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Liu B.,Public Health Emergency Center | Havers F.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Chen E.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Yuan Z.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 29 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background. The majority of human cases of novel avian influenza A(H7N9), which emerged in China in spring 2013, include reported exposure to poultry. However, specific host and exposure risk factors for disease are unknown, yet critical to design prevention measures. Methods. In April-June 2013, we conducted a case-control study in 8 Chinese provinces. Patients with laboratory-confirmed A(H7N9) (n = 89) were matched by age, sex, and neighborhood to controls (n = 339). Subjects completed a questionnaire on medical history and potential exposures, including poultry markets and other poultry exposure. We used conditional logistic regression to calculate matched and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for the association of A(H7N9) virus infection with potential risk factors. Results. Fifty- five percent of patients compared with 31% of controls reported any contact with poultry (matched OR [mOR], 7.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-18.8). Sixty-seven percent of patients compared with 35% of controls visited a live poultry market (mOR, 5.4; CI, 3.0-9.7). Visiting live poultry markets increased risk of infection even after adjusting for poultry contact and other confounders (adjusted OR, 3.4; CI, 1.8-6.7). Backyard poultry were not associated with increased risk; 14% of cases did not report any poultry exposure or market visit. Obesity (mOR, 4.7; CI, 1.8-12.4), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (mOR, 2.7; CI, 1.1-6.9), and immunosuppressive medications (mOR, 9.0; CI, 1.7-47.2) were associated with A(H7N9) disease. Conclusion. Exposures to poultry in markets were associated with A(H7N9) virus infection, even without poultry contact. China should consider permanently closing live poultry markets or aggressively pursuing control measures to prevent spread of this emerging pathogen. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

Wei X.,Shanghai Normal University | Liu J.,Shanghai Normal University | Wang Y.,Shanghai Normal University | Li Y.,Shanghai Normal University | And 6 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2014

Highly luminescent and photostable dye-h-silica (dye-hybrid-silica) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using a base-catalyzed reverse microemulsion method. We obtained dye-h-silica nanoparticles with ∼65 nm radius, a narrow particle size distribution, high fluorescence intensity, and a controlled internal architecture. The luminescence intensity of the dye-h-SiO2 is 2.4 times higher than that of the pure dye in aqueous solution. The incorporation of dye molecules into the silica NPs protects the dye from the surrounding environment, as the silica layer is a good shield against oxygen and moisture, so that the dye-h-silica monoliths (SMs) maintain their initial luminescence after the encapsulation curing process. Green and red light-emitting dye-h-SMs are successfully applied to the preparation of remote trigger LEDs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

Sun Q.,Shanghai Pudong New Area Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2011

To compare the different thresholds of 'moving percentile method' for outbreak detection in the China Infectious Diseases Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS). The thresholds of P(50), P(60), P(70), P(80) and P(90) were respectively adopted as the candidates of early warning thresholds on the moving percentile method. Aberration was detected through the reported cases of 19 notifiable infectious diseases nationwide from July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2010. Number of outbreaks and time to detection were recorded and the amount of signals acted as the indicators for determining the optimal threshold of moving percentile method in CIDARS. The optimal threshold for bacillary and amebic dysentery was P(50). For non-cholera infectious diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid, and epidemic mumps, it was P(60). As for hepatitis A, influenza and rubella, the threshold was P(70), but for epidemic encephalitis B it was P(80). For the following diseases as scarlet fever, typhoid and paratyphoid, hepatitis E, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, malaria, epidemic hemorrhagic fever, meningococcal meningitis, leptospirosis, dengue fever, epidemic endemic typhus, hepatitis C and measles, it was P(90). When adopting the adjusted optimal threshold for 19 infectious diseases respectively, 64 840 (12.20%) signals had a decrease, comparing to the adoption of the former defaulted threshold (P(50)) during the 2 years. However, it did not reduce the number of outbreaks being detected as well as the time to detection, in the two year period. The optimal thresholds of moving percentile method for different kinds of diseases were different. Adoption of the right optimal threshold for a specific disease could further optimize the performance of outbreak detection for CIDARS.

Dong H.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Deng M.,Hubei University of Education | Wang W.,Shanghai Pudong New Area Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Zhang J.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Forensic Science International | Year: 2015

A present limitation of forensic anthropology practice in China is the lack of population-specific criteria on contemporary human skeletons. In this study, a sample of 203 maxillofacial Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, including 96 male and 107 female cases (20-65 years old), was analyzed to explore mandible sexual dimorphism in a population of contemporary adult Han Chinese to investigate the potential use of the mandible as sex indicator. A three-dimensional image from mandible CBCT scans was reconstructed using the SimPlant Pro 11.40 software. Nine linear and two angular parameters were measured. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) and logistic regression analysis (LRA) were used to develop the mathematics models for sex determination. All of the linear measurements studied and one angular measurement were found to be sexually dimorphic, with the maximum mandibular length and bi-condylar breadth being the most dimorphic by univariate DFA and LRA respectively. The cross-validated sex allocation accuracies on multivariate were ranged from 84.2% (direct DFA), 83.5% (direct LRA), 83.3% (stepwise DFA) to 80.5% (stepwise LRA). In general, multivariate DFA yielded a higher accuracy and LRA obtained a lower sex bias, and therefore both DFA and LRA had their own advantages for sex determination by the mandible in this sample. These results suggest that the mandible expresses sexual dimorphism in the contemporary adult Han Chinese population, indicating an excellent sexual discriminatory ability. Cone beam computed tomography scanning can be used as alternative source for contemporary osteometric techniques. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Yan B.,Shanghai Pudong New Area Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Yan B.,University of Pittsburgh | Yang L.-M.,Shanghai Pudong New Area Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Hao L.-P.,Shanghai Pudong New Area Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Purpose: To evaluate the association of social support status, health insurance and clinical factors with the quality of life of Chinese women with breast cancer. Methods: Information on demographics, clinical characteristics, and social support status was collected from 1,160 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer in Shanghai, China. The Perceived Social Support Scale was used to assess different sources of social support for breast cancer patients. The quality of life was evaluated using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Cancer that consisted of five domains: breast cancer-specific, emotional, functional, physical, and social & family well-being. Multivariate linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations of demographic variables, clinical characteristics, and social support status with the quality of life measures. Results: Adequate social support from family members, friends and neighbors, and higher scores of Perceived Social Support Scale were associated with significantly improved quality of life of breast cancer patients. Higher household income, medical insurance plans with low copayment, and treatment with traditional Chinese medicine for breast cancer all were associated with higher (better) scores of quality of life measures whereas patients receiving chemotherapy had significantly lower scores of quality of life. Conclusion: Social support and financial aids may significantly improve the quality of life of breast cancer survivors. © 2016 Yan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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