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Lan L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Pan L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Pan L.,Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences | Lian Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 2 more authors.
Building and Environment | Year: 2014

Current thermal comfort theories and standards are mainly concerned with people in waking state. The effects of air temperature on sleep quality and thermal comfort of sleeping people were investigated in this study by experimenting on human subjects. Sleep quality was evaluated by subjective questionnaires performed in the morning as well as electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, which were continuously recorded during the all-night sleep period. Subjective assessments on thermal comfort were performed both before and after sleep. Analysis on EEG signals indicated that the subjects took longer time to fall asleep and experienced shorter period of slow wave sleep (SWS) when the room temperatures moderately deviated from neutral. Consistently, they reported poorer subjective sleep quality in such conditions. The returned subjective questionnaires on thermal comfort from subjects reflected that the thermal comfort temperature was higher in sleep compared with that in waking state. Their skin temperatures were increased with air temperature and fluctuated during the sleeping period. In view of the distinctive requirements from waking people, it makes sense to study the thermal comfort of sleeping people. The results also have practical implications on energy savings in bedrooms. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Li A.,Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences | Li A.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Hong B.,Harbin Institute of Technology
Computers and Electrical Engineering | Year: 2010

Computer systems operating in space environment are subject to different radiation phenomena, whose effects may lead to a control flow fault occurring in software system, which can cause unpredictable behaviors of computer-based systems. According to the specialty of space environment, We propose a technique called RSCFC (Relationship Signatures for Control Flow Checking) which is based on the partition of programs into basic blocks. Firstly, it exploits the relationship among the blocks, then assigns a signature, into which the relationship is coded, to each basic block. Control flow faults are detected through taking AND operation between the run-time signature and the location info of the current block with extra instructions induced at the beginning and the end of each block. A fault injection experiment was performed with several C benchmark programs. The result suggests that about 33% (20.7-68.8%) of the injected branching faults produced undetected incorrect outputs without RSCFC; however, with RSCFC, the above number declines to 11% (2.8-20.4%). Compared with previous techniques, RSCFC has the characteristics of both high fault coverage and low memory and performance overhead. Crown Copyright © 2009. Source


Li W.T.,Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

Taking working well of tunnel crossing river for example, aimed at construction problem, the software of PLAXIS3D is used to simulate excavation, strut dismantling and water injecting. Several kinds of soil-reinforcing forms are also simulated to analyses the relation between soil-reinforcing form and retaining wall deformation. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source


Tao S.,Zhejiang University of Technology | Yumei Y.,Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences
Advances in Cement Research | Year: 2015

This paper reports on the characterisation and quantitative analysis of ettringite in the hydration products of several high-alite cements. The study has three main parts: (a) the investigation of the microscopic morphology of ettringite; (b) an X-ray diffraction characterisation; and (c) a quantitative analysis of the ettringite in the hardened cement pastes. The results show that the ettringite could be selectively extracted by an ethylene glycol/methanol solvent with a volume ratio of 1:3, which thereby proved to be an effective method for the quantitative analysis of ettringite. Combined with the results of the X-ray diffraction analysis, the formation and transformation mechanisms of ettringite could be characterised and described in more detail. During the 90-d aging period, the reaction degree of the coal gangue was higher than that of fly ash and had a greater impact on the formation and transformation of ettringite. The amount of ettringite formed from the hydration of coal gangue cement was higher than that from neat Portland cement, whereas the amount of ettringite formed from the hydration of fly ash cement was lower than that from neat Portland cement. Source


Liu X.,Hefei University of Technology | Song W.,Hefei University of Technology | Fu L.,Hefei University of Technology | Fang Z.,Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2016

Pedestrian inflow process frequently occurs in various pedestrian facilities in our daily life. Great importance should be attached to the study of this process. In this paper, we explore the pedestrian inflow process in a room with a separate entrance and exit. Two kinds of experiments are conducted: experiment 1 has no inactive persons and primarily focuses on analyzing the features of the normal pedestrian inflow process and analyzing the representative spatial parameters in the steady state, while experiment 2 involves the influence of the inactive persons. In order to quantitatively discuss the distribution of pedestrians in the steady state, we adopt several analytical methods, such as the Voronoi diagram method, proxemics, and point pattern analysis. Some features of the inflow process are captured. The distribution of pedestrians in the steady state is not uniform. The proxemics and attraction to the exit are both considered to affect pedestrians' distribution in the inflow process. The presence of inactive persons may have an impact on both the inflow and outflow processes. Practical suggestions are provided for the managers of pedestrian facilities. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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