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Du Y.,Peking University | Zhang Q.,Peking University | Ying Y.,Peking University | Yang Y.,Shanghai Meteorological Bureau
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan | Year: 2012

In order to understand the characteristics of low-level jets (LLJs) over coastal areas of China Continent and its linkages with rainfall during the warm seasons, half-hourly data from a wind profiler radar (WPR) at the Qingpu site during the Meiyu periods of 2008 and 2009 in addition to data from one month prior to and after (non-Meiyu periods) were used to develop a climatology of the LLJs over Shanghai, China. Two peaks in LLJ incidence were revealed at 500-800 m and 2100-2200 m altitudes. Thus, we classified the observed LLJs into two types: (1) boundary-layer jets (BLJs, below 1 km) and (2) synoptic-system-related LLJs (SLLJs, within 1-3 km). BLJs and SLJs showed different behavior in their temporal variation of the occurrence frequency, wind direction, and relation to rainfall. The BLJs displayed a more evident diurnal cycle than the SLLJs, with maximum incidence occurring in nighttime and early morning. The SLLJs occurred more frequently during Meiyu periods than non-Meiyu periods, whereas the occurrence frequency of BLJs increased throughout the warm seasons with no peak during Meiyu periods. BLJs are mostly southerly winds that might be induced by inertial oscillation with a strong background southerly geostrophic wind due to the west-east land-ocean thermal difference. SLLJs most frequently appeared as southwesterly and westerly winds embedded in the East Asian monsoon circulation. The relation between LLJs and precipitation was examined by comparing the frequency of LLJs occurrence on rainy days (cases), with daily (4-hourly) accumulated rainfall within 1 to 10 mm, and non-rainy days (cases) because the missing rate of WPR data is high during heavy rainfall events. Both BLJs and SLLJs occur more often on rainy days than on non-rainy days. In shorter time scales (4 hours), both BLJs and SLLJs tend to occur frequently during, before and after rainy cases, except SLLJs before rainy cases. © 2012, Meteorological Society of Japan.

He Q.,Shanghai Meteorological Bureau | Li C.,Peking University | Geng F.,Shanghai Meteorological Bureau | Yang H.,Shanghai Meteorological Bureau | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2012

Using a CIMEL Sun photometer, we conducted continuous observations over the urban area of Shanghai (31°14′N, 121°32′E) from 18 April 2007 to 31 January 2009. The aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom wavelength exponent, single scattering albedo (w0), and aerosol particle size distribution were derived from the observational data. The monthly mean AOD reached a maximum value of 1.20 in June and a minimum value of 0.43 in January. The monthly averaged Angstrom wavelength exponent reached a minimum value of 1.15 in April and a maximum value of 1.41 in October. The frequencies of the AOD and Angstrom wavelength exponent presented lognormal distributions. The averaged w0 at 550 nm was 0.94 throughout the observation period, indicating that the aerosols over Shanghai are composed mainly of scattering particles. The concentrations of coarse mode and accumulation mode aerosols over Shanghai were highest in spring compared with other seasons, especially for those particles with radii between 1.0 and 2.0 m. The median radius of monthly averaged accumulation mode aerosols increased with increasing AOD, and fine particles accounted for the majority of the aerosol volume concentration. The ratios of the monthly averaged volume concentration of accumulation mode and coarse mode aerosols (Vf/Vc) were over 0.6 for all months studied and reached up to 1.94 in August. The volumes of the two modes changed with AOD, but their correlations presented different sensitivities, that is, the volume concentration of accumulation mode aerosols was more sensitive to variations in AOD than that of coarse mode aerosols. The aerosol volume concentration decreased with increasing w0, indicating that the higher the volume concentration of aerosols, the higher the absorption in particle extinction properties. The increase in absorption was caused primarily by secondary species coated on black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (POC) particles. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

He Q.,Shanghai Meteorological Bureau | Li C.,Peking University | Geng F.,Shanghai Meteorological Bureau | Lei Y.,Meteorological Observation Center | Li Y.,Shanxi Meteorological Bureau
Aerosol and Air Quality Research | Year: 2012

East China is among the fastest developing area in Asia, where atmospheric aerosol loading is high due to heavy urban and industrial emission. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) level 2 aerosol products (2000-2007) were used to study aerosol spatial and temporal distributions, as well as their variations with local meteorological conditions over East China. By combining Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and aerosol Fine Mode Fraction (FMF), we found that the urban/industrial aerosol and soil dust are possibly two dominant species over northern part, whereas continental and marine aerosols possibly dominate the southern part of East China. Both annual mean AOD and area with high AOD increased from 2000 to 2007, with the largest increase seen in Yangtze River Delta region (YRD). In summer, AOD in East China reached the maximum of about 0.8 in YRD, dominated by fine mode particles. The minimum AOD occurred in winter with mostly coarse mode particles. Local aerosol properties were analyzed in three typical zones: the northern dry zone (I), the central urban/industrial zone (II) and the southern natural background zone (III). Monthly mean AODs in zone I and II were above 0.5 throughout the entire year, with the maximum AOD in June. High FMFs in this period indicated heavy urban and industrial pollution. Monthly mean AODs and FMFs in zone III reached maximum of 0.51 in April and September (up to 90.7%) respectively. High AOD in spring in zone III appears mostly due to the long-range dust transport from the North. © Taiwan Association for Aerosol Research.

He Q.,Shanghai Meteorological Bureau | Li C.,Peking University | Tang X.,Shanghai Meteorological Bureau | Li H.,Shanxi Meteorological Bureau | And 2 more authors.
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2010

MODIS derived aerosol optical depths (AODs) at 550. nm are compared with sunphotometer CE318 measurements at 7 sites located at Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in China from July to October, 2007. The evaluation result indicates that MODIS AODs (Collection 5, C005) are in good agreement with those from CE318 in dense vegetation regions, but show more differences in those regions with complex underlying surface (such as at lake water and urban surface sites). Reasons for these differences are discussed after removing cases with significant errors caused by validation scheme. The final validation result shows that MODIS AODs are in good agreement with CE318 with a correlation coefficient of 0.85 and RMS of 0.15. 90% of MODIS cases fall in the range of Δ τ= ± 0.05 ± 0.20 τ, indicating MODIS aerosol retrieval algorithm, aerosol models and surface reflectance estimate are generally suitably reasonable for aerosol retrieval in YRD. However, MODIS AODs show a systemic errors with fitted line of y=0.75. x+. 0.13, indicating underestimation of AOD when aerosol loadings are high. Aerosol models and surface reflectance estimations are dominant sources of MODIS aerosol retrieval errors. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Cai C.,Shanghai Meteorological Bureau | Cai C.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Geng F.,Shanghai Meteorological Bureau | Tie X.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | And 2 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2010

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured from 2007 to 2010 at the center of Shanghai, China. Because VOCs are important precursors for ozone photochemical formation, detailed information of VOC sources needs to be investigated. The results show that the measured VOC concentrations in Shanghai are dominated by alkanes (43%) and aromatics (30%), following by halo-hydrocarbons (14%) and alkenes (6%). Based on the measured VOC concentrations, a receptor model (PMF; positive matrix factorization) coupled with the information related to VOC sources (the distribution of major industrial complex, meteorological conditions, etc.) is applied to identify the major VOC sources in Shanghai. The result shows that seven major VOC sources are identified by the PMF method, including (1) vehicle related source which contributes to 25% of the measured VOC concentrations, (2) solvent based industrial source to 17%, (3) fuel evaporation to 15%, (4) paint solvent usage to 15%, (5) steel related industrial production to 12%, (6) biomass/biofuel burning to 9%, and (7) coal burning to 7%. Furthermore, ozone formation potential related to VOC sources is calculated by the MIR (maximum incremental reactivity) technique. The most significant VOC source for ozone formation potential is solvent based industrial sources (27%), paint solvent usage (24%), vehicle related emissions (17%), steel related industrial productions (14%), fuel evaporations (9%), coal burning (6%), and biomass/biofuel burning (3%). The weekend effect on the VOC concentrations shows that VOC concentrations are generally higher in the weekdays than in the weekends at the sampling site, suggesting that traffic conditions and human activities have important impacts on the VOC emissions in Shanghai. © 2010.

Li L.,Fudan University | Chen J.,Fudan University | Wang L.,Fudan University | Melluki W.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Zhou H.,Shanghai Meteorological Bureau
Atmospheric Research | Year: 2013

This work describes a field measurement of the aerosol optical properties and water-soluble inorganic (WSI) ion concentrations in aerosols at 1h resolution from 2 April to 5 May 2010 in urban Shanghai. The average scattering coefficient at 532nm (αs,532) is 102±75Mm-1, much lower than values of Beijng and Guangzhou although four pollution events occurred during this field campaign. The single scattering albedo (ω) is 0.70 at 532nm, which is considerably low, indicating higher relative abundance of light absorbing soot in Shanghai. The similar patterns of diurnal cycles of αs,532 and NH4+ concentration suggested that formation of secondary inorganic aerosol is one of dominant elements to decide diurnal cycles of optical properties of aerosol in Shanghai. Both αs,532 and absorption coefficient at 532nm (αa,532) have linear relationship with mass concentration of SO42-, NO3-, Cl- and NH4+. The concentration of NH4+ presents best linear relationship with αs,532. The mass scattering cross section is 15.7m2g-1 for SO42-. There is obvious dependence between the aerosol optical properties and the wind directions. The aerosol loading from west is much higher than those from Northeast (NE) and Southeast (SE) due to pollution parcels from Zhejiang and Jiangsu province. The decreasing rate of ω following the increase of αa,532 is highest during NE wind period, followed by that during SE and then West, suggesting a higher mass fraction of soot in aerosol during NE wind. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Cao J.-J.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | Cao J.-J.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Zhu C.-S.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | Tie X.-X.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | And 7 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2013

An intensive investigation of carbonaceous PM2.5 and TSP (total suspended particles) from Pudong (China) was conducted as part of the MIRAGE-Shanghai (Megacities Impact on Regional and Global Environment) experiment in 2009. Data for organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), organic species, including C17 to C40 n-alkanes and 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and stable carbon isotopes OC (δ13COC) and EC (δ13CEC) were used to evaluate the aerosols' temporal variations and identify presumptive sources. High OC/EC ratios indicated a large fraction of secondary organic aerosol (SOA); high char/soot ratios indicated stronger contributions to EC from motor vehicles and coal combustion than biomass burning. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs indicated that much of the SOA was produced via coal combustion. Isotope abundances (δ13COC Combining double low line-24.5 ± 0.8% and δ13CEC Combining double low line-25.1 ± 0.6%) indicated that fossil fuels were the most important source for carbonaceous PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter), with lesser impacts from biomass burning and natural sources. An EC tracer system and isotope mass balance calculations showed that the relative contributions to total carbon from coal combustion, motor vehicle exhaust, and SOA were 41%, 21%, and 31%; other primary sources such as marine, soil and biogenic emissions contributed 7%. Combined analyses of OC and EC, n-alkanes and PAHs, and stable carbon isotopes provide a new way to apportion the sources of carbonaceous particles. © 2013 Author(s).

Geng F.,Shanghai Meteorological Bureau | Tie X.,CAS Institute of Earth Environment | Tie X.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Guenther A.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | And 3 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2011

Ambient surface level concentrations of isoprene (C5H8) were measured in the major forest regions located south of Shanghai, China. Because there is a large coverage of broad-leaved trees in this region, high concentrations of isoprene were measured, ranging from 1 to 6 ppbv. A regional dynamical/chemical model (WRF-Chem) is applied for studying the effect of such high concentrations of isoprene on the ozone production in the city of Shanghai. The evaluation of the model shows that the calculated isoprene concentrations agree with the measured concentrations when the measured isoprene concentrations are lower than 3 ppb, but underestimate the measurements when the measured values are higher than 3 ppb. Isoprene was underestimated only at sampling sites near large bamboo plantations, a high isoprene source, indicating the need to include geospatially resolved bamboo distributions in the biogenic emission model. The assessment of the impact of isoprene on ozone formation suggests that the concentrations of peroxy radicals (RO2) are significantly enhanced due to the oxidation of isoprene, with a maximum of 30 ppt. However, the enhancement of RO2 is confined to the forested regions. Because the concentrations of NOx were low in the forest regions, the ozone production due to the oxidation of isoprene (C5H8 + OH → → RO 2 + NO → → O3) is low (less than 2-3 ppb h -1). The calculation further suggests that the oxidation of isoprene leads to the enhancement of carbonyls (such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) in the regions downwind of the forests, due to continuous oxidation of isoprene in the forest air. As a result, the concentrations of HO2 radical are enhanced, resulting from the photo-disassociation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Because the enhancement of HO2 radical occurs in regions downwind of the forests, the enhancement of ozone production (6-8 ppb h-1) is higher than in the forest region, causing by higher anthropogenic emissions of NOx. This study suggests that the biogenic emissions in the major forests to the south of Shanghai have important impacts on the levels of ozone in the city, mainly due to the carbonyls produced by the continuous oxidation of isoprene in the forest air. © 2011 Author(s).

Friedli H.R.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Arellano Jr. A.F.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Arellano Jr. A.F.,University of Arizona | Geng F.,Shanghai Meteorological Bureau | And 2 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2011

We report on total gaseous mercury (TGM) measurements made in Pudong, Shanghai in August/September 2009. The average TGM was 2.7 ± 1.7 ng mg-3. This represents about 90% of the total atmospheric mercury. This is an underestimate for an annual-mean concentration because the meteorology in September favored predominantly easterly oceanic air, replaced in other seasons by airflow from industrial areas. The observed TGM follows a pattern seen in other cities around the world: a background elevated over mean hemispheric background (1.5 ng m-3), and pollution plumes of different magnitude and duration, interspersed with very sharp spikes of high concentration (60 ng mg-3). The September 2009 Shanghai measurements are lower than those reported for most other Chinese cities and Mexico City, and similar to concentrations found in some Asian and in North American cities. Such comparisons are tenuous because of differences in season and year of the respective measurements. Our results should not be used for regulatory purposes. We find that the observed TGM are most likely coming from coal fired power plants, smelters and industrial sources, based on its high correlation with NOx, SO2, CO and wind directions. © 2011 Author(s).

Yang F.,Fudan University | Chen H.,Fudan University | Du J.,Fudan University | Yang X.,Fudan University | And 3 more authors.
Atmospheric Research | Year: 2012

The composition and size of individual atmospheric particles were measured by aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) in Shanghai for the period December 14-23, 2008. Carbonaceous particles were the dominant aerosol type in terms of number fraction during the entire period. Noticeably, the mixing state of carbonaceous particles showed dramatic changes from fresh elemental carbon or biomass burning particles to aged ones with the addition of secondary components, mostly ammonium nitrate and secondary organic compounds, during heavy haze events. Our real-time single particle data suggest that change in the mixing state played an important role in increasing light extinction of aerosols during haze events in Shanghai. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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