Shanghai Personal Biotechnology Ltd Company

Shanghai, China

Shanghai Personal Biotechnology Ltd Company

Shanghai, China
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Ding J.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology | Zhao L.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology | Wang L.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Zhao W.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology | And 8 more authors.
Genetics, selection, evolution : GSE | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal tract is populated by a complex and vast microbial network, with a composition that reflects the relationships of the symbiosis, co-metabolism, and co-evolution of these microorganisms with their host. The mechanism that underlies such interactions between the genetics of the host and gut microbiota remains elusive.RESULTS: To understand how genetic variation of the host shapes the gut microbiota and interacts with it to affect the metabolic phenotype of the host, we compared the abundance of microbial taxa and their functional performance between two lines of chickens (fat and lean) that had undergone long-term divergent selection for abdominal fat pad weight, which resulted in a 4.5-fold increase in the fat line compared to the lean line. Our analysis revealed that the proportions of Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria differed significantly between the two lines (8 vs. 18% and 33 vs. 24%, respectively) at the phylum level. Eight bacterial genera and 11 species were also substantially influenced by the host genotype. Differences between the two lines in the frequency of host alleles at loci that influence accumulation of abdominal fat were associated with differences in the abundance and composition of the gut microbiota. Moreover, microbial genome functional analysis showed that the gut microbiota was involved in pathways that are associated with fat metabolism such as lipid and glycan biosynthesis, as well as amino acid and energy metabolism. Interestingly, citrate cycle and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathways that play important roles in lipid storage and metabolism were more prevalent in the fat line than in the lean line.CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that long-term divergent selection not only alters the composition of the gut microbiota, but also influences its functional performance by enriching its relative abundance in microbial taxa. These results support the hypothesis that the host and gut microbiota interact at the genetic level and that these interactions result in their co-evolution.


Gao G.,Chongqing Academy of Animal Science | Zhao X.,Chongqing Academy of Animal Science | Li Q.,Chongqing Academy of Animal Science | He C.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 17 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2016

The goose is an economically important waterfowl that exhibits unique characteristics and abilities, such as liver fat deposition and fibre digestion. Here, we report de novo whole-genome assemblies for the goose and swan goose and describe the evolutionary relationships among 7 bird species, including domestic and wild geese, which diverged approximately 3.4∼6.3 million years ago (Mya). In contrast to chickens as a proximal species, the expanded and rapidly evolving genes found in the goose genome are mainly involved in metabolism, including energy, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism. Further integrated analysis of the host genome and gut metagenome indicated that the most widely shared functional enrichment of genes occurs for functions such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, propanoate metabolism and the citrate cycle. We speculate that the unique physiological abilities of geese benefit from the adaptive evolution of the host genome and symbiotic interactions with gut microbes.


Meng H.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology | Zhang Y.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Zhao L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhao W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The abundance of gut microbiota can be viewed as a quantitative trait, which is affected by the genetics and environment of the host. To quantify the effects of host genetics, we calculated the heritability of abundance of specific microorganisms and genetic correlations among them in the gut microbiota of two lines of chickens maintained under the same husbandry and dietary regimes. The lines, which originated from a common founder population, had undergone.50 generations of selection for high (HW) or low (LW) 56-day body weight and now differ by more than 10-fold in body weight at selection age. We identified families of Paenibacillaceae, Streptococcaceae, Helicobacteraceae, and Burkholderiaceae that had moderate heritabilities. Although there were no obvious phenotypic correlations among gut microbiota, significant genetic correlations were observed. Moreover, the effects were modified by genetic selection for body weight, which altered the quantitative genetic background of the host. Heritabilities for Bacillaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Helicobacteraceae, Comamonadaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Streptococcaceae were moderate in LW line and little to zero in the HW line. These results suggest that loci associated with these microbiota families, while exhibiting genetic variation in LW, have been fixed in HW line. Also, long term selection for body weight has altered the genetic correlations among gut microbiota. No microbiota families had significant heritabilities in both the LW and HW lines suggesting that the presence and/or absence of a particular microbiota family either has a strong growth promoting or inhibiting effect, but not both. These results demonstrate that the quantitative genetics of the host have considerable influence on the gut microbiota. © 2014 Meng et al.


Zhao W.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology | Wang Y.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Liu S.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology | Huang J.,CAS Institute of Zoology | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Metagenome of gut microbes has been implicated in metabolism, immunity, and health maintenance of its host. However, in most of previous studies, the microbiota was sampled from feces instead of gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In this study, we compared the microbial populations from feces at four different developmental stages and contents of four intestinal segments at maturity to examine the dynamic shift of microbiota in pigs and investigated whether adult porcine fecal samples could be used to represent samples of the GI tract. Analysis results revealed that the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes from the feces of the older pigs (2-, 3-, 6-month) were 10 times higher compared to those from piglets (1-month). As the pigs matured, so did it seem that the composition of microbiome became more stable in feces. In adult pigs, there were significant differences in microbial profiles between the contents of the small intestine and large intestine. The dominant genera in the small intestine belonged to aerobe or facultative anaerobe categories, whereas the main genera in the large intestine were all anaerobes. Compared to the GI tract, the composition of microbiome was quite different in feces. The microbial profile in large intestine was more similar to feces than those in the small intestine, with the similarity of 0.75 and 0.38 on average, respectively. Microbial functions, predicted by metagenome profiles, showed the enrichment associated with metabolism pathway and metabolic disease in large intestine and feces while higher abundance of infectious disease, immune function disease, and cancer in small intestine. Fecal microbes also showed enriched function in metabolic pathways compared to microbes from pooled gut contents. Our study extended the understanding of dynamic shift of gut microbes during pig growth and also characterized the profiles of bacterial communities across GI tracts of mature pigs. © 2015 Zhao et al.


Huang J.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Zhao Y.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Shiraigol W.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | Li B.,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University | And 21 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2014

Karyotypic diversification is more prominent in Equus species than in other mammals. Here, using next generation sequencing technology, we generated and de novo assembled quality genomes sequences for a male wild horse (Przewalski's horse) and a male domestic horse (Mongolian horse), with about 93-fold and 91-fold coverage, respectively. Portion of Y chromosome from wild horse assemblies (3a €...M bp) and Mongolian horse (2a €...M bp) were also sequenced and de novo assembled. We confirmed a Robertsonian translocation event through the wild horse's chromosomes 23 and 24, which contained sequences that were highly homologous with those on the domestic horse's chromosome 5. The four main types of rearrangement, insertion of unknown origin, inserted duplication, inversion, and relocation, are not evenly distributed on all the chromosomes, and some chromosomes, such as the X chromosome, contain more rearrangements than others, and the number of inversions is far less than the number of insertions and relocations in the horse genome. Furthermore, we discovered the percentages of LINE-L1 and LTR-ERV1 are significantly increased in rearrangement regions. The analysis results of the two representative Equus species genomes improved our knowledge of Equus chromosome rearrangement and karyotype evolution.


PubMed | Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Shanghai Personal Biotechnology Ltd Company, SRA International, Inc. and Inner Mongolia Agricultural University
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

The donkey, like the horse, is a promising model for exploring karyotypic instability. We report the de novo whole-genome assemblies of the donkey and the Asiatic wild ass. Our results reflect the distinct characteristics of donkeys, including more effective energy metabolism and better immunity than horses. The donkey shows a steady demographic trajectory. We detected abundant satellite sequences in some inactive centromere regions but not in neocentromere regions, while ribosomal RNAs frequently emerged in neocentromere regions but not in the obsolete centromere regions. Expanded miRNA families and five newly discovered miRNA target genes involved in meiosis may be associated with fast karyotype evolution. APC/C, controlling sister chromatid segregation, cytokinesis, and the establishment of the G1 cell cycle phase were identified by analysis of miRNA targets and rapidly evolving genes.


PubMed | Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology and Shanghai Personal Biotechnology Co.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of dairy research | Year: 2016

The study reported in this Regional Research Communication aimed to analyse the genetic polymorphisms of -casein in Chinese Holstein cows. -casein has received considerable research interest in the dairy industry and animal breeding in recent years as a source not only of high quality protein, but also of bioactive peptides that may be linked to health effects. Morever, the polymorphic nature of -casein and its association with milk production traits, composition, and quality also attracted several efforts in evaluating the allelic distribution of -casein locus as a potential dairy trait marker. However, few data on beta-casein variants are available for the Chinese Holstein cow. In the present paper, one hundred and thirty three Holstein cows were included in the analysis. Results revealed the presence of 5 variants (A1, A2, A3, B and I), preponderance of the genotype A1A2 (0353) and superiorities of A1/A2 alleles (0432 and 0459, respectively) in the population. Sequence analysis of -casein gene in the cows showed four nucleotide changes in exon 7. Our study can provide reference and guidance for selection for superior milk for industrial applications and crossbreeding and genetic improvement programmes.


PubMed | Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Shanghai Personal Biotechnology Ltd Company and CAS Institute of Zoology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Metagenome of gut microbes has been implicated in metabolism, immunity, and health maintenance of its host. However, in most of previous studies, the microbiota was sampled from feces instead of gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In this study, we compared the microbial populations from feces at four different developmental stages and contents of four intestinal segments at maturity to examine the dynamic shift of microbiota in pigs and investigated whether adult porcine fecal samples could be used to represent samples of the GI tract. Analysis results revealed that the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes from the feces of the older pigs (2-, 3-, 6- month) were 10 times higher compared to those from piglets (1-month). As the pigs matured, so did it seem that the composition of microbiome became more stable in feces. In adult pigs, there were significant differences in microbial profiles between the contents of the small intestine and large intestine. The dominant genera in the small intestine belonged to aerobe or facultative anaerobe categories, whereas the main genera in the large intestine were all anaerobes. Compared to the GI tract, the composition of microbiome was quite different in feces. The microbial profile in large intestine was more similar to feces than those in the small intestine, with the similarity of 0.75 and 0.38 on average, respectively. Microbial functions, predicted by metagenome profiles, showed the enrichment associated with metabolism pathway and metabolic disease in large intestine and feces while higher abundance of infectious disease, immune function disease, and cancer in small intestine. Fecal microbes also showed enriched function in metabolic pathways compared to microbes from pooled gut contents. Our study extended the understanding of dynamic shift of gut microbes during pig growth and also characterized the profiles of bacterial communities across GI tracts of mature pigs.


PubMed | Shanghai Personal Biotechnology Ltd Company, French National Center for Scientific Research and Xiamen University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Applied and environmental microbiology | Year: 2016

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) are thought to be important players in oceanic carbon and energy cycling in the euphotic zone of the ocean. The genus Citromicrobium, widely found in oligotrophic oceans, is a member of marine alphaproteobacterial AAPB. Nine Citromicrobium strains isolated from the South China Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, or the tropical South Atlantic Ocean were found to harbor identical 16S rRNA sequences. The sequencing of their genomes revealed high synteny in major regions. Nine genetic islands (GIs) involved mainly in type IV secretion systems, flagellar biosynthesis, prophage, and integrative conjugative elements, were identified by a fine-scale comparative genomics analysis. These GIs played significant roles in genomic evolution and divergence. Interestingly, the coexistence of two different photosynthetic gene clusters (PGCs) was not only found in the analyzed genomes but also confirmed, for the first time, to our knowledge, in environmental samples. The prevalence of the coexistence of two different PGCs may suggest an adaptation mechanism for Citromicrobium members to survive in the oceans. Comparison of genomic characteristics (e.g., GIs, average nucleotide identity [ANI], single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs], and phylogeny) revealed that strains within a marine region shared a similar evolutionary history that was distinct from that of strains isolated from other regions (South China Sea versus Mediterranean Sea). Geographic differences are partly responsible for driving the observed genomic divergences and allow microbes to evolve through local adaptation. Three Citromicrobium strains isolated from the Mediterranean Sea diverged millions of years ago from other strains and evolved into a novel group.Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a widespread functional group in the upper ocean, and their abundance could be up to 15% of the total heterotrophic bacteria. To date, a great number of studies display AAPB biogeographic distribution patterns in the ocean; however, little is understood about the geographic isolation impact on the genome divergence of marine AAPB. In this study, we compare nine Citromicrobium genomes of strains that have identical 16S rRNA sequences but different ocean origins. Our results reveal that strains isolated from the same marine region share a similar evolutionary history that is distinct from that of strains isolated from other regions. These Citromicrobium strains diverged millions of years ago. In addition, the coexistence of two different PGCs is prevalent in the analyzed genomes and in environmental samples.


PubMed | Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Shanghai Personal Biotechnology Ltd Company, Northeast Agricultural University and Inner Mongolia Agricultural University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics, selection, evolution : GSE | Year: 2016

The gastrointestinal tract is populated by a complex and vast microbial network, with a composition that reflects the relationships of the symbiosis, co-metabolism, and co-evolution of these microorganisms with their host. The mechanism that underlies such interactions between the genetics of the host and gut microbiota remains elusive.To understand how genetic variation of the host shapes the gut microbiota and interacts with it to affect the metabolic phenotype of the host, we compared the abundance of microbial taxa and their functional performance between two lines of chickens (fat and lean) that had undergone long-term divergent selection for abdominal fat pad weight, which resulted in a 4.5-fold increase in the fat line compared to the lean line. Our analysis revealed that the proportions of Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria differed significantly between the two lines (8 vs. 18% and 33 vs. 24%, respectively) at the phylum level. Eight bacterial genera and 11 species were also substantially influenced by the host genotype. Differences between the two lines in the frequency of host alleles at loci that influence accumulation of abdominal fat were associated with differences in the abundance and composition of the gut microbiota. Moreover, microbial genome functional analysis showed that the gut microbiota was involved in pathways that are associated with fat metabolism such as lipid and glycan biosynthesis, as well as amino acid and energy metabolism. Interestingly, citrate cycle and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathways that play important roles in lipid storage and metabolism were more prevalent in the fat line than in the lean line.Our study demonstrates that long-term divergent selection not only alters the composition of the gut microbiota, but also influences its functional performance by enriching its relative abundance in microbial taxa. These results support the hypothesis that the host and gut microbiota interact at the genetic level and that these interactions result in their co-evolution.

Loading Shanghai Personal Biotechnology Ltd Company collaborators
Loading Shanghai Personal Biotechnology Ltd Company collaborators