Wang X.,Nanjing Forestry University |
Liu X.,Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015
The central focus of the project is to optimize the energy and resource efficiency design for the proposed tall building: Blue Star, which is located in Chicago, as well as incorporating potential LEED credited features with it. Based on the weather analysis, some innovative energy efficient technologies are utilized in the project with the consideration of architectural function, building form, facade structure, water supply and treatment system, construct-ability etc., simultaneously having some exploration on vertical city strategies and sustainable urban design and planning ideas. Depend on the energy simulation and performance calculation, three major factors: annual energy saving rate, on-site renewable energy and water use reduction, are figured out for achieving potential LEED credited points, which can demonstrate the sustainable level of the building with a single number from certain aspect. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lan L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University |
Pan L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University |
Pan L.,Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences |
Lian Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University |
And 2 more authors.
Building and Environment | Year: 2014
Current thermal comfort theories and standards are mainly concerned with people in waking state. The effects of air temperature on sleep quality and thermal comfort of sleeping people were investigated in this study by experimenting on human subjects. Sleep quality was evaluated by subjective questionnaires performed in the morning as well as electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, which were continuously recorded during the all-night sleep period. Subjective assessments on thermal comfort were performed both before and after sleep. Analysis on EEG signals indicated that the subjects took longer time to fall asleep and experienced shorter period of slow wave sleep (SWS) when the room temperatures moderately deviated from neutral. Consistently, they reported poorer subjective sleep quality in such conditions. The returned subjective questionnaires on thermal comfort from subjects reflected that the thermal comfort temperature was higher in sleep compared with that in waking state. Their skin temperatures were increased with air temperature and fluctuated during the sleeping period. In view of the distinctive requirements from waking people, it makes sense to study the thermal comfort of sleeping people. The results also have practical implications on energy savings in bedrooms. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Zhu W.,Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences |
Li Z.,Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences |
Liu S.,Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences |
Liu S.,Tsinghua University |
Jiang Y.,Tsinghua University
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2010
A liquid desiccant based independent humidity control (IHC) air-conditioning system driven by heat pumps is presented in this paper. The system consists of a liquid desiccant fresh air processor and a high-temperature chilled water system. The operating principles of the fresh air processor and the whole system are presented in detail. Based on the in situ system installed in an ecological building of Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences (SRIBS), a performance investigation was performed in summer, 2007. The measurement results show that (1) the indoor temperature and humidity both are in the specified range; (2) the supply water temperature of the high-temperature refrigerator is higher than the corresponding indoor air dew point temperature, so no condensed water would be formed on the fan-coil unit (FCU) surface; and (3) the average coefficients of performances (COPs) of the fresh air processor and the high-temperature refrigerator are 6.24 and 4.38, respectively, and the average COP of the whole IHC system is 5.28. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cao B.,Tsinghua University |
Ouyang Q.,Tsinghua University |
Zhu Y.,Tsinghua University |
Huang L.,Tsinghua University |
And 2 more authors.
Building and Environment | Year: 2012
Indoor environment quality is simultaneously determined by thermal, acoustic, and luminous environments and air quality. This paper reports the findings of field studies conducted in public buildings in Beijing and Shanghai in 2008 and 2009. The studies included measurements of indoor environmental parameters such as air temperature, mean radiant temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, CO2 concentration, illumination intensity, and A-weighted sound pressure levels, as well as investigations of the occupants' satisfaction with these indoor environments. A predictive model for evaluating overall satisfaction with the indoor environment was developed based on the analysis of the relationship between occupants' satisfaction and the different environmental parameters. This model can provide a valuable reference for building designers as they compare different schemes by helping them choose designs favored by most people. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Cao S.,Hefei University of Technology |
Song W.,Hefei University of Technology |
Lv W.,Wuhan University of Technology |
Fang Z.,Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2015
The evacuation process from a room without visibility is investigated by both experiment and modeling. Some typical characteristics of blind evacuation, including the preference of choosing left-hand side direction and following behavior, are found from the experiment. Meanwhile, different strategies of conflict resolution are observed in the experiment. Based on the experimental observation, a multi-grid model for evacuation without visibility is built in this paper. Simulation results of the model agree well with the experiments. Furthermore, the effect of exit width, number of exits and initial density on evacuation are studied, and results show that exit width has little impact on evacuation time and increasing number of exits is an effective way to decrease evacuation time. Finally, simulations of evacuation under normal and no visibility are compared, and the differences for two conditions are predicted. The comparison results also demonstrate that the blind evacuation is much slower than evacuation under normal visibility, which is match with the practical experience. A similar point is that the distributions of time interval in both situations satisfy power-law relation approximately. The study may be useful for understanding the egress behaviors and developing efficient evacuation strategy and plan to guide pedestrian evacuation without visibility. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li A.,Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences |
Li A.,Harbin Institute of Technology |
Hong B.,Harbin Institute of Technology
Computers and Electrical Engineering | Year: 2010
Computer systems operating in space environment are subject to different radiation phenomena, whose effects may lead to a control flow fault occurring in software system, which can cause unpredictable behaviors of computer-based systems. According to the specialty of space environment, We propose a technique called RSCFC (Relationship Signatures for Control Flow Checking) which is based on the partition of programs into basic blocks. Firstly, it exploits the relationship among the blocks, then assigns a signature, into which the relationship is coded, to each basic block. Control flow faults are detected through taking AND operation between the run-time signature and the location info of the current block with extra instructions induced at the beginning and the end of each block. A fault injection experiment was performed with several C benchmark programs. The result suggests that about 33% (20.7-68.8%) of the injected branching faults produced undetected incorrect outputs without RSCFC; however, with RSCFC, the above number declines to 11% (2.8-20.4%). Compared with previous techniques, RSCFC has the characteristics of both high fault coverage and low memory and performance overhead. Crown Copyright © 2009.
Tao S.,Zhejiang University of Technology |
Yumei Y.,Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences
Advances in Cement Research | Year: 2015
This paper reports on the characterisation and quantitative analysis of ettringite in the hydration products of several high-alite cements. The study has three main parts: (a) the investigation of the microscopic morphology of ettringite; (b) an X-ray diffraction characterisation; and (c) a quantitative analysis of the ettringite in the hardened cement pastes. The results show that the ettringite could be selectively extracted by an ethylene glycol/methanol solvent with a volume ratio of 1:3, which thereby proved to be an effective method for the quantitative analysis of ettringite. Combined with the results of the X-ray diffraction analysis, the formation and transformation mechanisms of ettringite could be characterised and described in more detail. During the 90-d aging period, the reaction degree of the coal gangue was higher than that of fly ash and had a greater impact on the formation and transformation of ettringite. The amount of ettringite formed from the hydration of coal gangue cement was higher than that from neat Portland cement, whereas the amount of ettringite formed from the hydration of fly ash cement was lower than that from neat Portland cement.
Xu Q.,Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences |
Harries K.,University of Pittsburgh |
Li X.,Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences |
Liu Q.,Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences |
Gottron J.,University of Pittsburgh
Engineering Structures | Year: 2014
Bamboo is widely used as scaffolding for which collapses, often associated with rain events, are not uncommon. The presented study quantifies the degradation of mechanical properties of bamboo samples following immersion in water for 1 and 7. days to simulate the effects of significant rain events. Compression, longitudinal shear and splitting tests were conducted to obtain the respective strengths and moduli. The mechanical properties were observed to degrade significantly with increased moisture content (MC) up to about MC = 30%, a value close to the expected fiber saturation point (FSP). Beyond MC = 30%, further degradation, while apparent, was less significant. Immersion in water for one day was observed to be sufficient to achieve the FSP; under these conditions, compressive strength was observed to be 75% of that obtained from tests conducted at a standard 'air-dry' MC = 12% Accompanying the reduction in strength with increased MC, the bamboo was observed to transition from a relatively brittle behavior to a very ductile behavior. For scaffold applications, degradation of compression capacity is not only critical but also shown to be a conservative indicator for other mechanical properties. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Chen J.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University |
Chen J.,Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences |
Kou S.-C.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University |
Poon C.-S.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Cement and Concrete Composites | Year: 2012
Two types of nano-TiO 2 particles were blended into cement pastes and mortars. Their effects on the hydration and properties of the hydrated cement pastes were investigated. The addition of nano-TiO 2 powders significantly accelerated the hydration rate and promoted the hydration degree of the cementitious materials at early ages. It was demonstrated that TiO 2 was inert and stable during the cement hydration process. The total porosity of the cement pastes decreased and the pore size distribution were also altered. The acceleration of hydration rate and the change of microstructure also affected the physical and mechanical properties of the cement-based materials. The initial and final setting time was shortened and more water was required to maintain a standard consistence due to the addition of the nano-TiO 2. The compressive strength of the mortar was enhanced, practically at early ages. It is concluded that the nano-TiO 2 acted as a catalyst in the cement hydration reactions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li W.T.,Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013
Taking working well of tunnel crossing river for example, aimed at construction problem, the software of PLAXIS3D is used to simulate excavation, strut dismantling and water injecting. Several kinds of soil-reinforcing forms are also simulated to analyses the relation between soil-reinforcing form and retaining wall deformation. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.