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Cai W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Cai W.,Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research | Cai W.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care | Year: 2014

Purpose of review: This review is to explore the childhood nutrition and health in relation to socioeconomic changes in transitional countries, and to describe the good experiences and policies in these countries to combat childhood nutritional challenges. RECENT FINDINGS: Double burden of malnutrition - the coexistence of under-nutrition and over-nutrition in the same population - is a prominent public health concern in transitional countries. With rapid industrialization, these countries are facing a growing epidemic of overweight/obesity in children and adolescents. The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity is a likely consequence of behavioral changes, and accompanied with an increasing incidence of noncommunicable chronic diseases. Although remarkable improvement of childhood nutrition was achieved, the stunting growth and micronutrient deficiency remain to be child health issues in transitional countries. SUMMARY: The social transition caused a broad range of nutrition-associated problems. Previous successful experiences indicated that if appropriate action is undertaken, the child nutritional problems accompanied with economic transition could be controlled to some extent. However, greater efforts are needed to improve the status of childhood nutrition in transitional countries. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Wang B.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Li W.,Novartis | Guo K.,Fudan University | Xiao Y.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | And 2 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2012

MicroRNAs, as a kind of negative gene regulators, were demonstrated to be involved in many types of diseases. In this study, we found that transforming growth factor-beta 1 could induce the expression of miR-181a and miR-181b, and miR-181b increased in the much higher folds than miR-181a. Because of the important role of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in HSC activation and liver cirrhosis, we investigate the effect of miR-181a and miR-181b on HSC proliferation. The results showed that miR-181b could promote HSC-T6 cell proliferation by regulating cell cycle. Further study showed p27, the cell cycle regulator, was the direct target of miR-181b in HSC-T6 cell. But miR-181a had no effects on HSC-T6 cell proliferation and cell cycle, and did not target p27. Interestingly, miR-181b is elevated significantly in serum of liver cirrhosis cases comparing to that of normal persons, whereas miR-181a expression was in the similar level with that of normal persons. These results suggested that miR-181b could be induced by TGF-β1 and promote the growth of HSCs by directly targeting p27. The elevation of miR-181b in serum suggested that it may be potential diagnostic biomarkers for cirrhosis. As for miR-181a, it may work in TGF-β1 pathway by a currently unknown mechanism. © 2012 .

Chen Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Chen Y.,Shanghai Institute of Pediatric Research | Chen Y.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Jie W.,Shanghai Institute of Pediatric Research | And 6 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression | Year: 2012

Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), the first identified histone demethylase, was belonged to the superfamily of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent amine oxidases. LSD1 specifically demethylates mono or dimethylated dimethylated histone H3 lysine4 (H3K4) and H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) via a redox process. Recently evidences showed that LSD1 played an important role in a broad spectrum of biological processes, including cell proliferation, adipogenesis, spermatogenesis, chromosome segregation and embryonic development. Furthermore, LSD1 also could promote progress of tumor by inhibiting the tumor suppressor activity of p53. To date, as a potential drug for discovering anti-tumor drugs, the medical significance of LSD1 inhibitors have been greatly appreciated. Here, we reviewed the remarkable progress being made in understanding of LSD1, mainly on its structure, basic function and medical application in tumor therapy. © 2011 Begell House, Inc.

Qian L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Qian L.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Wang B.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Tang N.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 3 more authors.
Early Human Development | Year: 2012

The variability of breast-milk zinc concentration is high among breastfeeding women, and it is known to be independent of dietary zinc intake. As a result, transient neonatal zinc deficiency is not rare in the breastfed infants due to low milk zinc concentration in their breastfeeding mothers. Up to now, SLC30A2 has been documented the only candidate gene showing correlation with human milk zinc trait. In this study, 750 breastfeeding women were recruited and 10. ml foremilk was collected on 42nd postpartum day. The milk zinc concentration was measured, and genomic DNA was isolated from breast-milk. Direct sequencing and Taqman assay were used to identify the SLC30A2 polymorphisms associated with low-milk-zinc. Subsequently, the factors associated with breast-milk zinc were investigated using regression model. The correlation study showed that SLC30A2/-697G > T and SLC30A2/1031A > G polymorphisms were associated with low-milk-zinc in our subjects. These two polymorphisms explained 3.23% of total variance in milk zinc level. For non-genetic variables, the obese breastfeeding women (BMI > 25) secreted less zinc into their breast-milk. The variation of milk zinc was independent of pregnant age, birth weight, infant gender, cesarean delivery, preterm delivery and vitamin D supplementation. In conclusion, our results indicated that - 697 G > T and 1031A > G polymorphisms in the SLC30A2 gene may be associated with low-milk-zinc in Chinese breastfeeding women. Maternal BMI is significantly correlated with milk zinc level in negative manner. Our study demonstrated that both genetic and non-genetic factors could modulate milk zinc level. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Yang K.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Yang K.,Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research | Yang K.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Cai W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Maternal high-fat (HF) diets during gestation and lactation have been shown to contribute to metabolic disorders in offspring. Molecular and epigenetic mechanisms underlying this connection may be essential for the prevention and treatment of the fetal origins of metabolic diseases. The current study examined the impact of maternal HF diets on Wnt signaling and histone modification in offspring. Time-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either control diet or HF diet during gestation and lactation and then the neonatal offspring of both groups were investigated. The neonatal offspring born to dams fed on HF diets exhibited increases in serum glucose and liver triglyceride levels. Maternal exposure to the HF diet also repressed the mRNA expression of Wnt1 and nuclear β-catenin protein in the liver of offspring. The altered Wnt1 gene expression may be due to the changes of acetylation of H4 at its promoter as well as acetylation of H4 and methylation of H3K9 at coding region. Maternal exposure to the HF diet induced suppression of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway through histone modification, potentially increasing the risk of metabolic syndrome. © 2012 Society for Endocrinology.

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