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Hao Z.,Peking University | Lou H.,Peking University | Lou H.,University of California at San Francisco | Zhu R.,Peking Tsinghua Center for Life science | And 13 more authors.
Nature Chemical Biology | Year: 2014

The widely conserved multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR) family of transcription factors modulates bacterial detoxification in response to diverse antibiotics, toxic chemicals or both. The natural inducer for Escherichia coli MarR, the prototypical transcription repressor within this family, remains unknown. Here we show that copper signaling potentiates MarR derepression in E. coli. Copper(II) oxidizes a cysteine residue (Cys80) on MarR to generate disulfide bonds between two MarR dimers, thereby inducing tetramer formation and the dissociation of MarR from its cognate promoter DNA. We further discovered that salicylate, a putative MarR inducer, and the clinically important bactericidal antibiotics norfloxacin and ampicillin all stimulate intracellular copper elevation, most likely through oxidative impairment of copper-dependent envelope proteins, including NADH dehydrogenase-2. This membrane-associated copper oxidation and liberation process derepresses MarR, causing increased bacterial antibiotic resistance. Our study reveals that this bacterial transcription regulator senses copper(II) as a natural signal to cope with stress caused by antibiotics or the environment. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Song Y.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Yang M.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Wegner S.V.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Wegner S.V.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | And 8 more authors.
ACS Chemical Biology | Year: 2015

Heme plays pivotal roles in various cellular processes as well as in iron homeostasis in living systems. Here, we report a genetically encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensor for selective heme imaging by employing a pair of bacterial heme transfer chaperones as the sensory components. This heme-specific probe allows spatial-temporal visualization of intracellular heme distribution within living cells. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source


Han B.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang T.-D.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Shen S.-M.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Yu Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 5 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2015

Background: Annonaceous acetogenins are a family of natural products with antitumor activities. Annonaceous acetogenin mimic AA005 reportedly inhibits mammalian mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone reductase (Complex I) and induces gastric cancer cell death. However, the mechanisms underlying its cell-death-inducing activity are unclear. Methods: We used SW620 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells to study AA005 cytotoxic activity. Cell deaths were determined by Trypan blue assay and flow cytometry, and related proteins were characterized by western blot. Immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation were used to evaluate AIF nuclear translocation. Reactive oxygen species were assessed by using redox-sensitive dye DCFDA. Results: AA005 induces a unique type of cell death in colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, characterized by lack of caspase-3 activation or apoptotic body formation, sensitivity to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor Olaparib (AZD2281) but not pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD.fmk, and dependence on apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). AA005 treatment also reduced expression of mitochondrial Complex I components, and leads to accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the early stage. Blocking ROS formation significantly suppresses AA005-induced cell death in SW620 cells. Moreover, blocking activation of RIP-1 by necroptosis inhibitor necrotatin-1 inhibits AIF translocation and partially suppresses AA005-induced cell death in SW620 cells demonstrating that RIP-1 protein may be essential for cell death. Conclusions: AA005 may trigger the cell death via mediated by AIF through caspase-3 independent pathway. Our work provided new mechanisms for AA005-induced cancer cell death and novel clues for cancer treatment via AIF dependent cell death. © Han et al. Source


Deng M.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Lu Z.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Zheng J.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Zheng J.,Shanghai Universities stitute for Chemical Biology | And 13 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2014

A better understanding of the interaction between extrinsic factors and surface receptors on stem cells will greatly benefit stemcell research and applications. Recently, we showed that several angiopoietin-like proteins (Angptls) bind and activate the immune inhibitory receptor human leukocyte immunoglobulin (Ig)-like receptor B2 (LILRB2) to support ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and leukemia development. However, the molecular basis for the interaction between Angptls and LILRB2 was unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Angptl2 expressed in mammalian cells forms high-molecular- weight species and that ligand multimerization is required for activation of LILRB2 for downstream signaling. A novel motif in the first and fourth Ig domains of LILRB2 was identified that is necessary for the receptor to be bound and activated by Angptl2. The binding ofAngptl2 to LILRB2 is more potent than and not completely overlapped with the binding of another ligand, HLA-G. Immobilized anti-LILRB2 antibodies induce a more potent activation of LILRB2 than Angptl2, and we developed a serum-free culture containing defined cytokines and immobilized anti-LILRB2 that supports a net expansion of repopulating human cord blood HSCs. Our elucidation of the mode of Angptl binding to LILRB2 enabled the development of a new approach for ex vivo expansion of human HSCs. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology. Source


Liu C.-X.,Shanghai Universities stitute for Chemical Biology | Yin Q.-Q.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhou H.-C.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wu Y.-L.,Shanghai Universities stitute for Chemical Biology | And 17 more authors.
Nature Chemical Biology | Year: 2012

Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are potential therapeutic targets for major diseases such as cancers. However, isotype-specific inhibitors remain to be developed. We report that adenanthin, a diterpenoid isolated from the leaves of Rabdosia adenantha, induces differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. We show that adenanthin directly targets the conserved resolving cysteines of Prx I and Prx II and inhibits their peroxidase activities. Consequently, cellular H 2O 2 is elevated, leading to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and increased transcription of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β, which contributes to adenanthin-induced differentiation. Adenanthin induces APL-like cell differentiation, represses tumor growth in vivo and prolongs the survival of mouse APL models that are sensitive and resistant to retinoic acid. Thus, adenanthin can serve as what is to our knowledge the first lead natural compound for the development of Prx I- and Prx II-targeted therapeutic agents, which may represent a promising approach to inducing differentiation of APL cells. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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