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Hu X.-L.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Cheng X.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Fei J.,Tongji University | Fei J.,Shanghai Research Center for Model Organisms | Xiong Z.-Q.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences
Epilepsia | Year: 2011

Purpose: The ketogenic diet (KD) has been used as an effective antiepileptic treatment for nearly a century. Inhibition of glycolysis and increased levels of ketone bodies are both known to contribute to the antiepileptic effects of the KD. Neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF), also known as RE-1 silencing transcription factor (REST), is implicated in the antiepileptic effects of the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG). Glycolytic inhibition is a common feature of the KD and 2DG treatment, leading to the hypothesis that NRSF might also be involved in the antiepileptic effect of the KD. To test this hypothesis, the present study was designed to investigate the role of NRSF in the antiepileptic effect of 2DG, the KD, and acetone in vivo. Methods: Kindling was used as a model to test the antiepileptic effects of 2DG, the KD, and acetone on control and NRSF conditional knockout mice (NRSF-cKO; from the intercross of CamKIIα-iCre and NRSF exon 2 floxed mice). After recovery from electrode implantation, adult mice were stimulated twice a day at afterdischarge threshold (ADT) current intensity. In the 2DG- (500 mg/kg) and acetone- (10 mmol/kg) treated groups, drugs were injected intraperitoneally 20 min before each stimulus. In the 2DG group, mice were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections for 3 days in addition to the injections administered before the regular kindling stimulation. In the KD group, mice were fed the KD instead of a control diet until the end of stimulations. Key Findings: Compared with control mice, the antiepileptic effect of 2DG was abolished in NRSF-cKO mice, indicating that NRSF is required for the antiepileptic effect of 2DG. In the KD-fed group, kindling development was retarded in both control and NRSF-cKO mice. In the acetone-treated group, inhibition of kindling-induced epileptogenesis was observed in both control and NRSF-cKO mice, similar to the action of the KD. Significance: These findings imply that NRSF repression complex is not essential for the antiepileptic effect of the ketogenic diet. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy. Source


Patent
Shanghai Research Center For Model Organisms and Shanghai Biomodel Organism Science & Technology Development Co. | Date: 2012-09-10

The invention discloses a kit which comprises a formulation containing artemisinin or the derivatives thereof, a formulation containing ribonuclease, and a specification.


Sun R.,Shanghai Research Center for Model Organisms | Zhao K.,Tongji University | Shen R.,Shanghai Research Center for Model Organisms | Cai L.,Shanghai Research Center for Model Organisms | And 7 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2012

Methods for generating loss-of-function mutations, such as conventional or conditional gene knockout, are widely used in deciphering gene function in vivo. By contrast, inducible and reversible regulation of endogenous gene expression has not been well established. Using a mouse model, we demonstrate that a chimeric transcriptional repressor molecule (tTS) can reversibly inhibit the expression of an endogenous gene, Nmyc. In this system, a tetracycline response element (TRE) artificially inserted near the target gene's promoter region turns the gene on and off in a tetracycline-inducible manner. NmycTRE mice were generated by inserting a TRE into the first intron of Nmyc by the knockin technique. NmycTRE mice were crossed to tTS transgenic mice to produce NmycTRE/TRE: tTS embryos. In these embryos, tTS blocked Nmyc expression, and embryonic lethality was observed at E11.5d. When the dam was exposed to drinking water containing doxycycline (dox), normal endogenous Nmyc expression was rescued, and the embryo survived to birth. This novel genetic modification strategy based on the tTS-dox system for inducible and reversible regulation of endogenous mouse genes will be a powerful tool to investigate target genes that cause embryonic lethality or other defects where reversible regulation or temporary shutdown of the target gene is needed. © 2012 The Author(s). Source


Yang P.,Tongji University | Cai G.,Shanghai Research Center for Model Organisms | Cai Y.,Shanghai Research Center for Model Organisms | Fei J.,Tongji University | Liu G.,U.S. National Institute on Aging
Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica | Year: 2013

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by hyperactivity, impaired sustained attention, impulsivity, and is usually accompanied by varying degrees of learning difficulties and lack of motor coordination. However, the pathophysiology and etiology of ADHD remain inconclusive so far. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the gamma aminobutyric acid transporter subtype 1 (GAT1) gene knockout (ko) mouse (gat1-/-) is hyperactive and exhibited impaired memory performance in the Morris water maze. In the current study, we found that the gat1-/- mice showed low levels of attentional focusing and increased impulsivity. In addition, the gat1-/- mice displayed ataxia characterized by defects in motor coordination and balance skills. The hyperactivity in the ko mice was reduced by both methylphenidate and amphetamine. Collectively, these results suggest that GAT1 ko mouse is a new animal model for ADHD studying and GAT1 may be a new target to treat ADHD. © The Author 2013. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Source


Yu M.,Fudan University | Suo H.,Fudan University | Liu M.,Tongji University | Cai L.,Shanghai Research Center for Model Organisms | And 8 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2013

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressing loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. Abnormal gene expression plays a critical role in its pathogenesis. Neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF)/neuronal repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST), a member of the zinc finger transcription factors, inhibits the expression of neuron-specific genes in nonneuronal cells, and regulates neurogenesis. Our previous work showed that 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion triggers dynamic changes of messenger RNA and protein expression of NRSF in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells, and alteration of NRSF expression exacerbates 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion-induced cell death. The purpose of this study was to explore the in vivo role of NRSF in the progress of PD by using NRSF/REST neuron-specific conditional knockout mice (cKO). 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was adopted to generate PD models in the cKO mice and wild type littermates. At 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after MPTP injection, behavioral tests were performed, and cKO mice displayed some impairments in locomotor activities. Also, the reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase protein in the striatum and the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra were more severe in the cKO mice. Meanwhile, the cKO mice exhibited a more dramatic depletion of striatal dopamine, accompanied by an increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression and sustained interleukin-1β transcription. These results suggested that NRSF/REST neuronal cKO mice are more vulnerable to the dopaminergic neurotoxin MPTP. Disturbance of the homeostasis of NRSF and its target genes, gliogenesis, and inflammation may contribute to the higher MPTP sensitivity in NRSF/REST neuronal cKO mice. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

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