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DeFu H.,East China Normal University | DeFu H.,Shanghai Key Laboratory for Urban Ecological Processes and Eco Restoration | RuiRui C.,East China Normal University | EnHui Z.,East China Normal University | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

Following urbanization, a large number of urban rivers were contaminated and turned to black-odor rivers. The traditional approach for detecting water quality is based on chemical or physical analysis. However, biological toxicity of black-odor water has been less addressed. As two typical black-odor rivers, Jiushanwai River (JS) and Shanxia River (SX) are tributaries of Wen-Rui Tang River in Wenzhou (south of China). The eco-safety of the urban rivers was evaluated by bioassay for water toxicity in this study. Ten and 5 sampling sites were respectively set along JS and SX. Water samples were collected monthly from October 2010 to October 2011. The general physical and chemical parameters of river water were monitored. In order to investigate the ecotoxicological effects of black-odor water, the following bioassays were used: (1) Fish acute toxicity test (Danio rerio, comprehensive toxicity), (2) luminescent bacteria bioassay (Qinghaiensis vibrio, toxicity to bacteria), and (3) tropical claw embryo assay (Xenopus tropicalis, embryo toxicity). Biotoxicity of black-odor rivers water was demonstrated by D. rerio, Q. vibrio, and X. tropicalis embryos. Toxicological effects of black-odor water were respectively shown by mortality of zebrafish, and by the relative inhibitory light rate of luminescent bacteria. However, luminescent bacteria were more sensitive to inspect biotoxicity than zebrafish. In X. tropicalis embryos test, toxicological effects of black-odor water were mostly shown by embryos' survival rate and teratogenic rate. Bioassay results showed that toxicity of SX water was higher than that of JS water, especially in summer. Statistical analysis of luminescent bacteria toxicity test showed that biotoxicity of SX and JS was high in summer, but low in winter and spring. The seasonal changes of water toxicity of the black-odor river were positively correlative with changes of water temperature (p < 0.05), and related to pH and ammonium nitrogen of water. Typical black-odor river water displays different degrees of biotoxicity to D. rerio, luminescent bacteria, and X. tropicalis embryos. The ecotoxicological risk of black-odor rivers was demonstrated in urban area, which suggests bioassay is necessary for evaluation of water quality. In the present study, spatial and seasonal bioassay for toxicity of JS and SX provides a complete example for evaluation of urban rivers. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Zhu L.-F.,East China Normal University | Zhu L.-F.,CAS Shanghai Advanced Research Institute | Zhu L.-F.,Shanghai Key Laboratory for Urban Ecological Processes and Eco Restoration | Sun J.-Z.,CAS Shanghai Advanced Research Institute | Zhang C.-J.,East China Normal University
Yantu Lixue/Rock and Soil Mechanics | Year: 2012

A general principle, a practical method and a modeling process of three-dimensional solid models for sedimentary stratigraphic systems are discussed. Based on the structural characteristics of the sedimentary stratigraphic system, a new approach for generating 3D solid models from borehole data, termed the "boreholes-surfaces-solids method", is presented and described. At first, a topologic dimidiate data structure is used to discretize borehole data into a series of scattered points. And then, the initial elevations of the top and bottom surfaces for each stratum are interpolated to automatically deduce the genesis of the missing strata. According to different geological geneses, surfaces intersecting, elevations adjusting and consistency processing are performed automatically on the missing strata's surfaces and their control surfaces. Finally, the solid model filled with 3D blocks or triangular prism meshes is built. A concrete example of using the "boreholes-surfaces-solids" method to Shanghai's construction projects is presented; and it is shown that this method is effective.


Xu H.-M.,East China Normal University | He G.-F.,East China Normal University | Dai L.-L.,National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control | Dai L.-L.,Tongji University | And 6 more authors.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2016

The scientific gap of operating parameters of combined thermal and ultrasonic disintegration at low temperature of waste activated sludge (WAS) still needs to be filled. This study provides more insights into the technical feasibility of low organic WAS disruption pretreated by combined thermal at temperature lower than 100℃ and ultrasonic technique. Optimization of combined thermal and ultrasonic disintegration of WAS for enhanced organic releasing was carried out using response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken design of experiment. The quadratic effects as well as the interactive effects of temperature and specific energy on the disintegration degree of SCOD, soluble concentration of protein and carbohydrate were investigated. Results indicated that quadratic effect of temperature was more significant in affecting sludge disintegration than specific energy and regression models had good fitness with experimental results. The optimum disintegration degree of SCOD, soluble concentration of protein and carbohydrate achieved were 39.01%, 1360.59 mg/L and 334.52 mg/L, respectively, at 80℃ and 12000 kJ/kg TS. In addition, the verification experiments appeared high coincide degree with predicted results, indicating that the models were reliable for application and promotion of combined thermal and ultrasonic disintegration. © 2016, Chinese Society for Environmental Sciences. All right reserved.


Xu H.-M.,East China Normal University | He G.-F.,East China Normal University | Dai X.-H.,National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control | Dai X.-H.,Tongji University | And 2 more authors.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2016

To explore the effects of ultrasound and low temperature thermal pretreatments on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS), ultrasound, thermal, and combined (ultrasound+thermal) pretreatments were conducted. Taking temperature and specific energy as control parameters, disintegration degree of SCOD(DD) and organic disintegration before and after pretreatments were measured. Prior to anaerobic digestion, combined pretreatment significantly improved DD and soluble organic matter concentrations which were better than the sum of ultrasound and thermal pretreatments. The combination of ultrasound and thermal pretreatment under specific energy of 12000kJ/kg TS and temperature of 80℃, DD and soluble organic concentration were 4.04%, 36.62mg/L higher than the sum of pretreatment alone. Besides, there was a highly linear relationship between DD and actual energies imparted to sludge (R2=0.977). Combined pretreatments improved the methane production of WAS during anaerobic digestion by 30.2%~55.4% than untreated sludge. It was also found that DD and anaerobic biodegradability had a conical relationship (R2=0.821). The optimum anaerobic biodegradability, 877.76LCH4/kg VSSremoved, was achieved with combined pretreatment at temperature of 80℃ and specific energy of 12000kJ/kg TS. © 2016, Editorial Board of China Environmental Science. All right reserved.


Xu H.,East China Normal University | He G.,East China Normal University | Liu W.,East China Normal University | Liu G.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Environmental Engineering | Year: 2015

The feasibility of using an invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides to prepare activated carbon was investigated in the present study. Results showed that the order of the controlling factors for the yield and iodine number of the synthetic activated carbon was carbonization temperature > carbonization time > impregnation time >impregnation ratio, and the first three factors had significant impacts. The optimal preparation conditions were 4:1 for impregnation ratio; 6 h for impregnation time; 873 K for carbonization temperature and 1 h for carbonization time, under which the activated carbon prepared from alligator weed had a yield ratio of 37.44% and iodine adsorption amount of 752.36 mg/g. The surface area, the total pore volume, the average pore size and the ratio of mesoporous were 1 100.720 m2/g, 0.610 cm3/g, 2.216 nm and 72.00%, respectively. FT-IR analysis revealed that abundant functional groups were formed on the surface of the prepared activated carbon, including carboxyl, phenol and ether group. These results indicated that A. philoxeroides might be a promising biomass material for the preparation of mesoporous activated carbon. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Jin S.-K.,East China Normal University | Wang J.-J.,East China Normal University | Zhu S.,East China Normal University | Zhang Q.,East China Normal University | And 4 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2016

Soil meso- and micro-fauna of four urban forest types in Shanghai were investigated in four months which include April 2014, July 2014, October 2014 and January 2015. A total of 2190 soil fauna individuals which belong to 6 phyla, 15 classes and 22 groups were collected. The dominant groups were Nematoda and Arcari, accounting for 56.0% and 21.8% of the total in terms of individual numbers respectively. The common groups were Enchytraeidae, Rotatoria, Collembola and Hymenoptera and they accounted for 18.7% of the total in terms of individual numbers. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) among soil meso- and micro-fauna density in the four urban forest types and the largest density was found in Metasequoia glyptostroboides forest, the smallest in Cinnamomum camphora forest. The largest groupe number was found in near-nature forest, the smallest was found in M. glyptostroboides forest. There was obvious seasonal dynamics in each urban forest type and green space which had larger density in autumn and larger groupe number in summer and autumn. In soil profiles, the degree of surface accumulation of soil meso- and micro-fauna in C. camphora forest was higher than in other forests and the vertical distribution of soil meso- and microfauna in near-nature forest was relatively homogeneous in four layers. Density-group index was ranked as: near-nature forest (6.953)> C. camphora forest (6.351)> Platanus forest (6.313)> M. glyptostroboides forest (5.910). The community diversity of soil fauna in each vegetation type could be displayed preferably by this index. It could be inferred through redundancy analysis (RDA) that the soil bulk density, organic matter and total nitrogen were the main environmental factors influencing soil meso- and micro-fauna community structure in urban forest. The positive correlations occurred between the individual number of Arcari, Enchytraeidae and soil organic matter and total nitrogen, as well as between the individual number of Diptera larvae, Rotatoria and soil water content. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.


Li J.,East China Normal University | Li J.,Shanghai Key Laboratory for Urban Ecological Processes and Eco Restoration | Li D.,East China Normal University | Li D.,Shanghai Key Laboratory for Urban Ecological Processes and Eco Restoration | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Applied Toxicology | Year: 2016

Acrylamide can form in foods during the cooking process and cause multiple adverse effects. However, the neurotoxicity and mechanisms of acrylamide have not been fully elucidated. In Caenorhabditis elegans, we showed that 48 h exposure to 10-625 mg l-1 acrylamide resulted in a significant decline in locomotor frequency of body bending, head thrashing and pharynx pumping. In addition, acrylamide exposure reduced crawling speeds and changed angles of body bending. It indicates that acrylamide induces locomotor defects, along with parkinsonian-like movement impairment, including bradykinesia and hypokinesia. Acrylamide also affected chemotaxis plasticity and reduced learning ability. Using transgenic nematodes, we found that acrylamide induced downexpression of Pdat-1 and led to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Moreover, the enhanced expression of unc-54, encoding a subunit of α-synuclein was found. It illustrates that acrylamide is efficient in inducing crucial parkinsonian pathology, including dopaminergic damage and α-synuclein aggregation. These findings suggest the acrylamide-induced locomotor defects and neurotoxicity are associated with Parkinson's disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Yin C.,East China Normal University | Yin C.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | Yin C.,Shanghai Key Laboratory for Urban Ecological Processes and Eco Restoration | Liu M.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | And 4 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2016

Non-point source (NPS) pollution has become a key water pollution problem under the condition of point source pollution was controlled. The complexity and uncertainty research of NPS pollution influential factors has always been important and difficult. This paper simulated NPS pollution of the Fanhe River watershed in 2003-2012 by the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) and analyzed its spatial distribution. Meanwhile, the boosted regression tree (BRT) method was proposed to quantitatively analyze the corresponding influential factors including land use, soil, elevation and slope. The results showed that NPS pollution in the Fanhe River watershed had high spatial heterogeneity. The spatial distribution of total nitrogen (TN) had greater difference than that of total phosphorus (TP). The three pollutants, TN, TP and sediment, were all positively related to slope gradients (P<0.01). The slope gradients played the strongest role in determining the sediment and TP output with the contribution rate of 46.5% and 38.2%, respectively. Land use had important influence on sediment and TP loads, with the contribution rate of 27.2% and 35.3%, respectively. TN was produced abundantly in low-elevation and steep-slope locations and with cultivated land use. Cinnamon soil was most vulnerable to the TN load while meadow soil took the second place in terms of soil erosion and TP load. The paper overcame the complexity of influential factors for NPS pollution by BRT, and deepened the understanding of NPS pollution mechanism. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.


Lin Q.,East China Normal University | You W.H.,East China Normal University | You W.H.,Shanghai Key Laboratory for Urban Ecological Processes and Eco Restoration | Xu F.J.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2014

Dishui Lake is the largest artificial lake in Shanghai, China. Water in the lake comes from the Huangpu River via the Dazhi River through surrounding river networks, accepts surface runoff and passes through a sluice into the East China Sea. The lake is important for flood control, drainage, water replacement and other functions, and is critical to the Lin’gang New District’s landscape and to Shanghai’s eco-city construction. It is a newly formed lake with a fragile ecosystem and could easily be affected by external pollutant sources. Zooplankton play an important role in lake ecosystems and biological productivity at the base of the food chain since they eat phytoplankton, bacteria and detritus and provide food for fish and other aquatic organisms. Filter-feeding fish were put into the lake in recent years to control phytoplankton numbers, but a growing filter-feeding fish population could harm the zooplankton community. Consequently, long-term monitoring of variation in the zooplankton community is vital to the health of Dishui Lake. In order to explore the relationship between zooplankton community structure and environmental factors in Dishui Lake, we investigated the species composition, density and biomass distribution, dominant species of zooplankton and water quality parameters in Dishui Lake. We used eight sampling sites and took samples monthly from January to December, 2012. We identified 61 species belonging to 33 genera, including 45 Rotifera belonging to 22 genera, 7 Cladocera belonging to 4 genera and 9 Copepoda belonging to 7 genera., Dominant species included Copepoda species Limnoithona sinensis and nauplii, ten Rotifera species, while Cladocera had no dominant species. Dominant species were different in each season. The annual average density of zooplankton was 1200 ind./L and the annual average biomass was 1.67mg/L. Zooplankton species number, density and biomass were all higher in spring and summer than in autumn and winter. The annual average of Shannon-Wiener and Margalef diversity indices were 1.61 and 1.01 respectively. Both of these diversity indices were significantly different in different seasons, but not significantly different between the eight sampling sites. Pearson Correlation analysis, Multiple Regression Analysis and Redundancy analysis (RDA) of species number, density and biomass of zooplankton and environmental factors displayed a significant relationship between zooplankton community and environmental factors. This indicated that the seasonal variation of zooplankton community structures in Dishui Lake was closely related to the water eutrophication status. Water temperature was a key factor in variation in the zooplankton community structure, and chlorophyll a, pH, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were also important factors. Zooplankton species number, density and biomass increased with a rise in water temperature and a decline in pH. TN increased the density and biomass, but excess TP tended to reduce the number of species present. Several methods were used to assess the water quality and eutrophication levels. Results showed that the water quality status of Dishui Lake in 2012 could be classified as α-mesosaprobic and its eutrophication level was at semi-eutrophic levels under a comprehensive application of the water quality index, trophic level index (TLI) and diversity indices assessment methods. © 2014, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.


Wang H.-Q.,East China Normal University | Wang H.-Q.,Shanghai Key Laboratory for Urban Ecological Processes and Eco Restoration | Wang S.-Q.,East China Normal University | Wang S.-Q.,Shanghai Key Laboratory for Urban Ecological Processes and Eco Restoration | And 3 more authors.
Wetland Science | Year: 2014

This work investigated biomass and primary productivity of aboveground part Phragmites australis which encircles Chongming Island based on field investigation and laboratory measurements from March to October, 2011, surveyed environmental factors simultaneously to analyzing and estimating carbon sequestration of aboveground part of Phragmites australis. The results indicated that carbon fixation ability of aboveground part of Phragmites australis around Chongming Island was about 0.28-1.02 kg/(m2·a), at an average of (0.67 ±0.19) kg/(m2·a), compared lower than those of conservation districts in Changjiang River Estuary (Eastern Tidelands of Chongming Island and Hangzhou Bay) but much higher than that of conservation area in Yellow River delta. The main factors which effected on vegetation process were disastrous weather and human disturbance, and above ground biomass (p = 0.021) and density (p = 4.6 × 10-6) in the harvested area were higher significantly than that of the intact area. The distribution of Phragmites australis in Chongming Island mainly limited by soil salinity, which was also related closely to the phenotypes of Phragmites australis along with anthropogenic interference. The mid-to-late period of vegetation process was the critical period when environmental factors act. The management and protection with reasonable utilization of Phragmites australis were quite essential.

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