nor on the resonance frequency and peak transmissibility of soft-tissue vibrations during the impact phase of the drop jump. For the unanticipated drop landings, however, the magnitude of both peak GRF and peak loading rate were significantly lower with BS compared to CS across all 3 heights (p<0.05); meanwhile BS showed a significant decrease in GRF frequency compared to CS at 45 cm (p<0.05) and 60 cm (p<0.01) heights. Furthermore, the peak transmissibility in BS was significantly lower than that in CS for both the quadriceps and hamstrings during the 60 cm unanticipated drop landing (p<0.05). These findings provide preliminary evidence suggesting that if the neuromuscular system fails to prepare properly for an impact during landing, a shoe intervention may be an effective method for minimizing impact force and reducing soft tissue resonance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

Wang L.,Shanghai University of Sport | Ha A.S.,Chinese University of Hong Kong
Sport, Education and Society | Year: 2012

This study aims to examine the factors influencing pre-service Physical Education (PE) teachers' perception of a specific constructivist approach - Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) in Hong Kong. By adopting a qualitative approach, 20 pre-service PE teachers were recruited for individual semi-structured interviews. Deductive data analysis was utilised to identify unique themes with broad aspects of influencing factors. Using Piaget's cognitive constructivism and Vygotsky's social constructivism as the theoretical frameworks, individual factors such as game knowledge, teacher beliefs, learning and teaching experience and social factors including government policy, teacher support and professional culture were identified as key influences in pre-service teachers' perception of TGfU. Furthermore, individual and social factors interplay with each other. In conclusion, cognitive and social constructivism was identified as a useful theoretical framework for illustrating and analysing the factors influencing pre-service teachers' perception of TGfU. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Tian Y.,China Institute of Sport Science | Nie J.,Macao Polytechnic Institute | Huang C.,Shanghai University of Sport | George K.P.,Liverpool John Moores University
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2012

The nature and kinetics of postexercise cardiac troponin (cTn) appearance is poorly described and understood in most athlete populations. We compared the kinetics of high-sensitivity cTn T (hs-cTnT) after endurance running in training-matched adolescents and adults. Thirteen male adolescent (mean age:14.1 ± 1.1 yr) and 13 male adult (24.0 ± 3.6 yr) runners performed a 90-min constant-load treadmill run at 95% of ventilatory threshold. Serum hs-cTnT levels were assessed preexercise, immediately postexercise, and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 24 h postexercise. Serum NH2-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) levels were recorded preexercise and 3, 6, and 24 h postexercise. Left ventricular function was assessed preexercise, immediately postexercise, and 6 h postexercise. Peak hs-cTnT occurred at 3-4 h postexercise in all subjects, but was substantially higher (P < 0.05) in adolescents [median (range):211.0 (11.2-794.5) ng/l] compared with adults [median (range):19.1 (9.7-305.6) ng/l]. Peak hs-cTnT was followed by a rapid decrease in both groups, although adolescent data had not returned to baseline at 24 h. Substantial interindividual variability was noted in peak hs-cTnT, especially in the adolescents. NT-pro-BNP was significantly elevated postexercise in both adults and adolescents and remained above baseline at 24 h in both groups. In both groups, left ventricular ejection fraction and the ratio of early-to-atrial peak Doppler flow velocities were significantly decreased immediately postexercise. Peak hs-cTnT was not related to changes in ejection fraction, ratio of early-to-atrial peak Doppler flow velocities, or NT-pro-BNP. The present data suggest that postexercise hs-cTnT elevation 1) occurred in all runners, 2) peaked 3-4 h postexercise, and 3) the peak hs-cTnT concentration after prolonged exercise was higher in adolescents than adults.

Huang Q.-M.,Shanghai University of Sport | Liu L.,Shanghai University of Sport
Acupuncture in Medicine | Year: 2014

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of wet needling (related to acupuncture) and home stretching exercises on myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in abdominal muscles for the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. Methods: The effect of wet needing of MTrPs in abdominal muscles, supplemented by home stretching exercises, was observed in 65 patients with moderate and severe primary dysmenorrhoea. The MTrPs in the abdominal region were localised and repeatedly needled with lidocaine injection. Menstrual pain was evaluated with a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score after every treatment, with the final evaluation made at a 1-year follow-up. Treatment was stopped when the VAS pain score reduced to =3. Symptoms scores were analysed with one-way analysis of variance. Results: The mean VAS pain score before treatment was 7.49±1.16. After a single wet needling session, 41 patients had a reduction in their VAS pain score to <3 during their following menstrual cycle, with a mean of 1.63±0.49. Twenty-four patients who needed two treatments showed a reduction in menstrual pain scores to 0.58±0.50. After 1 year, the mean VAS pain score among all patients was 0.28±0.45, with a response rate of 100%. Conclusions: Primary dysmenorrhoea was significantly reduced 1 year after wet needling to MTrPs in the abdominal region and home stretching exercises, justifying further research with controlled trials.

Yu X.,Shanghai University of Sport | Zuo Q.,Shanghai University of Sport
Frontiers in Bioscience | Year: 2013

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators of numerous biological processes by modulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The discovery of miRNAs as new and important regulators of gene expression is expected to broaden our biological understanding of the regulatory mechanism in muscle by adding another dimension of regulation to the diversity and complexity of gene-regulatory networks. Exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury and repair have always been among the highlights of research in sports medicine. However, many mechanism problems that occur during regeneration and repair in the aftermath of skeletal muscle injury remain unsolved. It has become increasingly clear that the regeneration of skeletal muscle development involve regulation by miRNAs. In the last few years the field has seen a rapid expansion of our knowledge of miRNAs in the regeneration of skeletal muscle. This study reviews the miRNAs related with regeneration of skeletal muscle, and discuss the regulation of their expression in muscles, and emerging themes of miRNA regulation.

Xiao W.,Shanghai University of Sport | Chen P.,Shanghai University of Sport | Dong J.,Shanghai University of Sport
International Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of overtraining on skeletal muscle growth and growth-related gene expression. The rats of overtraining group (OT) and overtraining recovery group (OTR) were subject to 11 experimental weeks of overtraining protocol. It was found that the absolute gastrocnemius muscle wet weight of the OT group was significantly lower than that of the sedentary group (23.6%, P<0.01). Serum creatine kinase was significantly higher in the OT and OTR groups than the sedentary group. CD68, CD163, MyoD, myogenin, IL-1β, TNF-α, IGF-I and MGF mRNA did not change in the OT group as compared with the sedentary group. IL-6 and TGF-β1 mRNA in the OT group increased significantly as compared with the sedentary group (2.17 fold and 1.78 fold, respectively; P<0.01). IL-10 mRNA decreased significantly in the OT group (63%, P<0.01) and the OTR group (77%, P<0.01) compared to the sedentary group. COX-2 mRNA decreased significantly in the OT group (60%, P<0.01) and the OTR group (69%, P<0.01) from the sedentary group. uPA mRNA in the OT group was significantly lower than that in the sedentary group (32%, P<0.01). These data suggest that inflammatory cytokines, COX-2 and uPA may play roles in the inhibition of skeletal muscle growth induced by overtraining. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.

Liu W.,Tianjin University of Sport | Zhou C.,Shanghai University of Sport
Psychoneuroendocrinology | Year: 2012

Both chronic mild stress and an injection of corticosterone induce depression-like states in rodents. To further link mitochondrial dysfunction to the pathophysiology of major depression, here we describe two rat models of a depressive-like state induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) or corticosterone treatment (CORT). It is also a model that allows the simultaneous study of effects of exercise preconditioning on behavioral, electrophysiological, biochemical and molecular markers in the same animal. Exercise preconditioning ahead of CUMS and CORT treatment prevents many behavioral abnormalities resulted from CUMS. The changes in mitochondrial activity in brain and reduced expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD1, SOD2), mitofusin (Mfn1, Mfn2) as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) suggest that both CORT and CUMS may impair mitochondrial function and/or expressions of mitofusion and antioxidant enzymes that, in turn, may increase oxidative stress and reduce energy production in brain with depression-like behaviors. These findings suggest an underlying mechanism by which CORT, as well as CUMS, induces brain mitochondrial dysfunction that is associated with depressive-like states. Remarkably, physical exercise is identified as a helpful and preventive measure to promote mitochondrial function and expressions of mitofusin, BDNF and antioxidant enzymes in brain, so as to protect brain energy metabolism against CUMS, rather than the compound of corticosterone. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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