Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention LAP3

Shanghai, China

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention LAP3

Shanghai, China
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Yin D.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhao S.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhao S.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention LAP3 | Qu J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences
Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health | Year: 2017

In order to know air pollution situation and their health, environmental, and climate effects, the air quality data with high temporal and spatial resolutions are essential. The spatial and seasonal variations of six criteria pollutants were investigated in 31 provincial capital cities between April 2014 and March 2015 using hourly mean air quality monitoring data, and the cities were classified by cluster analysis based on annual variations of air pollutants. The annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm) were high for all cities, which exceeded Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) Grade I standards. Only Fuzhou, Haikou, Kunming, and Lasa met Grade II standards for PM2.5 and PM10. Additionally, elevated SO2 concentration was observed in northern cities, especially in winter. However, the seasonal variation of O3 was opposite to other pollutants with the lowest concentrations in the winter and the highest in the summer. Winter domestic heating has significant impact on urban air quality, especially SO2 and PM10. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Fan H.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Lin T.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Zhang W.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Zhang W.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention LAP3 | And 4 more authors.
Materials Research Bulletin | Year: 2017

Special nanostructures of porous anodic alumina (PAA), such as the petal-like micropattern and nanofibers of alumina, cannot be explained by the classical field-assisted dissolution and dynamic equilibrium models. Here, by combination of oxygen bubble mould and plastic flow model, a reasonable explanation for these special nanostructures is proposed. The petal-like micropatterns of PAA and nanofibers of alumina are all clarified by the oxygen bubble mould and the plastic flow model. The self-ordering nanochannels of PAA are attributed to the oxide plastic flow around a gas bubble mould at each pore bottom. The petal-like micropatterns and nanofibers of alumina are attributed to chemical corrosion enhanced by the micro-gas-flow and micro-liquid-flow. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Wang Y.-J.,Shanghai University | Wang Y.-J.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention LAP3 | Liao R.-Q.,Qinzhou University | Liu W.-L.,Shanghai University | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2017

Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) with three to five aromatic rings have been documented to ubiquitously occur in environmental matrices. In this study, residual concentrations and profiles of 20 individual ClPAHs were determined in 35 surface sediment samples from Maowei Sea, a semi-enclosed shallow inland bay located in the northwestern part of South China Sea. The concentrations of ΣClPAHs in sediment ranged from 313 to 9650 pg/g dw with a detection rate of 43–100%. Of the individual ClPAH congeners, 9-ClPhe was the most abundant in Maowei Sea with the concentrations that ranged from 99.9 to 3610 pg/g dw (mean 1120 pg/g dw). High-molecular-weight ClPAH congeners (four to five rings) were predominant in sediments from sampling locations near a petrochemical industrial complex, whereas low-molecular-weight ClPAH congeners (three rings) were predominant in sediments from estuarine and mangrove locations. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) model in combination with dioxin-like toxic equivalency quotient (TEQ) results was used to apportion sources of ClPAHs. Vehicular emission, combustion/chemical industrial processes, and two other unknown sources accounted for 40.1, 25.5, 20.8, and 13.6%, respectively, of ClPAH sources in sediment; their contribution to TEQs in sediments were 24.2, 40.5, 19.3, and 16.0%, respectively. Further investigations are needed to elucidate potential sources and ecological risks of ClPAHs in sediments. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Yu X.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Yu X.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention LAP3 | Lu R.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Liu C.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2017

Long-term seasonal characteristics of aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing at Beijing (during March 2001–March 2015) were investigated using a combination of ground-based Sun/sky radiometer retrievals from the AERONET and a radiative transfer model. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed a distinct seasonal variation with higher values in spring and summer, and relatively lower values in fall and winter. Average Angstrom exponent (AE) in spring was lower than other seasons, implying the significant impact of dust episodes on aerosol size distribution. AE mainly distributed between 1.0 and 1.4 with an obvious uni-peak pattern in each season. The observation data showed that high AODs (>1.0) were clustered in the fine mode growth wing and the coarse mode. Compared to AOD, seasonal variation in single scattering albedo (SSA) showed an opposite pattern with larger values in summer and spring, and smaller ones in winter and fall. The highest volume size distribution and median radius of fine mode particles occurred in summer, while those of coarse mode particles in spring. The averaged aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) in spring, summer, fall and winter were −33 ± 22 W m-2, -35 ± 22 W m-2, -28 ± 20 W m-2, and -24 ± 23 W m-2 respectively, and these differences were mainly due to the SSA seasonal variation. The largest positive ARF within atmosphere occurred in spring, implying strong warming in the atmosphere. The low heating ratio in summer was caused by the increase in water vapor content, which enhanced light scattering capacity (i.e., increased SSA). © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Zhang X.,China University of Technology | Zhang X.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention LAP3 | Zhang X.,University of Florida | Gao B.,University of Florida | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2017

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) severely threaten human health and the ecological environment because most of them are toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic. The persistent increase of VOCs together with the stringent regulations make the reduction of VOC emissions more imperative. Up to now, numerous VOC treatment technologies have emerged, such as incineration, condensation, biological degradation, absorption, adsorption, and catalysis oxidation et al. Among them, the adsorption technology has been recognized as an efficient and economical control strategy because it has the potential to recover and reuse both adsorbent and adsorbate. Due to their large specific surface area, rich porous structure, and high adsorption capacity, carbonaceous adsorbents are widely used in gas purification, especially with respect to VOC treatment and recovery. This review discusses recent research developments of VOC adsorption onto a variety of engineered carbonaceous adsorbents, including activated carbon, biochar, activated carbon fiber, carbon nanotube, graphene and its derivatives, carbon-silica composites, ordered mesoporous carbon, etc. The key factors influence the VOC adsorption are analyzed with focuses on the physiochemical characters of adsorbents, properties of adsorbates as well as the adsorption conditions. In addition, the sources, health effect, and abatement methods of VOCs are also described. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Ma X.-J.,Donghua University | Qin Y.,Donghua University | Qin Y.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention LAP3 | Chen Y.-H.,Donghua University | And 4 more authors.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2015

Using the classification data of different layers aerosols from CALIPSO Satellite Lidar Level 2aerosol retrieval data during the haze periods from January 2007 to November 2010, the seasonally vertical distribution of different types of aerosols including clean marine, dust, polluted continental, clean continental, polluted dust, smoke and other types around Shanghai during haze periods were analyzed. The results showed as follows. In 0~2 km altitudes the frequency of smoke aerosols' occurrence during haze was significantly higher than during haze-free periods, but in 2~8 km dust, polluted dust and polluted continental aerosols' frequency in haze were higher than in haze-free periods. In 0~2 km, polluted continental aerosols' frequency in spring was higher than in other seasons during haze. In 0-2 km, polluted dust and marine aerosol's frequency in summer were higher than in other seasons during haze, especially polluted dust. In autumn the frequency of smoke aerosols in 0~2 km was higher than in 2~6 km. the frequency of polluted dust, smoke and polluted continental aerosols in winter were higher than in other seasons during haze. ©, 2015, Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science. All right reserved.

Yang P.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Liu Y.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Chen S.,Nanjing University of Science and Technology | Ma J.,Shanghai University | And 4 more authors.
Materials Research Bulletin | Year: 2016

Anodic TiO2 nanotubes (ATNTs) have been investigated extensively. However, the relationship between anodizing curves and the morphologies cannot be explained or quantified by the filed-assisted dissolution theory or plastic flow models. Here, influences of H2O2 and H2O content on anodizing current and morphology of ATNTs were explored and compared in detail. With H2O2 addition, the ginseng-like nanotubes were formed and the anodizing current increased a lot. Based on the oxygen bubble mould, the formation mechanism of the ginseng-like nanotubes has been proposed. Moreover, H2O addition causes an opposite current variation trend to H2O2 addition. The relationships between the morphologies and the anodizing curves were clarified quantitatively by the simulation of the ionic current and electronic current. H2O2 addition accelerates oxygen evolution and therefore electronic current increases with H2O2 content. Moreover, nanotube diameter increases with H2O content mainly due to the dilution of the F− anions and the thicker barrier oxide. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Zou B.,Central South University | Zou B.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention LAP3 | Zheng Z.,Central South University | Wan N.,University of Utah | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Geographical Information Science | Year: 2016

GIS-based proximity models are one of the key tools for the assessment of exposure to air pollution when the density of spatial monitoring stations is sparse. Central to exposure assessment that utilizes proximity models is the ‘exposure intensity–distance’ hypothesis. A major weakness in the application of this hypothesis is that it does not account for the Gaussian processes that are at the core of the physical mechanisms inherent in the dispersion of air pollutants. Building upon the utility of spatial proximity models and the theoretical reliability of Gaussian dispersion processes of air pollutants, this study puts forward a novel Gaussian weighting function-aided proximity model (GWFPM). The study area and data set for this work consisted of transport-related emission sources of PM2.5 in the Houston-Baytown-Sugar Land metropolitan area. Performance of the GWFPM was validated by comparing on-site observed PM2.5 concentrations with results from classical ordinary kriging (OK) interpolation and a robust emission-weighted proximity model (EWPM). Results show that the fitting R2 between possible exposure intensity calculated by GWFPM and observed PM2.5 concentrations was 0.67. A variety of statistical evidence (i.e., bias, root mean square error [RMSE], mean absolute error [MAE], and correlation coefficient) confirmed that GWFPM outperformed OK and EWPM in estimating annual PM2.5 concentrations for all monitoring sites. These results indicate that a GWFPM utilizing the physical dispersing mechanisms integrated may more effectively characterize annual-scale exposure than traditional models. Using GWFPM, receptors’ exposure to air pollution can be assessed with sufficient accuracy, even in those areas with a low density of monitoring sites. These results may be of use to public health and planning officials in a more accurate assessment of the annual exposure risk to a population, especially in areas where monitoring sites are sparse. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Zou B.,Central South University | Zou B.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention LAP3 | Wang M.,Central South University | Wan N.,University of Utah | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2015

Accurate measurements of PM2.5 concentration over time and space are especially critical for reducing adverse health outcomes. However, sparsely stationary monitoring sites considerably hinder the ability to effectively characterize observed concentrations. Utilizing data on meteorological and land-related factors, this study introduces a radial basis function (RBF) neural network method for estimating PM2.5 concentrations based on sparse observed inputs. The state of Texas in the USA was selected as the study area. Performance of the RBF models was evaluated by statistic indices including mean square error, mean absolute error, mean relative deviation, and the correlation coefficient. Results show that the annual PM2.5 concentrations estimated by the RBF models with meteorological factors and/or land-related factors were markedly closer to the observed concentrations. RBF models with combined meteorological and land-related factors achieved best performance relative to ones with either type of these factors only. It can be concluded that meteorological factors and land-related factors are useful for articulating the variation of PM2.5 concentration in a given study area. With these covariate factors, the RBF neural network can effectively estimate PM2.5 concentrations with acceptable accuracy under the condition of sparse monitoring stations. The improved accuracy of air concentration estimation would greatly benefit epidemiological and environmental studies in characterizing local air pollution and in helping reduce population exposures for areas with limited availability of air quality data. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Xu B.,Tongji University | Xu B.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention LAP3 | Gong Y.,Tongji University | Wu Y.,Tongji University
Particuology | Year: 2015

Understanding the effectiveness of cabin air filters is important for assessing human exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) of vehicular origin. The filtration efficiency of vehicular UFPs with electric charges was investigated for different electric charge characteristics (charge state, charge polarity). The average filtration efficiency increased ∼10% as the electric charge state on the particles changed in distribution from lightly charged to highly charged. The enhancement of filtration efficiency due to electric charge was different at various filter-face air velocities. As electric charges increased, the filtration efficiency increased 12% and 9% at low air velocity (0.1. m/s) and high air velocity (0.5. m/s), respectively. The filter fiber material poses somewhat effect on the filtration efficiency change due to the electric charge. The effects of filter usage and charge polarity on filtration efficiency due to the electric charge were negligible. A coefficient was empirically derived and successfully accounts for the electric charge effect on UFP filtration efficiency. © 2015 Chinese Society of Particuology and Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

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