Shanghai Key Laboratory of Peripheral Nerve and Microsurgery

Shanghai, China

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Peripheral Nerve and Microsurgery

Shanghai, China
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Pan F.,Fudan University | Pan F.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Peripheral Nerve and Microsurgery | Wei H.-F.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Chen L.,Fudan University | And 3 more authors.
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2012

Clinically, contralateral C7 transfer is used for nerve reconstruction in brachial plexus injuries. Postoperatively, synchronous motions at the donor limb are noteworthy. This study studied if different recipient nerves influenced transhemispheric functional reorganization of motor cortex after this procedure. 90 young rats with total root avulsion of the brachial plexus were divided into groups 1-3 of contralateral C7 transfer to anterior division of the upper trunk, to both the musculocutaneous and median nerves, and to the median nerve, respectively. After reinnervation of target muscles, number of sites for forelimb representations in bilateral motor cortices was determined by intracortical microstimulation at 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively. At nine months, transhemispheric reorganization of nerves neurotized by contralateral C7 was fulfilled in four of six rats in group 1, one of six in group 2 and none in group 3, respectively; at 12 months, that was fulfilled in five of six in group 1, four of six in groups 2 and 3, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that rate of fulfilled transhemispheric reorganization in group 1 was 12.19 times that in group 3 (95% CI 0.006-0.651, p= 0.032). At 12 months, number of sites for hindlimb representations which had encroached upon original forelimb representations on the uninjured side was statistically more in group 3 than in group 2 (t= 9.5, p<. 0.0001). It is concluded that contralateral C7 transfer to upper trunk or to both the musculocutaneous and median nerves induces faster transhemispheric functional reorganization of motor cortex than that to median nerve alone in rats. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Wu P.,Mayo Medical School | Wu P.,Fudan University | Spinner R.J.,Mayo Medical School | Gu Y.,Fudan University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience Methods | Year: 2013

Peripheral nerve reconstruction is seldom done in the acute phase of nerve injury due to concomitant injuries and the uncertainty of the extent of nerve damage. A proper model that mimics true clinical scenarios is critical but lacking. The aim of this study is to develop a standardized, delayed sciatic nerve repair model in rats and validate the feasibility of direct secondary neurrorraphy after various delay intervals. Immediately or 1, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks after sciatic nerve transection, nerve repair was carried out. A successful tension-free direct neurorraphy (TFDN) was defined when the gap was shorter than 4.0. mm and the stumps could be reapproximated with 10-0 stitches without detachment. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) was recorded postoperatively. Gaps between the two nerve stumps ranged from 0 to 9. mm, the average being 1.36, 2.85, 3.43, 3.83 and 6.4. mm in rats with 1, 4, 6, 8 and 12 week delay, respectively. The rate of successful TFDN was 78% overall. CMAP values of 1 and 4 week delay groups were not different from the immediate repair group, whereas CMAP amplitudes of 6, 8 and 12 week delay groups were significantly lower. A novel, standardized delayed nerve repair model is established. For this model to be sensitive, the interval between nerve injury and secondary repair should be at least over 4 weeks. Thereafter the longer the delay, the more challenging the model is for nerve regeneration. The choice of delay intervals can be tailored to meet specific requirements in future studies. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Wu P.,Mayo Medical School | Wu P.,Fudan University | Wu P.,Zhejiang University | Chawla A.,Mayo Medical School | And 6 more authors.
Neural Regeneration Research | Year: 2014

The neuromuscular junction becomes progressively less receptive to regenerating axons if nerve repair is delayed for a long period of time. It is difficult to ascertain the denervated muscle’s residual receptivity by time alone. Other sensitive markers that closely correlate with the extent of denervation should be found. After a denervated muscle develops a fibrillation potential, muscle fiber conduction velocity, muscle fiber diameter, muscle wet weight, and maximal isometric force all decrease; remodeling increases neuromuscular junction fragmentation and plantar area, and expression of myogenesis-related genes is initially up-regulated and then down-regulated. All these changes correlate with both the time course and degree of denervation. The nature and time course of these denervation changes in muscle are reviewed from the literature to explore their roles in assessing both the degree of detrimental changes and the potential success of a nerve repair. Fibrillation potential amplitude, muscle fiber conduction velocity, muscle fiber diameter, mRNA expression levels of myogenic regulatory factors and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor could all reflect the severity and length of denervation and the receptiveness of denervated muscle to regenerating axons, which could possibly offer an important clue for surgical choices and predict the outcomes of delayed nerve repair. © 2014 Editorial Board of Neural Regeneration Research. All rights reserved.


Zhang J.,Kunming Medical University | Chen L.,Fudan University | Chen L.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Peripheral Nerve and Microsurgery | Gu Y.-D.,Fudan University | Gu Y.-D.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Peripheral Nerve and Microsurgery
World Neurosurgery | Year: 2017

Objective Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI), paired-immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), and cluster of differentiation 3ζ (CD3ζ) negatively regulate neuronal plasticity in developing and adult brains. The aim of this study was to evaluate expressive changes of these factors in motor cortical representations of the brachial plexus (MCRBP) after total brachial plexus root avulsion (tBPRA). Methods A total of 45 rats were randomly and equally divided into 3 groups for evaluating mRNA and protein expression levels of MHCI, PirB, and CD3ζ: 7 days, 3 months, and control. In the 7-day and 3-month groups, expressions were examined at 7 days and 3 months, respectively, after left tBPRA. In the control group, the brachial plexus was uninjured. Three rats from each group were used for examining expressions of MHCI, PirB, and CD3ζ proteins by immunofluorescence labeling, 6 rats for quantification of MHCI, PirB, and CD3ζ mRNAs by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the remaining 6 animals for quantification of MHCI, PirB, and CD3ζ proteins by Western blotting. Results In the original MCRBP, mRNA and protein expression levels of MHCI, PirB, and CD3ζ were down-regulated 7 days postinjury compared with control (P < 0.01). Interestingly, mRNA and protein expression levels of these factors were up-regulated at 3 months compared with 7 days (P < 0.01), excepting PirB protein, whose expression was not increasing (P > 0.05). Recovery of protein expressions were initiated from near the border region of the original MCRBP. Conclusions MHCI, PirB, and CD3ζ may participate in motor cortical reorganization after tBPRA. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.


Zhang J.,Fudan University | Zhang J.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Peripheral Nerve and Microsurgery | Chen L.,Fudan University | Chen L.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Peripheral Nerve and Microsurgery | And 2 more authors.
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2015

Brachial plexus injuries induce corresponding cortical representations to be occupied by adjacent cortices. The purpose of this study was to clarify if contralateral homologous motor regions of adjacent cortices influence occupation of deafferented motor cortex. 36 rats were divided into 3 groups of 12 each. In group 1, total brachial plexus root avulsion (tBPRA) was made on the left side. In group 2, rats underwent left tBPRA combined with corpus callosum transection (CCX). In group 3, only CCX was performed. 6 rats in each group were used for intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) to map representations of motor cortex in the right hemisphere at 7 days and the other 6 rats, at 3 months. 18 more rats without any operation underwent ICMS, with 6 each taken to serve as normal control for motor cortical representations' changes caused by different surgery. Results showed that in groups 1 and 2, sites for motor cortical representations of vibrissae, of neck and of the hindlimb was statistically more than that of control, respectively, and statistically more sites were found at 3 months than at 7 days, respectively. At the two time points, sites for vibrissa cortices and that for the hindlimb were statistically more in group 2 than in group 1, respectively. CCX alone did not induce change of site number for motor cortical representations. We conclude that after tBPRA, contralateral homologous motor cortices may, to some extent, prevent neighboring cortices from encroachment on motor cortical representations of the brachial plexus. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Wu J.-X.,Fudan University | Wu J.-X.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Peripheral Nerve and Microsurgery | Chen L.,Fudan University | Chen L.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Peripheral Nerve and Microsurgery | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility | Year: 2013

There are no biological marks to indicate if denervated muscle atrophy after nerve injury is irreversible. Clinically in obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP), atrophy of denervated intrinsic musculature of the hand is much faster to irreversible than that of denervated muscles of the arm. 64 pup rats whose C5C6 had been divided and C7C8T1 avulsed, were divided equally into the reconstruction and control groups. The former had subgroups R1, R5, R10, R15 where the ulnar and musculocutaneous nerves were reconstructed one, five, ten and 15 weeks respectively after injury and efficacy was evaluated 12 weeks later. The latter had C1, C5, C10, C15 subgroups where denervated muscles of the two nerves were assessed one, five, ten and 15 weeks after injury. Results of average cross-sectional area of the muscle fiber for intrinsic musculature of the forepaw showed that the R5, R10, R15 subgroups were not statistically superior to the C5, C10, C15 ones, respectively, though R1 was; those for biceps indicated, however, that the R1, R5, R10 subgroups were better than the C1, C5, C10 ones, respectively, though R15 was not. In the reconstruction subgroups regenerative nerve fibers in each nerve were no less than 53 percent of those on the control side, while number of motor end plates was statistically less in subgroups with irreversible muscle atrophy. We conclude that rat model of OBPP is suitable for simulating clinical appearance of atrophy of denervated intrinsic musculature of the hand being faster than that of denervated muscles of the arm. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Rui J.,Mayo Medical School | Rui J.,Fudan University | Runge M.B.,Mayo Medical School | Spinner R.J.,Mayo Medical School | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Plastic Surgery | Year: 2014

Background: Video-assisted gait kinetics analysis has been a sensitive method to assess rat sciatic nerve function after injury and repair. However, in conduit repair of sciatic nerve defects, previously reported kinematic measurements failed to be a sensitive indicator because of the inferior recovery and inevitable joint contracture.Objective: This study aimed to explore the role of physiotherapy in mitigating joint contracture and to seek motion analysis indices that can sensitively ref lect motor function.Methods: Data were collected from 26 rats that underwent sciatic nerve transection and conduit repair. Regular postoperative physiotherapy was applied. Parameters regarding step length, phase duration, and ankle angle were acquired and analyzed from video recording of gait kinetics preoperatively and at regular postoperative intervals.Results: Stride length ratio (step length of uninjured foot/step length of injured foot), percent swing of the normal paw (percentage of the total stride duration when the uninjured paw is in the air), propulsion angle (toe-off angle subtracted by midstance angle), and clearance angle (ankle angle change from toe off to midswing) decreased postoperatively comparing with baseline values. The gradual recovery of these measurements had a strong correlation with the postYnerve repair time course.Conclusions: Ankle joint contracture persisted despite rigorous physiotherapy. Parameters acquired from a 2-dimensional motion analysis system, that is, stride length ratio, percent swing of the normal paw, propulsion angle, and clearance angle, could sensitively ref lect nerve function impairment and recovery in the rat sciatic nerve conduit repair model despite the existence of joint contractures. Copyright © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Zhang C.-G.,Fudan University | Zhang C.-G.,Key Laboratory of Hand Reconstruction | Zhang C.-G.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Peripheral Nerve and Microsurgery | Gu Y.-D.,Fudan University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury | Year: 2011

Contralateral C7 nerve transfer has been used in treating brachial plexus avulsion injury since 1986. During the past two and half decades, much has been achieved, yet more needs to be explored. In this review article, the indications, technical details, outcome and pitfalls of this technique are summarized. © 2011 Zhang and Gu; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Liu Y.,Fudan University | Liu Y.,Key Laboratory of Hand Reconstruction | Liu Y.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Peripheral Nerve and Microsurgery | Lao J.,Fudan University | And 5 more authors.
Injury | Year: 2013

Background: The treatment of global brachial plexus avulsion is a demanding field of hand and upper extremity surgery. The recent development of functional and quality-of-life (QOL) assessment tools has improved quantifying these functional outcomes after surgery. Objective: We sought to combine Medical Research Council (MRC) grading with the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaires and Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) for pain to evaluate the functional outcome of patients who suffered complete brachial plexus avulsion before and after nerve transfers. Methods: The author carried out a retrospective review of 37 patients with global avulsion of the brachial plexus between 2000 and 2007. All of them underwent nerve transfers in Hua Shan Hospital in Shanghai. They were followed up for over 3 years for physical examination and responding to the questionnaires of DASH, NRS, as well as the satisfaction with the surgery. Results: The mean time to surgery was less than 6 months and the mean follow-up period was 4.59 years (range: 3-9 years). The effective motor recovery rate was 54%, 86%, 46% and 43%, respectively, in supraspinatus, biceps, triceps and finger flexor. Patients who underwent nerve transfers scored consistently better on the DASH score and NRS score than those before surgery. There was also a significant correlation between the change in NRS scores and patient satisfaction. Conclusion: This study validated the effect of nerve transfers for global brachial plexus avulsions from objective MRC grading combining with patients' self-assessments. Neurolysis after neurotisations correlated positively with functional outcomes. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Gao K.,Fudan University | Gao K.,Key Laboratory of Hand Reconstruction | Gao K.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Peripheral Nerve and Microsurgery | Lao J.,Fudan University | And 8 more authors.
Microsurgery | Year: 2013

The treatment of total brachial plexus avulsion injury is difficult with unfavorable prognosis. This report presents our experience on the contralateral C7 (CC7) nerve root transfer to neurotize two recipient nerves in the patients with total BPAI. Twenty-two patients underwent CC7 transfer to two target nerves in the injured upper limb. The patients' ages ranged from 13 to 48 years. The entire CC7 was transferred to pedicled ulnar nerve in the first stage. The interval between trauma and surgery ranged from 1 to 13 months. The ulnar nerve was transferred to recipients (median nerve and biceps branch or median nerve and triceps branch) at 2-13 months after first operation. The motor recovery of wrist and finger flexor to M3 or greater was achieved in 68.2% of patients, the sensory recovery of median nerve area recovered to S3 or greater in 45.5% of patients. The functional recovery of elbow flexor to M3 or greater was achieved in 66.7% of patients with repair of biceps branch and 20% of patients with repair of the triceps branch (P < 0.05). There were no statistical differences in median nerve function recovery at comparisons of the age younger and older than 20-years-old and the intervals between trauma and surgery. In conclusion, the use of CC7 transfer for repair two recipient nerves might be an option for treatment of total BPAI. The functional recovery of the repaired biceps branch appeared to be better than that of the triceps branch. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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