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Zhang Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Niu Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Luo Y.,University of Maryland University College | Ge M.,Shanghai Laiyi Center for Biopharmaceutical R and D | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized with sodium caseinate (SC) and chitosan hydrochloride (CHC) were prepared and characterized. The SC stabilized nanoparticles had well-defined size range and negatively charged surface. Due to the presence of SC, the stabilized zein nanoparticles showed a shift of isoelectric point from 6.18 to 5.05, and had a desirable redispersibility in water at neutral pH after lyophilization. Coating with CHC onto the SC stabilized zein nanoparticles resulted in increased particle size, reversal of zeta potential value from negative to positive, and improved encapsulation efficiency. Both thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles and SC stabilized zein nanoparticles had a spherical shape and smooth surface, while the surfaces of CHC-SC stabilized zein nanoparticles seemed rough and had some clumps. Encapsulated thymol was more effective in suppressing gram-positive bacterium than un-encapsulated thymol for a longer time period. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Yang Z.,Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry | Ge M.,Shanghai Laiyi Center for Biopharmaceutical R and D | Yin Y.,Shanghai Laiyi Center for Biopharmaceutical R and D | Chen Y.,Shanghai Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Chemistry and Biodiversity | Year: 2012

A novel phytotoxic nonenolide, (6S,7R,9R)-6,7-dihydroxy-9-propylnon-4-eno- 9-lactone (1), was isolated from solid cultures of the endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. HCCB03520, together with three known compounds, cytochalasin H (2), cytochalasin N (3), and epoxycytochalasin H (4). The structures of these compounds were elucidated through spectroscopic analysis, and the absolute configurations were determined by CD spectroscopy. Phytotoxic activities of compounds 1-4 were also investigated. Compound 1 showed phytotoxic activity on germination and radicle growth of Medicago sativa, Trifolium hybridum, and Buchloe dactyloides. © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

Xu L.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xu L.,Shanghai Laiyi Center for Biopharmaceutical R and D | Huang H.,CAS Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology | Wei W.,Shanghai Laiyi Center for Biopharmaceutical R and D | And 20 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2014

Background: Amycolatopsis orientalis is the type species of the genus and its industrial strain HCCB10007, derived from ATCC 43491, has been used for large-scale production of the vital antibiotic vancomycin. However, to date, neither the complete genomic sequence of this species nor a systemic characterization of the vancomycin biosynthesis cluster (vcm) has been reported. With only the whole genome sequence of Amycolatopsis mediterranei available, additional complete genomes of other species may facilitate intra-generic comparative analysis of the genus.Results: The complete genome of A. orientalis HCCB10007 comprises an 8,948,591-bp circular chromosome and a 33,499-bp dissociated plasmid. In total, 8,121 protein-coding sequences were predicted, and the species-specific genomic features of A. orientalis were analyzed in comparison with that of A. mediterranei. The common characteristics of Amycolatopsis genomes were revealed via intra- and inter-generic comparative genomic analyses within the domain of actinomycetes, and led directly to the development of sequence-based Amycolatopsis molecular chemotaxonomic characteristics (MCCs). The chromosomal core/quasi-core and non-core configurations of the A. orientalis and the A. mediterranei genome were analyzed reciprocally, with respect to further understanding both the discriminable criteria and the evolutionary implementation. In addition, 26 gene clusters related to secondary metabolism, including the 64-kb vcm cluster, were identified in the genome. Employing a customized PCR-targeting-based mutagenesis system along with the biochemical identification of vancomycin variants produced by the mutants, we were able to experimentally characterize a halogenase, a methyltransferase and two glycosyltransferases encoded in the vcm cluster. The broad substrate spectra characteristics of these modification enzymes were inferred.Conclusions: This study not only extended the genetic knowledge of the genus Amycolatopsis and the biochemical knowledge of vcm-related post-assembly tailoring enzymes, but also developed methodology useful for in vivo studies in A. orientalis, which has been widely considered as a barrier in this field. © 2014 Xu et al.

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