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Fu Q.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Cao Y.-L.,Shanghai Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center
Urology | Year: 2012

Objective: To review the advances in the basic research and clinical application of tissue engineering and stem cell technology in urethral reconstruction. Urethral defects resulting from congenital malformations, trauma, inflammation, or cancer are a common urologic issue. Traditional urethral reconstruction is associated with various complications. Tissue engineering and stem cell technology hold novel therapeutic promise for urethral reconstruction. Methods: One of us searched the PubMed database (January 1999 to January 2011) using the English search terms "tissue engineering," "stem cells," "urethral reconstruction," and "urethra." A total of 86 reports were retrieved. After the repetitive and irrelevant reports were excluded, 40 were included in the final analysis. The review outlined and evaluated the advances in basic research and clinical application and the current status and prospects of tissue engineering and stem cell technology in urinary reconstruction. Results: Two therapeutic strategies are available for urethral reconstruction using tissue engineering: the acellular matrix bioscaffold model and the cell-seeded bioscaffold model. The acellular matrix bioscaffold model has been successfully used in the clinic and the cell-seeded bioscaffold model is making its transition from bench to bedside. Conclusion: Stem cells can provide the seed cells for urologic tissue engineering, but much basic research is still needed before their clinical use is possible. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Source

Fu Q.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Cao Y.-L.,Shanghai Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center
Journal of Sexual Medicine | Year: 2010

Introduction. A variety of congenital and acquired male genitourinary tract abnormalities can lead to organ damage or tissue loss that requires surgical reconstruction. Traditional reconstructive methods do not produce consistent satisfactory structural or functional replacement and may damage the genitourinary tract. Tissue engineering provides a promising alternative for the treatment of these disorders. Aim.: The aim of this article is to provide an update on clinical and experimental evidence concerning the application of tissue engineering to treatment of abnormalities in the male genitourinary tract system. Methods.: A PubMed search was performed to retrieve relevant clinical and basic literature. Main Outcome Measures.: The topics discussed in this review include the experimental and clinical application of tissue engineering for reconstruction of the urethra, penis, testis, and prostate. Results.: Tissue engineering techniques can provide a plentiful source of healthy tissue for reconstructive purposes. Acellular matrix scaffold and seed cells are two key elements in tissue engineering. Proper employment of seed cells and scaffold material may result in synergistic effects. Moreover, new tissue engineering technologies are being transferred from the laboratory to clinical practice. Conclusions.: Tissue engineering provides biological substitutes that can restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured tissues, thus providing an effective technique for regeneration of the male genitourinary tract. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Source

Li H.,East China University of Science and Technology | Li H.,Shanghai Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center | An Q.,East China University of Science and Technology
Huadong Ligong Daxue Xuebao /Journal of East China University of Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Comparing skeletal muscle with pneumatic muscle actuator, the mechanical characteristic of pneumatic muscle actuator was similar to that of skeletal muscle. The pneumatic muscle actuator was used as dynamic element. The hardware and software of control and measurement systems were designed and developed. The engineered tendon was constructed with the tendon bioreactor. The experimental results on tissue engineered tendon indicated that running of this newly designed tendon bioreactor was stable, convenient and safe. Tissue engineered tendon could be constructed for up to 12 weeks. Source

Feng C.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Xu Y.-M.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Fu Q.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhu W.-D.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of biomaterials, including bladder submucosa (BAMG), small intestinal submucosa (SIS), acellular corpus spongiosum matrix (ACSM), and polyglycolic acid (PGA), to identify the optimal scaffold for urethral tissue engineering. Tensile mechanical testing was conducted to evaluate mechanical properties of each scaffold. Rabbit corporal smooth muscle cells were cultured with the extracts of biomaterials and mitochondrial metabolic activity assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of scaffold. The pore sizes of each scaffold were measured. Additionally, smooth muscle cells were seeded on biomaterials. Cell infiltration was evaluated. Mechanical evaluation showed that Young modulus, stress at break in ACSM were prior to those in other biomaterials (p < 0.05). MTT assay confirmed that all scaffolds supported normal cellular mitochondrial metabolic without inducing cytotoxic events. SEM demonstrated that PGA has the largest pore size (>200 μm). The ACSM has different pore sizes in urethral (<5 μm) and cavernosal surfaces (>10 μm). Widespread distribution of cells could be observed in PGA 14 days after seeding. Multilayer cellular coverage developed in BAMG and urethral surface of ACSM without any sign of cellular invasion. Moderated cellular penetration could be found in SIS and cavernosal surface of ACSM. Although each scaffold demonstrated suitable mechanical properties, which is similar to normal urethra, ACSM showed better response in some parameters than those in other biomaterials. It suggested that this scaffold may be an alternative for urethral reconstruction in the future. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Fu Q.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Song X.-F.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Liao G.-L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Deng C.-L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Cui L.,Shanghai Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center
Urology | Year: 2010

Objectives: To investigate the application of adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) technology in the treatment of stress incontinence. Methods: The vaginal balloon dilatation method was used to establish an animal model of stress incontinence (in 20 female Sprague-Dawley rats), which was further examined by urodynamics and histology. Endogenous rat ADSCs were collected and induced into myoblasts with 5-Aza induction technology in vitro. The identity of myoblasts was confirmed through immunofluorescence labeling with desmin and myosin. Induced cells were injected into the posterior urethral muscularis in the bladder neck of animals with stress incontinence. The effects were examined after 1 and 3 months by urodynamics and histology. Untreated ADSCs were also implanted as a method of control. Results: Both maximal bladder capacity and leak point pressure significantly increased after 1 and 3 months postimplantation, compared with the control (P <.05). Increased thickness of inferior muscularis in urethral mucosa and a greater number of large longitudinal muscle bundles were observed. Increased numbers of myoblasts appeared under the mucosa, as demonstrated by the immunochemistry analysis of α-smooth actin. Conclusions: ADSCs have the ability of differentiating into multiple lineages, including myoblasts. This ability to induce myoblasts can be used to treat stress incontinence, with the advantages of minimal invasion and faster recovery. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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