Shanghai Landscape Gardening Research Institute

Shanghai, China

Shanghai Landscape Gardening Research Institute

Shanghai, China
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PubMed | Shanghai Landscape Gardening Research Institute, Murdoch University and CSIRO
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant & cell physiology | Year: 2016

Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) is a valuable oilseed-producing tree that can grow in a variety of conditions without competing for food production, and is a promising biofuel feedstock candidate. The fruits are unique in that they contain both saturated and unsaturated fat present in the tallow and seed layer, respectively. The tallow layer is poorly studied and is considered only as an external fatty deposition secreted from the seed. In this study we show that tallow is in fact a non-seed cellular tissue capable of triglyceride synthesis. Knowledge of lipid synthesis and storage mechanisms in tissues other than seed is limited but essential to generate oil-rich biomass crops. Here, we describe the annotated transcriptome assembly generated from the fruit coat, tallow and seed tissues of Chinese tallow. The final assembly was functionally annotated, allowing for the identification of candidate genes and reconstruction of lipid pathways. A tallow tissue-specific paralog for the transcription factor gene WRINKLED1 (WRI1) and lipid droplet-associated protein genes, distinct from those expressed in seed tissue, were found to be active in tallow, underpinning the mode of oil synthesis and packaging in this tissue. Our data have established an excellent knowledge base that can provide genetic and biochemical insights for engineering non-seed tissues to accumulate large amounts of oil. In addition to the large data set of annotated transcripts, the study also provides gene-based simple sequence repeat and single nucleotide polymorphism markers.


Zhao X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang G.,Shanghai Landscape Gardening Research Institute | Wang Y.,ShenYang Agricultural University | Zhang F.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

A rice introgression line, NIL-SS1, and its recurrent parent, Teqing, were used to investigate the influence of the introgression segment on plant growth. The current research showed NIL-SS1 had an increased flag leaf width, total leaf area, spikelet number per panicle and grain yield, but a decreased photosynthetic rate. The metabolite differences in NIL-SS1 and Teqing at different developmental stages were assessed using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry technology. Significant metabolite differences were observed across the different stages. NIL-SS1 increased the plant leaf nitrogen content, and the greatest differences between NIL-SS1 and Teqing occurred at the booting stage. Compared to Teqing, the metabolic phenotype of NIL-SS1 at the booting stage has closer association with those at the flowering stage. The introgression segment induced more active competition for sugars and organic acids (OAs) from leaves to the growing young spikes, which resulted in more spikelet number per plant (SNP). The results indicated the introgression segment could improve rice grain yield by increasing the SNP and total leaf area per plant, which resulted from the higher plant nitrogen content across growth stages and stronger competition for sugars and OAs of young spikes at the booting stage. © 2015 Zhao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Zhu X.-F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xu Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xu Y.,Shanghai Landscape Gardening Research Institute | Peng D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Crop Protection | Year: 2013

The resistance to bismerthiazol in the Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae population in China has not been clearly determined. Three bismerthiazol-resistant mutants (1-1-1, 2-1-1, 4-1-1) of X. oryzae pv. oryzae were induced on rice plants and the characteristics were compared with their parental strain ZJ173. After 10 subcultures on fresh bismerthiazol-free nutrient agar plates and after being inoculation onto and re-isolation from untreated rice plants two times, the mutants remained pathogenicity on rice plants treated with 300 μg/ml bismerthiazol, indicating that the in vivo-induced bismerthiazol resistance was stable in vivo. The in vitro characteristics of the bismerthiazol-resistant mutants and a wild-type bismerthiazol-sensitive strain (ZJ173) were also compared. The three mutants grew faster than ZJ173 during the logarithmic growth phase but at the same rate during the decline phase. Bismerthiazol had protective and curative activity against strain ZJ173 but not against the three mutants. To evaluate the current degree of bismerthiazol resistance in field populations of X. oryzae pv. oryzae in China, 781 isolates of X. oryzae pv. oryzae were obtained from 1419 leaf samples collected from Yunnan, Sichuan, Jiangsu, Anhui, Hubei, Guangdong, Hainan, and Hunan Provinces in China from 2007 to 2009. The in vivo sensitivity of 505 of the 781 isolates to bismerthiazol was determined by applying them to rice plants treated with 300 μg/ml bismerthiazol and evaluating blast severity. The tested strains were considered resistant, if they showed <70% inhibition relative to strain ZJ173. Of the 505 isolates, 62 were resistant to bismerthiazol. The resistance frequencies among field population ranged from 0 to 21.1%, differed among the provinces, and was 11.2, 20.0 and 10.4% in 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively. Resistance determined i. n vivo was not related to resistance determined in vitro. The in vivo-induced bismerthiazol resistance identified in this study will serve as a base line for further studying bismerthiazol resistance in fields, and the current degree of bismerthiazol resistance in field populations of X. oryzae pv. oryzae in China determined would be useful for the rice growers for control of rice bacterial blight. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Xu Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xu Y.,Shanghai Landscape Gardening Research Institute | Luo Q.-Q.,Shanghai Landscape Gardening Research Institute | Zhou M.-G.,Nanjing Agricultural University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Four streptomycin-resistant isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (YNA7-1, YNA10-2, YNA11-2, and YNA12-2) were examined via PCR amplification for the presence of class 1, class 2, and class 3 integrons and aadA1 and aadA2 genes, which confer resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin. The class 1 integrase gene intI1 and the aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase gene aadA1 were identified in all four resistant isolates but not in 25 sensitive isolates. PCR amplifications showed that 7790-bp, 7162-bp, 7790-bp, and 7240-bp resistance integrons with transposition gene modules (tni module) in 3′ conserved segments existed in YNA7-1, YNA10-2, YNA11-2, and YNA12-2, respectively. Subsequent analysis of sequences indicated that the integrons of YNA7-1 and YNA11-2 carried three gene cassettes in the order {pipe}aacA3{pipe}arr3{pipe}aadA1{pipe}. The integron of YNA10-2 carried only {pipe}arr3{pipe}aadA1{pipe} gene cassettes. The integron of YNA12-2 lacked a 550-bp sequence including part of intI1 but it still carried {pipe}aacA3{pipe}arr3{pipe}aadA1{pipe} gene cassettes. The analysis of inactive mutants and complementation tests confirmed that the aacA3 gene conferred resistance to tobramycin, kanamycin, gentamicin and netilmicin; the arr3 gene conferred resistance to rifampicin; and the aadA1 gene conferred resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin. The resistance phenotypes of the four isolates corresponded with their resistance gene cassettes, except that YNA7-1 and YNA12-2 did not show rifampicin resistance. Sequence comparison revealed that no gene cassette array in GenBank was in the same order as in the integrons of the four resistant isolates in this study and the aadA1, which was identical in the four resistant isolates, showed 99% identity with aadA1 sequences in GenBank. The result of a stability test showed that the resistance phenotype, the aadA1 gene, and the intI1 gene were completely stable in YNA7-1 and YNA12-2 but unstable in YNA10-2 and YNA11-2. To our knowledge, this is the first report of resistance integron in a phytopathogenic bacteria. © 2013 Xu et al.


Xu Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xu Y.,Shanghai Landscape Gardening Research Institute | Zhu X.-F.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhou M.-G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Phytopathology | Year: 2010

Rice leaves with bacterial blight or bacterial leaf streak symptoms were collected in southern China in 2007 and 2008. Five hundred and thirty-four single-colony isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and 827 single-colony isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola were obtained and tested on plates for sensitivity to streptomycin. Four strains (0.75%) of X. oryzae pv. oryzae isolated from the same county of Province Yunnan were resistant to streptomycin, and the resistance factor (the ratio of the mean median effective concentration inhibiting growth of resistant isolates to that of sensitive isolates) was approximately 226. The resistant isolate also showed streptomycin resistance in vivo. In addition to resistant isolates, isolates of less sensitivity were also present in the population of X. oryzae pv. oryzae from Province Yunnan. However, no isolates with decreased streptomycin-sensitivity were obtained from the population of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. Mutations in the rpsL (encoding S12 protein) and rrs genes (encoding 16S rRNA) and the presence of the strA gene accounting for streptomycin resistance in other phytopathogens or animal and human pathogenic bacteria were examined on sensitive and resistant strains of X. oryzae pv. oryzae by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing. Neither the presence of the strA gene nor mutations in the rpsL or rrs were found, suggesting that different resistance mechanisms are involved in the resistant isolates of X. oryzae pv. oryzae. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


PubMed | China University of Mining and Technology, ShenYang Agricultural University, Shanghai Landscape Gardening Research Institute and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

A rice introgression line, NIL-SS1, and its recurrent parent, Teqing, were used to investigate the influence of the introgression segment on plant growth. The current research showed NIL-SS1 had an increased flag leaf width, total leaf area, spikelet number per panicle and grain yield, but a decreased photosynthetic rate. The metabolite differences in NIL-SS1 and Teqing at different developmental stages were assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technology. Significant metabolite differences were observed across the different stages. NIL-SS1 increased the plant leaf nitrogen content, and the greatest differences between NIL-SS1 and Teqing occurred at the booting stage. Compared to Teqing, the metabolic phenotype of NIL-SS1 at the booting stage has closer association with those at the flowering stage. The introgression segment induced more active competition for sugars and organic acids (OAs) from leaves to the growing young spikes, which resulted in more spikelet number per plant (SNP). The results indicated the introgression segment could improve rice grain yield by increasing the SNP and total leaf area per plant, which resulted from the higher plant nitrogen content across growth stages and stronger competition for sugars and OAs of young spikes at the booting stage.


Ju R.-T.,Shanghai Landscape Gardening Research Institute | Ju R.-T.,Fudan University | Wei H.-P.,Anqing Teachers College | Wang F.,Shanghai Landscape Gardening Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Cell Stress and Chaperones | Year: 2014

High temperature often induces oxidative stress and antioxidant response in insects. This phenomenon has been well documented under controlled laboratory conditions, but whether it happens under fluctuating field conditions is largely unknown. In this study, we used an invasive lace bug (Corythucha ciliata) as a model species to compare the effects of controlled thermal treatments (2 h at 33-43°C with 2 °C intervals in the laboratory) and naturally fluctuating thermal conditions (08:00-14:00 at 2-h intervals (29.7-37.2°C) on a hot summer day in a field in Shanghai, China) on lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA) was the marker) and anaerobic respiration (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was the marker), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione reductase (GR). The results show that MDA concentration increased significantly in response to heat stresses with similar trend in the laboratory and field. LDH activities did not significantly vary across temperatures in the laboratory-exposed individuals, but they significantly increased by rising temperature in the field. The activities or concentrations of SOD, CAT, GSH, and GR all significantly increased with increasing temperature in the two populations. These findings indicate that high temperature induces oxidative stress, resulting in high anaerobic respiration and antioxidant defenses in C. ciliata under both the laboratory and field conditions, which likely provide a defense mechanism against oxidative damage due to the accumulation of ROS. © 2013 Cell Stress Society International.


Ju R.-T.,Fudan University | Ju R.-T.,Shanghai Landscape Gardening Research Institute | Chen Y.-Y.,Fudan University | Gao L.,Shanghai Landscape Gardening Research Institute | Li B.,Fudan University
Biological Invasions | Year: 2016

Plant invasions can alter the trophic interactions of invaded ecosystems because of phenological differences between native and invasive plants that may affect the population dynamics and diets of indigenous arthropod herbivores. This issue, however, has seldom been studied. We here report on how abundance and diet of a local tussock moth (Laelia coenosa) are affected by the invasive plant Spartinaalterniflora in a Chinese salt marsh previously dominated by the moth’s native host plant, Phragmites australis. We monitored the population dynamics of L. coenosa from four types of hosts: (1) Phragmites in its monoculture, (2) Spartina in its monoculture, and either (3) Phragmites, or (4) Spartina in Phragmites–Spartina mixtures. Additionally, we tested the diet of L. coenosa from the mixtures with isotope analysis. We found that the larval densities of L. coenosa were similar on Spartina and Phragmites in their respective monocultures and mixtures in summer but were greater on Spartina than on Phragmites in autumn. Stable isotope analysis showed that Spartina was a food resource for L. coenosa. The change in the insect’s population dynamics associated with Spartina invasion might be caused by phenological differences between Spartina and Phragmites in that Spartina has a longer growing season than Phragmites. Our study indicates that the extended phenology of Spartina invasion has altered the abundance and diet of the indigenous herbivorous insect (L. coenosa) previously feeding on native Phragmites. We predict such alternation may increase the consuming pressure to native plants via apparent competition, and thereby may facilitate the further invasion of the exotic plants in the salt marsh. © 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


PubMed | Fudan University and Shanghai Landscape Gardening Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

Although increases in mean temperature (MT) and extreme high temperature (EHT) can greatly affect population dynamics of insects under global warming, how concurrent changes in both MT and EHT affect invasive species is largely unknown. We used four thermal regimes to simulate the increases in summer temperature and compared their effects on the life-history traits of three geographical populations (Chongqing, Wuhan and Shanghai) of an invasive insect, Corythucha ciliata, in China. The four thermal regimes were control (i.e., natural or ambient), an increase in MT (IMT), an increase in EHT, and a combination of IMT+EHT. We found that the three warming regimes significantly increased the developmental rate but did not affect the survival, sex ratio, longevity, or fecundity of C. ciliata. Consequently, the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was enhanced and the number of days required for population doubling (t) was reduced by the warming regimes. The demographic parameters did not significantly differ among the three populations. These results indicate that population size of C. ciliata may be enhanced by increases in both temperature means and extremes. The increases in summer temperature associated with climate change, therefore, would likely facilitate population outbreaks of some thermophilic invasive insects.


Wang C.,East China Normal University | Wang C.,Shanghai Landscape Gardening Research Institute | Yin L.-J.,Shanghai Landscape Gardening Research Institute | Zhu R.-L.,East China Normal University
Bryologist | Year: 2014

Leucobryum juniperoideum (Brid.) Müll.Hal., a common moss in eastern China, grows in three typical habitats in the Tianmu Mountain National Nature Reserve, Zhejiang, China. This study aims to reveal the role of soil nitrogen and phosphorus in the distribution of Leucobryum juniperoideum by investigating soil conditions in the Tianmu Mountain National Nature Reserve. Epigeic populations of this bryophyte were found only in areas with a Moso bamboo forest, while the epixylous populations always occurred in areas with Chinese fir forest and Chinese cedar forest, and the epilithic populations occurred in all three habitat types. Analyses showed that nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in the soils of Chinese fir forests and Chinese cedar forests were remarkably higher than those of Moso bamboo forests. In the laboratory, experiments showed that the growth of L. juniperoideum was remarkably reduced by N additions of 0.1 mol/L over a period of six months, while growth was increased by P additions of up to 0.1 mol/L over six months. In addition, physiological responses to N indicated that the mosses were sensitive to N additions, but not to additions of P. Also, high concentrations of N (200 mg/L) can significantly reduce the germination rates and can delay the development of early germination stages and stable germination stages for 2 to 4 days. Phosphorus additions did not affect the germination rate, but did cause delays in the development of germination stages. The combination of N and P caused remarkable declines in the germination rate and delayed the germinating time. Taken together, our results demonstrate that soil N is the primary determinant in limiting the distribution of L. juniperoideum populations. © The American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.

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