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Feng Y.-F.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | Wang L.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | Zhang Y.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | Li X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 4 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2013

Clinical evidence indicates diabetes as a majorrisk factor for titaniumimplant treatment with high failure rates and poor osteointegration, but the underlying mechanism involved remains elusive.We hypothesize that reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction may contribute to the impaired osteogenesis of porous titanium implants (pTi) under diabetic conditions. To test this hypothesis, we culturedprimary rabbit osteoblasts onto pTi and studied the cellular performance when subjected to normal serum (NS), diabetic serum (DS), DS + NAC (a potent ROS inhibitor) and NS + H2O2(an oxidant).In-vivo performance of pTi was investigated by transplanting them intofemoral condyledefects of diabetic rabbits, which received vehicle or NAC treatment respectively.Results showed that diabetic conditions induced significant cellular apoptosis, depressedosteoblast function evidenced by impairedcell attachment and morphology, decreased cell proliferation anddifferentiation, andcompromised in-vivo osteogenesis ofpTi, while cellular ROSgeneration was increased derived from mitochondrial dysfunction. Scavenging ROS with NAC markedly attenuated cell apoptosis and osteoblast dysfunction, and improved bone ingrowth within pTi. Furthermore, treatment withH2O2 exerted similar adverse effect on cellular behavior as diabetes. This study furthers our knowledge on the potential role of ROS overproduction in the diabetes-induced impaired osteogenesis of titanium implants, and indicates anti-oxidative treatment as a promising strategy to promote the treatment efficacy of pTi in diabetic patients. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Li P.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Yin Z.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering | Dou X.-Q.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhou G.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering | Feng C.-L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2014

A convenient three-dimensional cell culture was developed by employing high swelling property of hybrid hydrogels coassembled from C2-phenyl- based supermolecular gelators and sodium hyaluronate. Imaging and spectroscopic analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirm that the hybrid gelators can self-assemble into nanofibrous hydrogel. The high swelling property of dried gel ensures cell migration and proliferation inside bulk of the hydrogels, which provides a facial method to study disease models, the effect of drug dosages, and tissue culture in vitro. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Ding C.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Qiao Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Jiang W.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering | Li H.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 2 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2013

Tissue engineering is considered as a promising approach for the regeneration of biological joint theoretically and thus provides a potential treatment option for advanced osteoarthritis. However, no significant progresses so far have been made in regenerating biological joint. In this study, a biphasic scaffold, which was consisted of polylactic acid-coated polyglycolic acid (PGA/PLA) scaffold and poly-e{open}-caprolactone/hydroxyapatite (PCL/HA) scaffold, was designed and used for regeneration of goat femoral head. The content of PLA and HA was optimized to a proper ratio, thus the scaffolds could achieve appropriate stiffness which was more conducive to articular cartilage and bone regeneration respectively. Furthermore, computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology was employed to fabricate the biphasic scaffolds into the desired shape and structure. The biphasic scaffolds with fine cell biocompatibility matched perfectly. Chondrocytes and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were seeded into the scaffolds for cartilage and bone regeneration respectively. After 10 weeks of implantation in nude mice subcutaneously, the cell-scaffold constructs successfully regenerated goat femoral heads. The regenerated femoral heads presented a precise appearance in shape and size similar to that of native goat femoral heads with a smooth, continuous, avascular, and homogeneous cartilage layer on the surface and stiff bone-like tissue in the microchannels of PCL/HA scaffold. Additionally, histological examination of the regenerated cartilage and bone showed typical histological structures and biophysical properties similar to that of native ones with specific matrix deposition and a well-integrated osteochondral interface. The strategy established in the study provides a promising approach for regenerating a biological joint which could be used to reconstruct the impaired joint. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Zheng R.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering | Duan H.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering | Xue J.,Wenzhou Medical College | Liu Y.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering | And 8 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2014

Scaffolds play an important role in directing three-dimensional (3-D) cartilage regeneration. Our recent study reported the potential advantages of electrospun gelatin/polycaprolactone (GT/PCL) membranes in regenerating 3-D cartilage. However, it is still unknown whether the changes of GT/PCL ratio have significant influence on 3-D cartilage regeneration. To address this issue, the current study prepared three kinds of electrospun membranes with different GT/PCL ratios (70:30, 50:50, 30:70). Adhesion and proliferation of chondrocytes on the membranes were examined to evaluate biocompatibility of the membranes. Cartilage with different 3-D shapes was engineered to further evaluate the influences of GT/PCL ratio on cartilage regeneration. The current results demonstrated that all the membranes with different GT/PCL ratios presented good biocompatibility with chondrocytes. Nevertheless, the high PCL content in the membranes significantly hampered early 3-D cartilage formation at 3 weeks invivo. Unexpectedly, at 12 weeks, all the cylinder-shaped constructs formed mature cartilage-like tissue with no statistical differences among groups. To our surprise, ear-shaped cartilage regeneration obtained quite different results again: the high PCL content completely disrupted cartilage regeneration even at 12 weeks, and only the least PCL content group formed homogeneous and continuous cartilage with a satisfactory shape and elasticity similar to human ear. All these results indicated that the high PCL content was unfavorable for 3-D cartilage regeneration, especially for the cartilage with a complicated shape, and that GT/PCL 70:30 might be a relatively suitable ratio for ear-shaped cartilage regeneration. The research models established in the current study provide detailed information for cartilage and other tissue regeneration based on electrospun GT/PCL membranes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Deng D.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering | Wang W.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering | Wang B.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering | Zhang P.,Donghua University | And 4 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2014

Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) are an important cell source for tissue regeneration and have been demonstrated the potential of tenogenic differentiation in vitro. This study explored the feasibility of using ASCs for engineered tendon repair in vivo in a rabbit Achilles tendon model. Total 30 rabbits were involved in this study. A composite tendon scaffold composed of an inner part of polyglycolic acid (PGA) unwoven fibers and an outer part of a net knitted with PGA/PLA (polylactic acid) fibers was used to provide mechanical strength. Autologous ASCs were harvested from nuchal subcutaneous adipose tissues and in vitro expanded. The expanded ASCs were harvested and resuspended in culture medium and evenly seeded onto the scaffold in the experimental group, whereas cell-free scaffolds served as the control group. The constructs of both groups were cultured inside a bioreactor under dynamic stretch for 5 weeks. In each of 30 rabbits, a 2 cm defect was created on right side of Achilles tendon followed by the transplantation of a 3 cm cell-seeded scaffold in the experimental group of 15 rabbits, or by the transplantation of a 3 cm cell-free scaffold in the control group of 15 rabbits. Animals were sacrificed at 12, 21 and 45 weeks post-surgery for gross view, histology, and mechanical analysis. The results showed that short term in vitro culture enabled ASCs to produce matrix on the PGA fibers and the constructs showed tensile strength around 50 MPa in both groups (p > 0.05). With the increase of implantation time, cell-seeded constructs gradually form neo-tendon and became more mature at 45 weeks with histological structure similar to that of native tendon and with the presence of bipolar pattern and D-periodic structure of formed collagen fibrils. Additionally, both collagen fibril diameters and tensile strength increased continuously with significant difference among different time points (p < 0.05). In contrast, cell-free constructs failed to form good quality tendon tissue with fibril structure observable only at 45 weeks. There were significant differences in both collagen fibril diameter and tensile strength between two groups at all examined time points (p < 0.05). The results of this study support that ASCs are likely to be a potential cell source for in vivo tendon engineering and regeneration. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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