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Xu Y.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Zhang Z.-J.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Zhang Z.-J.,Shanghai Randnter for Standardization of Traditional Chinese Medicines | Geng F.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 7 more authors.
Rejuvenation Research | Year: 2010

A Chinese herbal preparation, Qing'E formula (QEF), has been used clinically for treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women by virtue of its kidney-invigorating function; however, no evidence base links QEF to estrogen replacement therapy. In this study, we undertake a characterization of estrogenic activity of QEF using an in vivo model of ovariectomized (OVX) mice together with in vitro studies with the MCF-7 cells for further molecular characterization. OVX mice were treated intragastrically with QEF at doses of 0.85, 1.7, and 3.4g/kg per day for 4 weeks. QEF treatments restored the estrus cycle and demonstrated significant estrogenic activity, as indicated by reversal of uterine atrophy (six-fold increase in uterine weight), reduction in rectal temperature, and increased expression (1.6-fold) of estrogen receptors (ERs) in the uterus. Notably, the largest changes in these three parameters were found at the lowest dose. At the highest dose of QEF, significant changes were found in adrenal gland weight (30% increase), serum estradiol (E2) (60% increase), and luteinizing hormone (LH) (17% decrease) compared with untreated OVX controls. The data suggest estrogenic responses induced by QEF show tissue variation that reflects different affinities of ERs for QEF components. QEF could significantly induce luciferase expression (2.7-fold compared with control) from an estrogen response element luciferase reporter and induced expression of ERα and ERβ (1.2-fold and 1.7-fold respectively) in MCF-7 cells. Both activities were inhibited 80-90% by the estrogen antagonist ICI 182,780. This study demonstrates that QEF activity is mediated through estrogenic components and provides an evidence base for QEF treatment of postmenopausal symptoms. © 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Zhang H.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Wang C.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Wang C.,Shanghai Randnter for Standardization of Traditional Chinese Medicines | Wang Z.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Wang Z.,Shanghai Randnter for Standardization of Traditional Chinese Medicines
Acta Chromatographica | Year: 2013

As a new form of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Zuojin pill extract is made containing Coptidis rhizoma (the rhizome of Coptis chinesis Franch. [Ranunculaceae]) and Euodiae fructus (the unripe fruit of Euodia rutaecarpa [Juss.] Benth. [Rutaceae]) at the ratio of 6:1 (w/w) and has been most widely used in TCM to treat gastro-intestinal disorders. However, the quality control is insufficient. For establishing an analysis method for the effective quality control of Zuojin pill extract, the active components of three protoberberine alkaloids (coptisine, palmatine, berberine, components from C. rhizoma) and two indolequinoline alkaloids (evodiamine, rutaecarpine, components from E. fructus) in Zuojin pill extract were determined simultaneously by high-performance liquid chromatography. Chromatographic separations were performed on an Inertsil ODS-3 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm). Elution was carried out at 25 C under isocratic conditions by using 25 mmol L-1 KH2PO4-25 mmol L-1 SDS-acetonitrile (1:1:2, v/v/v, adjusted pH to 3.0 using phosphoric acid) as a mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.5 mL min-1. Detection wavelength was set at 264 nm. Good linearity was obtained with correlation coefficient higher than 0.999 for all the analytes over the investigated concentration ranges. Three batches of Zuojin pill extract were successfully analyzed. The average percentages of coptisine, palmatine, berberine, evodiamine, and rutaecarpine in Zuojin pill extract were 5.35%, 3.92%, 16.64%, 0.03%, and 0.03%, respectively. Consequently, these protoberberine and indolequinoline alkaloids could be identified and determined easily by the established high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method which can be used to evaluate and control the quality of Zuojin pill extract.

Ding L.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Ding L.,Shanghai Randnter for Standardization of Traditional Chinese Medicines | Li J.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Li J.,Shanghai Randnter for Standardization of Traditional Chinese Medicines | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Year: 2014

Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are major transcription factors regulating the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids, and triglycerides. We investigated the effect of the specific SREBP suppressor andrographolide, a natural compound isolated from Andrographis paniculata, on the regulation of SREBP signaling by use of Western blot, reporter gene assay, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. In addition, the antiobesity effects of andrographolide were evaluated in C57BL/6 mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Our results showed that andrographolide downregulated the expressions of SREBPs target genes and decreased cellular lipid accumulation in vitro. Further, andrographolide (100 mg/kg per day) attenuated HFD-induced body weight gain and fat accumulation in liver or adipose tissues, and improved serum lipid levels and insulin or glucose sensitivity in HFD-induced obese mice. Andrographolide effectively suppressed the respiratory quotient, energy expenditure, and oxygen consumption, which may have contributed to the decreased body-weight gain of the obese mice fed with a HFD. Consistently, andrographolide regulated SREBP target genes and metabolism-associated genes in liver or brown adipose tissue, which may have directly contributed to the lower lipid levels and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Taken together, our results indicated that andrographolide ameliorated lipid metabolism and improved glucose use in mice with HFD-induced obesity. Andrographolide has potential as a leading compound in the prevention or treatment of obesity and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Wang C.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Wang C.,Shanghai Randnter for Standardization of Traditional Chinese Medicines | Li Y.,Xinjiang Medical University | Gao J.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 11 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are considered to be one of the most hepatotoxic groups of compounds of plant origin and are present in about 3% of the world's flowering plants. Most PAs represent a considerable health hazard to both livestock and humans through the consumption of plants and PA-contaminated products such as milk, honey, herbal teas, and medicines. This study determined the differences in the in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior of senecionine (SEN), adonifoline (ADO), and their main metabolites in rats after intravenous administration and oral administration by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Upon intravenous administration and oral administration of SEN and ADO, significant differences in pharmacokinetics were observed, with the SEN and ADO being absorbed fast with lower bioavailability and being quickly metabolized to PA N-oxides and hydroxylation products of PAs or their N-oxides. It could be seen that the plasma concentration ratio of senecionine N-oxide (SEN-NO) to SEN (C SEN-NO/C SEN) was significantly larger than that for adonifoline N-oxide (ADO-NO) and ADO (C ADO-NO/C ADO) (P < 0.001) for both dosing routes in rats. The high N-oxygenation activity and extensive toxicity of SEN, compared with ADO, in rats raised the question of whether or not the higher metabolic rate of SEN in rats in vivo was related to its potent toxicity. The toxicity of SEN-NO and ADO-NO needs to be evaluated further and compared in vitro/in vivo. This study was most helpful for interpreting the metabolism of metabolic bioactivation and detoxication, and toxicity differences among SEN, ADO and other PAs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

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