Shanghai, China

Shanghai Ocean University
Shanghai, China

Shanghai Ocean University is a public university in Shanghai, China.The university changed its name to the current name on 6 May 2008, authorized by the Ministry of Education The People's Republic of China, and the whole school was to be moved to Lingang New City in August 2008. Its former name is Shanghai Fisheries University . Wikipedia.

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News Article | April 17, 2017

For the first time, researchers have measured a new class of fire retardants in Arctic Ocean sediments, far from the compounds’ intended end uses in couch cushions and television sets (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2017, DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.7b00755). The findings add to growing evidence that organophosphate ester flame retardants (OPEs) might have many of the same properties that led to the phase-out of their predecessors, brominated flame retardants. After decades of research, manufacturers and regulators curtailed the use of brominated flame retardants known as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the early 2000s. Numerous studies cataloged how these compounds interfere with the endocrine systems of humans and animals and contaminate substances including mothers’ milk and arctic sediment. In 2009, the parties to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) added two kinds of PBDEs to their POPs list. The parties determined that the compounds met the criteria: The listed PBDEs are persistent, toxic, travel long range, and accumulate in food chains. As concerns grew over PBDEs, manufacturers turned to OPEs as alternative flame retardants, but scientists are concerned that these replacements may also meet the Stockholm Convention’s criteria for POPs. Not much is known about the human health effects of OPEs, yet some governments have listed them as cancer-causing agents, and in vitro and animal data suggest that the compounds may be endocrine disrupters—so they may meet the criterion of toxicity. They do not appear to increase in concentration as they move up the food chain, although like the brominated retardants they are replacing, OPEs readily escape into the environment and have been found in fish and in human breast milk, research shows. But gaseous OPEs readily break down in sunlight with a half-life of less than two days. Therefore researchers initially assumed that the retardants did not meet the criteria of persistence and long-range travel. “However, other researchers have reported OPEs in arctic air, suggesting that they are transported long distances as are traditional POPs,” says Yuxin Ma, an environmental chemist at Shanghai Ocean University. Because no one had looked for OPEs in Arctic marine sediments, Ma and her team decided to investigate. The scientists sailed aboard an icebreaker from the Bering Sea to the Arctic Ocean as part of the fourth Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition in 2010, scooping up sediments along the way. At the same time, they tracked flame retardants in the air (Env. Sci. Technol. 2012, DOI: 10.1021/es204272v). Back in the lab, Ma’s group measured OPEs and PBDEs in the sediment using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The scientists detected OPEs in all the samples, ranging in concentration from 159-4658 pg per g dry sediment, higher than DDT levels noted in earlier research on arctic sediment. The samples that Ma took from the central Arctic Ocean posted the highest average amounts of OPEs in the study. “These concentrations of OPEs are 5 to 10 times higher than the levels of PBDEs that we found, suggesting that OPEs are just as prone to long-range transport as PBDEs are,” Ma says. She speculates that by adsorbing to solid particles in air, OPEs hitch a free ride to the Arctic, shielded from destruction by sunlight. Her shipmates who detected flame retardants in the arctic air also found OPEs at higher levels than PBDE concentrations on air particles. Taken together, the evidence suggests that OPEs are more efficiently transported to arctic sediments than PBDEs. “This study contributes to a wider view of long-range atmospheric transport than found in the Stockholm Convention,” says Roland Kallenborn, an environmental chemist at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. OPEs are not classic POPs because on their own they have a short half-life and easily degrade in sunlight. But nonetheless they make their way to remote arctic sediments, raising the question whether the Stockholm convention’s way of evaluating chemicals’ long-range transport should be changed to account for other ways of transport besides just the pure chemical moving on its own, he concludes. CORRECTION: This story was updated on April 6, 2017, to reflect that organophosphate esters are flame retardants, not fire retardants.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: KBBE-2007-2-5-04 | Award Amount: 7.59M | Year: 2009

Trade in aquatic products is the largest global food sector, by value, and Asia represents the main external source of aquatic products into the EU. Current EU policy supporting international trade between Asia and Europe concentrates on issues of food safety as measures of quality, whilst market-forces drive development of standards and labels that identify social and environmental parameters. This project proposes to establish an evidence-based framework to support current stakeholder dialogues organised by a third party certifier. This will contribute to harmonising standards, helping consumers to make fully informed choices with regards to the sustainability and safety of their seafood. The Ethical Aquatic Food Index, a qualitative holistic measure of overall sustainability to support consumers purchasing decisions, will be based on detailed research centred around a Life Cycle Assessment of current processes involved in ensuring aquatic products reach consumers, aligned with analyses from the sustainable livelihoods approach and systems thinking. SMEs based in the EU will participate in this project, particularly the action research phase, enhancing their relative competitiveness. By strengthening the knowledge base surrounding EU-Asia seafood trade the project will provide the evidence required to support further expansion whilst ensuring a fair deal for producers who are meeting appropriate social and environmental goals and offering a safe and sustainable product for consumers. The sectors covered represent the main aquaculture products reaching EU markets; tilapia, catfish, shrimps and prawns. Known case study stakeholders include SMEs in Bangladesh, China, Thailand and Vietnam where sustainability is essential in the face of rapid growth. The research will secondarily improve understanding of opportunities for European exports to supply the expanding middleclass in Asia. Outputs will be promoted through workshops, websites, journal and press articles.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: KBBE-2009-1-4-10;KBBE-2009-1-4-11 | Award Amount: 1.20M | Year: 2009

This proposal builds on the outputs of the ASEM Aquaculture Platform, established in 2003 as an EU-Asia framework for dialogue, networking and continuing coordination for sustainable aquaculture development. From 2003-2006, 6 expert workshops targeted key topics (Disease & Health management, Biodiversity & Ecological impacts, Breeding & Domestication, Education, Food safety & Legislation, Food security) and yielded valuable recommendations on future directions in research, production and trade. With increasingly critical demands on aquaculture for food supply and food security, income and employment, the vulnerability of the natural resource issues involved, and the important gains to be realised through developing stronger scientific and economic partnerships between the two regions, the aim is to move more pro-actively into effective policy, into formulation of joint research goals, and into outcomes which contribute to Millennium Development and related goals. The projects major aim is to reconcile ecosystem and economic system demands to consolidate concepts of sustainability in aquaculture development in both regions. Specific actions include: 1) validation of earlier recommendations; 2) translating priority recommendations into concrete actions; 3) facilitate industry interaction between the two regions; 4) build and exchange knowledge and its application. The common denominator of the actions is the concerted effort to initiate joint EU-Asia processes which have impact on research excellence, contributing realistically and effectively to good production practice, improved governance, fair trade, social equity and sustainability. In developing these, the ASEM Aquaculture Platform will strengthen opportunities for the EU aquaculture sector to derive value from its technological and structural assets, and develop valuable trade partnerships, using the driver of import product quality to improve product quality and value in both markets.

News Article | March 23, 2016

From a slowing economy to geopolitical tensions in the South China Sea, it is a testing time for China’s ruling Communist party. But its science aspirations seem unbridled. On 16 March, China approved its 13th Five-Year Plan. A draft version, as well as statements by key politicians, make it clear that innovation through science and technology is a priority. China also intends for its research expenditure to rise to 2.5% of gross domestic product by 2020, from less than 2.2% over the past five years. Reductions in energy use and the development of low-carbon energy sources feature in the latest five-year plan. For some of the other themes that are set to shape Chinese research over the next five years, Nature spoke to a range of scientists. In 2012, ‘oceanauts’ aboard the research submersible Jiaolong descended more than 7,000 metres beneath the waves, marking China’s entry into an elite club of nations capable of reaching the hadal zone — the deepest part of the ocean, which begins at 6,000 metres below sea level. Over the next five years, Chinese scientists will build one crewed and one uncrewed submersible, according to a plan released by the science ministry in February, each of which can reach depths of 11,000 metres — the very bottom of the hadal zone. "For deep-sea technology, this five years will be a golden period,” says Cui Weicheng of the Hadal Science and Technology Research Center at Shanghai Ocean University. The uncrewed vessel will be similar to Nereus, the advanced US submersible that imploded in 2014 and will not be replaced. The crewed vessel will hold at least two people, more than the Deepsea Challenger, which took film director James Cameron on a solo dive to the deepest point of the Mariana Trench in 2012. The hadal zone is one of the most poorly studied habitats on Earth, and is home to mysterious tube worms, sea cucumbers and jellyfish. Researchers are also interested in its role in the carbon cycle, because the microbes there digest a surprising amount of organic matter. Chinese scientists hope to use both submersibles to explore the zone in more detail than ever before. Independently of the latest five-year plan, Cui has also developed a 'movable laboratory' (W. Cui et al. Meth. Oceanogr. 10, 178–193; 2014) composed of three landers, a robotic submersible and a crewed vehicle.The robotic submersible and first lander were tested down to 4,000 metres last October. A mother ship that controls the robot and landers is due to be launched on 24 March, and the first scientific expedition is planned for August, in the New Britain Trench off Papua New Guinea. Together these projects “could help shorten the gap" between Chinese ocean science and technology and the most advanced capabilities elsewhere, says Cui. The United States, Europe and Japan have each announced their own massive projects to map the brain, and China has had one in the works for several years. The latest five-year plan calls for brain science to be a priority — and most of the resources are expected to be channelled through the China project, which is due to be officially announced shortly, say Chinese researchers. The brain project is expected to focus on brain disease, in particular through studying animal models, as well as artificial intelligence. Scientists in China acknowledge that they are far behind the rest of the world in terms of top-level talent in brain science, but several factors could enable them to catch up. China’s neuroscience community is growing — the Chinese Neuroscience Society now has 6,000 members, compared to just 1,500 ten years ago; the country has tens of millions of patients with psychiatric or degenerative brain disease that will facilitate clinical studies; and it has hundreds of thousands of research monkeys. This last factor has already allowed Chinese researchers to take the lead in using gene-editing technologies to produce models of autism and other conditions. The bounty of research animals is also starting to draw interest from abroad — a new primate research centre in Shenzhen is being jointly established with the Cambridge-based Massachusetts Institute of Technology. With actor Jackie Chan and basketball star Yao Ming involved in campaigns attacking the trade in protected animals such as bears, which are milked for their bile, and elephants, targeted for their ivory, conservation has become a high profile issue in China. The latest five-year plan will launch efforts to protect the giant panda, tiger and Asian elephant in the wild, says Zhang Li, a conservation biologist at Beijing Normal University. "There will be a big budget to restore habitat for these species,” says Zhang. The projects will focus on corridors between protected areas that greatly increase the habitats by letting the animals move from one reserve to another. A biodiversity hotspot between Laos, Myanmar and the southwestern Chinese province of Yunnan requires protection in particular, says Stuart Pimm, a biodiversity specialist at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina. Forest there has been converted into rubber plantations, he says,  “and the level of hunting is worse than any place I’ve ever been”. But a focus on protecting pandas, elephants and tigers could leave other animals at risk, he pointed out in November (B. V. Li and S. L. Pimm Conserv. Biol. 30, 329–339; 2016). In the wake of the five-year plan, China will gain a new funding initiative called 'Stem Cell and Translational Research', according to stem cell researchers Pei Gang, president of Tongji University, and Pei Duanqing, director of the Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health. The grants will be awarded under a new competitive review and evaluation process, replacing a system that critics said rewarded scientific and political connections rather than merit. Following the last five year plan, China invested roughly 3 billion yuan (about US$460 million) in stem-cell research. The pair say that there will be a big increase over the next five years but did not give exact figures. “Given the size of its population and the wide spectrum of unmet medical needs, China recognizes the promise of stem-cell and regenerative medicine as one of the key thrusts for modernizing its medical service system,” says Pei Gang. In a country that places great value on social harmony, air and water pollution are the trigger for an increasing number of protests. Under a plan that began in 2012, the government is already trying to reduce the levels of airborne parti­culate matter measuring less than 2.5 micrometres across (PM ), which are small enough to penetrate deep into the respiratory system. By 2017, it wants to achieve reductions of 25% in the Beijing area, 20% in the Yangtze River Delta and greater Shanghai area, and 15% in the Pearl River Delta. Major nationwide environmental initiatives outlined in the latest five-year plan will tackle transportation, clean energy and environmental protection, says Wei-xian Zhang, director of the State Key Lab for Pollution Control at Tongji University in Shanghai. The government will also target pollution black spots, such as smog in Beijing and fertilizer pollution in Lake Tai near Shanghai. Funding to control air pollution alone will increase by at least four times, says Zhang, and several new national laboratories focusing on clean energy and environmental research have also been funded for the next five years. “China is and will continue to be the largest market in air-, soil- and water-pollution control technologies,” says Zhang. “To some degree, the whole country will be a huge laboratory for environmental research, such as smog mitigation.”

Zhu P.,Hunan University | Zhang L.W.,Shanghai Ocean University | Liew K.M.,City University of Hong Kong
Composite Structures | Year: 2014

A meshless local Petrov-Galerkin approach based on the moving Kriging interpolation technique is developed for geometrically nonlinear thermoelastic analysis of functionally graded plates in thermal environments (prescribed a temperature gradient or heat flux). The Kriging interpolation method makes the constructed shape functions possess Kronecker delta function property and thus special techniques for enforcing essential boundary conditions are avoided. In the thermal analysis, the dependency of thermal conductivity of functionally graded materials on temperature is involved, which gives rise to a nonlinear partial differential heat conduction equation. The nonlinear formulation of large deflection of the functionally graded plates is based on the first-order shear deformation plate theory in the von Kármán sense by taking small strains and moderate rotations into account. The incremental form of nonlinear equations is obtained by Taylor series expansion and the tangent stiffness matrix is explicitly developed in two different ways within the framework of the local meshless method. The nonlinear solutions are computed using the Newton-Raphson iteration method. Parametric and convergence studies are conducted to examine the stability of the proposed method and then several selected numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the method for nonlinear bending problems of functionally graded plates in thermal environments. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhang L.W.,Shanghai Ocean University | Zhu P.,Hunan University | Liew K.M.,City University of Hong Kong
Composite Structures | Year: 2014

The mechanical and thermal buckling behaviors of ceramic-metal functionally grade plates (FGPs) were studied by using a local Kriging meshless method. The local meshless method was developed based on the local Petrov-Galerkin weak-form formulation combined with shape functions having the Kronecker delta function property, constructed by the Kriging interpolation. The cubic spline function of high continuity was used as the weight function to simplify the local weak form of governing equations with the integration on the internal boundaries vanishing. The transverse shear strains of FGPs were incorporated by employing the first-order shear deformation plate theory and plate material properties were assumed to change exponentially along the thickness direction. Convergence and comparison studies examined the stability and accuracy of the presented method. Two types of FGMs, Al/Al2O3 and Ti-6Al-4V/Aluminum oxide, were chosen for mechanical and thermal buckling analyses. The influences of volume fraction exponent, boundary condition, length-to-thickness ratio and loading type on the buckling behaviors of FGPs were discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Luo J.,Shanghai Ocean University
Mathematical Biosciences | Year: 2013

In this paper, we derive and analyze a mathematical model for the interactions between phytoplankton and zooplankton in a periodic environment, in which the growth rate and the intrinsic carrying-capacity of phytoplankton are changing with respect to time and nutrient concentration. A threshold value: "Predator's average growth rate" is introduced and it is proved that the phytoplankton-zooplankton ecosystem is permanent (both populations survive cronically) and possesses a periodic solution if and only if the value is positive. We use TP (Total Phosphorus) concentration to mark the degree of eutrophication. Based on experimental data, we fit the growth rate function and the environmental carrying capacity function with temperature and nutrient concentration as independent variables. Using measured data of temperature on water bodies we fit a periodic temperature function of time, and this leads the growth rate and intrinsic carrying-capacity of phytoplankton to be periodic functions of time. Thus we establish a periodic system with TP concentration as parameter. The simulation results reveal a high diversity of population levels of the ecosystem that are mainly sensitive to TP concentration and the death-rate of zooplankton. It illustrates that the eruption of algal bloom is mainly resulted from the increasing of nutrient concentration while zooplankton only plays a role to alleviate the scale of algal bloom, which might be used to explain the mechanism of algal bloom occurrence in many natural waters. What is more, our results provide a better understanding of the traditional manipulation method. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Zhang J.,Shanghai Ocean University
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2011

DNA barcoding is a molecular method that uses a short standardized DNA sequence as a species identification tool. In this study, the standard 652 base-pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) was sequenced in marine fish specimens captured in China. The average genetic distance was 50-fold higher between species than within species, as Kimura two parameter (K2P) genetic distances averaged 15.742 among congeners and only 0.319 for intraspecific individuals. There are no overlaps of pairwise genetic variations between conspecific and interspecific comparisons apart from the genera Pampus in which the introgressive hybridization was detected. High efficiency of species identification was demonstrated in the present study by DNA barcoding. Due to the incidence of cryptic species, an assumed threshold is suggested to expedite discovering of new species and biodiversity, especially involving biotas of few studies. Copyright © 2011 Junbin Zhang.

Disclosed are an amino acid sequence of myrmecia incise reisigl diacylgycerol acyltransferase, an encoding gene sequence and application thereof. Specifically, based on myrmecia incise reisigl transcriptome sequencing data, cloning to obtain full-length cDNA and full-length DNA sequences of a myrmecia incise reisigl diacylgycerol acyltransferase gene, and expressing the gene in yeast TAG synthesis defect strain H1246, finding that an encoded protein thereof has a capability for synthesizing a TAG, and using a substrate preference experiment to prove that the encoded protein of the gene tends to C18:1 fatty acid.

An expression method of active goldfish gfTP1 transposase protein comprises: constructing an expression vector comprising a gfTP1 transposase reading frame of a goldfish Tgf2 transposon, after transferred into escherichia coli Rosetta 1(DE3), culturing an expression strain until absorbance of a bacteria solution under OD_(600 )reaches 0.3-0.4, adding IPTG, culturing under 21-22 C. in shaking of 150-200 rpm, inducing to express soluble recombinant protein, and purifying to obtain a functionally active transposase. Also provided are an expression plasmid and the expression strain of the goldfish gfTP1 transposase protein, and a use of the strain in transgenosis.

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