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Wang Z.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Li X.,Beijing University of Chemical Technology | Zhen S.,Shanghai Tobacco Group Corporation Ltd | Li X.,Tsinghua University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry | Year: 2013

Chlorogenic acid and its two structural components, quinic acid and caffeic acid, were pyrolyzed under reaction conditions simulating the typical pyrolysis conditions inside a burning cigarette. Major phenolic products from pyrolysis of the three acids were quantified and compared to evaluate the respective contribution of the quinic and caffeic acid moieties to the overall phenolic yield in chlorogenic acid pyrolysis. The results show that the most prominent phenolic product of chlorogenic acid is catechol, followed in order by phenol, hydroquinone, and alkylcatechols. Among these phenolics, catechol and alkylcatechols are formed mainly from the caffeic acid moiety of chlorogenic acid, while phenol and hydroquinone are produced predominantly from the quinic acid moiety. The quinic acid moiety can thus contribute more than 40 % of the overall phenolic yields in chlorogenic acid pyrolysis (0.54 mol mol-1 chlorogenic acid pyrolyzed at 600 C). Because considerable amounts of free quinic acid and its derivatives exist in tobacco, the results of this study indicate that quinic acid can be an important source of phenolic compounds, especially hydroquinone and phenol, in tobacco smoke. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


Trademark
Shanghai Tobacco Group Corporation | Date: 2008-08-05

Wine, grape wine and other kinds of alcoholic beverages of fruits, brandy, cognac, whisky, distilled spirits of alcohol, distilled spirits, and alcoholic beverages other than beer, namely, unstrained rice wine (tag-ju), compound clear rice wine, peppermint liqueurs, traditional rice wine, refined rice wine (yag-ju), rum, yellow wine, Chinese liqueur (Lao liquor), flavored tonic liquors, wine coolers.


Trademark
SHANGHAI TOBACCO GROUP Co. and Shanghai Tobacco Group Corporation | Date: 2009-05-26

cigarettes; tobacco; cigars; snuff; smokers articles, not of precious metal, namely, cigarette pipes, cigarette holders, cigarette pockets, pocket apparatus for rolling cigarettes, ashtrays; lighters for smokers; matches; cigarette paper.


Liu X.,Shanghai Tobacco Group Corporation Ltd | Zhang J.,Shanghai Tobacco Group Corporation Ltd | Zhang C.,Shanghai Tobacco Group Corporation Ltd | Yang B.,Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Toxicology Research | Year: 2016

4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is considered to be the most carcinogenic of the four tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) and it needs to be metabolically activated to exert its carcinogenic effect on humans. For the simultaneous intake of NNK and other compounds with similar molecular structures in the context of tobacco smoke, whether (R,S)-N-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), (R,S)-N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB) and nicotine contribute to the inhibitory potency of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme-catalyzed NNK metabolism or not needs to be investigated. In the in vitro study, 4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl) butanal (OPB), 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB) and 4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl) butanoic acid (OPBA) were established as the products of the CYP2A13-catalyzed NNK metabolism and the kinetic parameters were calculated from the Michaelis-Menten equation. Addition of NAT, NAB or nicotine resulted in a competitive inhibition for the NNK metabolism catalyzed by CYP2A13. The inhibition constant Ki values were calculated to be 0.21 μM (NAT), 0.23 μM (NAB) and 8.51 μM (nicotine) for OPB formation; 0.71 μM (NAT), 0.87 μM (NAB) and 25.01 μM (nicotine) for HPB formation and 0.36 μM (NAT), 0.50 μM (NAB) and 6.57 μM (nicotine) for OPBA formation, respectively. In addition, the study of the transformation of the three metabolites revealed OPB was not only an end product but also an intermediate product of the CYP2A13-catalyzed NNK metabolism. These results suggest that structurally similar tobacco constituents with weak or no carcinogenicity influence the metabolic activation of NNK, which interferes with its carcinogenicity to some extent. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.


Li X.,Tsinghua University | Li X.,Shanghai Tobacco Group Corporation Ltd | Li J.,Tsinghua University | Zhou G.,Tsinghua University | And 7 more authors.
Applied Catalysis A: General | Year: 2014

This study investigated catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of a series of biomass (cellulose, lignin, and pine wood), plastics (low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polyethylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS)), and their mixtures with ZSM-5 zeolite. Co-feeding of cellulose with LDPE (mixing ratios of 4-1) produced much higher petrochemical (aromatics and olefins) yields (52.1-55.6 C%) and lower solid (coke/char) yields (22.6-10.9 C%) than those expected if there were no chemical interactions between the two feedstocks in co-feed CFP (37.4-39.2 C% and 25.0-15.9 C% for petrochemicals and solid, respectively, calculated by linear addition of the corresponding yields determined in CFP of cellulose and LDPE individually). This result indicates that cellulose and LDPE have a significant synergy that enhances the production of valuable petrochemicals and decreases the undesired coke in CFP. Similar synergy was also observed in co-feed CFP of pine wood and LDPE mixtures (mixing ratio of 2), which produced 49.5 C% petrochemicals and 19.5 C% solid residue. In comparison, CFP of pine wood and LDPE individually produced only 31.6 C% and 41.0 C% petrochemicals and 46.5 C% and 6.74 C% solid, respectively. This synergy, however, was less pronounced for the other combinations of biomass and plastics (cellulose/PP, cellulose/PS, and lignin/LDPE) tested in this study. The results suggest that the interactions between the primary pyrolysis products of cellulose and LDPE, especially Diels-Alder reactions of cellulose-derived furans with LDPE-derived linear α-olefins, play an important role in the synergy for petrochemical production and coke reduction in co-feed CFP. Co-feeding LDPE thus has great potential in improving the performance of CFP of natural lignocellulosic biomass, which usually contains a significant fraction (40-50 wt.%) of cellulose component. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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