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Chen L.,Fuzhou University | Chen L.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University | Huang Y.,Fuzhou University | Huang Y.,China Institute of Technology | And 8 more authors.

Background Black rice (Oryza sativa L.), whose pericarp is rich in anthocyanins (ACNs), is considered as a healthier alternative to white rice. Molecular species of ACNs in black rice have been well documented in previous studies; however, information about the metabolic mechanisms underlying ACN biosynthesis during black rice grain development is unclear. Results The aim of the present study was to determine changes in the metabolic pathways that are involved in the dynamic grain proteome during the development of black rice indica cultivar, (Oryza sativa L. indica var. SSP). Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) MS/MS were employed to identify statistically significant alterations in the grain proteome. Approximately 928 proteins were detected, of which 230 were differentially expressed throughout5 successive developmental stages, starting from 3 to 20 days after flowering (DAF). The greatest number of differentially expressed proteins was observed on 7 and 10 DAF, including76 proteins that were upregulated and 39 that were downregulated. The biological process analysis of gene ontology revealed that the 230 differentially expressed proteins could be sorted into 14 functional groups. Proteins in the largest group were related to metabolic process, which could be integrated into multiple biochemical pathways. Specifically, proteins with a role in ACN biosynthesis, sugar synthesis, and the regulation of gene expression were upregulated, particularly from the onset of black rice grain development and during development. In contrast, the expression of proteins related to signal transduction, redox homeostasis, photosynthesis and N-metabolism decreased during grain maturation. Finally, 8 representativegenes encoding different metabolic proteins were verified via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, these genes had differed in transcriptional and translational expression during grain development. Conclusions Expression analyses of metabolism-related protein groups belonging to different functional categories and subcategories indicated that significantly upregulated proteins were related to flavonoid and starch synthesis. On the other hand, the downregulated proteins were determined to be related to nitrogen metabolism, as well as other functional categories and subcategories, including photosynthesis, redox homeostasis, tocopherol biosynthetic, and signal transduction. The results provide valuable new insights into the characterization and understanding of ACN pigment production in black rice. © 2016 Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Tian D.-K.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Tian D.-K.,Shanghai Key Laboratory for Plant Functional Genomics and Resources | Li C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li C.,Shanghai Key Laboratory for Plant Functional Genomics and Resources | And 2 more authors.

Begonia pulchrifolia D.K.Tian & C.H.Li, a new species in Begonia sect. Platycentrum A.DC. (Begoniaceae) from Sichuan of China, is described and illustrated. Morphologically, it is only similar to the young or smaller individuals of B. dielsiana and B. emeiensis in plant shape and some leaf characters but differs easily by its foliage color and deeper divided leaf lobes, small-sized flowers, hairy outer petals of the male flowers, and long abaxially winged fruits. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on nrDNA also supported the distinction of B. pulchrifolia from B. dielsiana and B. emeiensis. © 2015 Magnolia Press. Source

Li C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li C.,Shanghai Key Laboratory for Plant Functional Genomics and Resources | Yang L.-H.,Huizhou Forestry Research Institute | Tian D.-K.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 8 more authors.

Begonia leipingensis D. K. Tian, L. H. Yang & C. Li (2n = 30), a new species in Begonia sect. Coelocentrum from the limestone area of Guangxi, China. B. leipingensisis is easily distinguished from any other compound-leaved species in Begonia by its large variation in petiolule number and its unique spirally-arranged petiolule pattern, which has never been seen in Begoniaceae before and rarely seen even in other angiosperm taxa. Besides having non-overlapping flowering periods, it is clearly different from B. fangii, the most morphologically similar species in the same section and with the same chromosome number. In addition to its unique petiolule pattern, B. leipingensis has longer abaxial wings, shorter internodes, and usually larger leaves, leaflets and habit. Molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that B. leipingensis formed an independent lineage belonging to Sect. Coelocentrum. Morphological and phylogenetic evidence strongly supports this species as a new taxon in Sect. Coelocentrum of Begonia. B. leipingensis was assessed to be critically endangered based on criterion outlined by IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. © 2016 Magnolia Press. Source

Liu A.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Liu A.,Shanghai Key Laboratory for Plant Functional Genomics and Resources | Liu A.,Hunan University of Science and Technology | Tian D.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae

To further understand the benefits of biochar in crop production and remediation of heavy metal pollution, the effects of biochar on the growth of Nelumbo nucifera 'Taikong 36' and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in plant tissues were evaluated in the artificially Cd-polluted water-soil. The results showed that plant biomass significantly increased with the proportion (0-32%) of biochar in the soil mix. However, the impacts of biochar on plant physiological indicators were not clear. Compared with the control, the addition of 32% biochar significantly decreased Cd content in rhizomes, petioles, and leaves of N. nucifera 'Taikong 36' by 69, 81, 55%, respectively. Correspondingly, the bioaccumulation coefficient of Cd was reduced, by a maximum of 71%, and the Cd transfer coefficient from underground to aboveground tissues increased up to 1.3 fold. The bioaccumulation coefficient of Cd in rhizomes was significantly lower than that of leaves, indicating that biochar mitigated the effect of heavy metal ions and reduced the accumulation of Cd in the edible parts of lotus. Therefore, biochar has potential in green agriculture production and remediation of heavy-metal polluted water and soil due to its positive effects: improving plant growth and reducing heavy metal pollution. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

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