Liu J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University |
Cao W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University |
Chen W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University |
Chen W.,Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine
Background: Kallmann syndrome 1 sequence gene (KAL1) protein is an extracellular matrix associated protein which plays vital roles in neurons development and cell migration. However, its biological functions and clinical implications have yet not been revealed in oral carcinogenesis. The objective of the study was to evaluate the role of KAL1 in oral cancer and determine clinical significance of KAL1 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). Methods: The expression pattern of KAL1 was examined in a testing cohort including OSCCs (n = 42) and paired adjacent tissues (PATs) (n = 14) by real-time PCR. The result was further validated in a validating cohort of OSCCs (n = 32). Correlation between clinicopathological parameters and KAL1 mRNA levels was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test. In vitro, the effects of KAL1 ablation through siRNA-mediated knockdown on the proliferation of OSCC cells were determined by CCK-8, BrdU, and colonies formation assays, respectively. In addition, cell cycle distribution was further evaluated by cytometry. Results: We observed that remarkably decreased expression of KAL1 mRNA in two independent cohorts (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.033, respectively). Furthermore, downregulated KAL1 mRNA was significantly associated with worse pathological grade (P = 0.013 and P = 0.035, respectively). Upon KAL1 silencing, the proliferation and colonies formation potentials of OSCC cells were notably promoted by accelerating G1 to M phase transition. Conclusion: These data indicated that KAL1 plays a potential suppressive role on OSCC initiation and progression, and KAL1 gene may serve as an adjuvant biomarker for the identification of pathological grade. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source
Wu X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University |
Wu X.,Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology |
Cao W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University |
Cao W.,Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology |
And 11 more authors.
Background: In our previous study using oligonucleotide microarrays, we revealed that transglutaminase 3 (TGM3) was remarkably down-regulated in head and neck cancer (HNC). However, the potential of TGM3 as a useful biomarker or molecular target for HNC is unclear. Methods: The transcriptional and post-translational status of TGM3 in HNC cell lines and specimens was detected using real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Bisulfate-treated DNA sequencing was used to analyze the molecular mechanism of TGM3 gene silencing. In addition, the effects of TGM3 on the proliferation, colony formation and induction of apoptosis in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo were investigated through exogenous expression of TGM3 in HNC cells. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate TGM3 expression in large HNC samples. Results: TGM3 was down-regulated in HNC samples and cell lines (P < 0.0001). The hypermethylation of a promoter CpG island was one of the mechanisms of silencing the TGM3 gene in HNC. Exogenous expression of TGM3 in HNC cells could inhibit the proliferation and enhance the apoptosis of HNC cells in vitro and suppress tumor growth in vivo. In addition, TGM3 protein levels were strongly associated with the pathological differentiation of HNC tissues (P = 0.0037). Survival analysis revealed that low TGM3 expression was associated with worse overall survival (P = 0.0002), and TGM3 expression level was an independent predictor in patients with HNC.Conclusions: The studies prove that TGM3, as a candidate tumor suppressor, contributes to the carcinogenesis and development of HNC and may serve as a useful biomarker for patients with HNC. © 2013 Wu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source