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Xu L.-L.,Shanghai University | Li Y.-Y.,Shanghai University | Han T.,Shanghai University | Zhang Q.-Y.,Shanghai University | And 3 more authors.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Two strains of endophytic fungi, Penicillium melinii Yuan-25 and Penicillium janthinellum Yuan-27, with strong anti-Pyricularia oryzae activity, were obtained from the roots of Panax ginseng. Based on bioactivity-oriented isolation, a new benzaldehyde derivative, ginsenocin (1), together with six known compounds, methyl 2,4-dihydroxy- 3,5,6-trimethylbenzoate (2), 3,4,5-trimethyl-1,2-benzenediol (3), penicillic acid (4), mannitol (5), ergosterol (6), and ergosterol peroxide (7), were separated from the EtOAc extract of Yuan-25 culture, while brefeldin A (8) was isolated as the major constituent from the EtOAc extract of Yuan-27 culture. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods. All the isolated compounds 1-8 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against six human cancer cell lines. Brefeldin A (8) was the most cytotoxic constituent against all the tested cell lines with IC50 values ≤0.12 μg/ml, while ginsenocin (1) and penicillic acid (4) also exhibited potent cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from0.49 to 7.46 μg/ml. Our results suggest that endophytic fungi isolated from P. ginseng are a promising natural source of potential anticancer agents. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013. Source

Ming Q.,Shanghai University | Su C.,Shanghai University | Zheng C.,Shanghai University | Jia M.,Shanghai University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2013

Biotic elicitors can be used to stimulate the production of secondary metabolites in plants. However, limited information is available on the effects of biotic elicitors from endophytic fungi on their host plant. Trichoderma atroviride D16 is an endophytic fungus isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza and previously reported to produce tanshinone I (T-I) and tanshinone IIA (T-IIA). Here, the effects of extract of mycelium (EM) and the polysaccharide fraction (PSF), produced by T. atroviride D16, on the growth and secondary metabolism of S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots are reported. The results indicated that both EM and PSF promoted hairy root growth and stimulated the biosynthesis of tanshinones in hairy roots. EM slightly suppressed the accumulation of phenolic acids, while PSF had no significant influence on the accumulation of these compounds. When comparing the effects of EM versus PSF, it was concluded that PSF is one of the main active constituents responsible for promoting hairy root growth, as well as stimulating biosynthesis of tanshinones in the hairy root cultures. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of genes involved in the tanshinone biosynthetic pathway increased significantly with PSF treatment. Thus, PSF from endophytic T. atroviride D16 affected the chemical composition of the host plant by influencing the expression of genes related to the secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, treatment with PSF can be effectively utilized for large-scale production of tanshinones in the S. miltiorrhiza hairy root culture system. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. Source

Zheng C.-J.,Shanghai University | Zhang X.-W.,No. 107 Hospital of PLA | Han T.,Shanghai University | Jiang Y.-P.,Shanghai University | And 4 more authors.
Fitoterapia | Year: 2014

Chemical investigation of Vitex negundo seeds afforded four new lignans, including a phenylindene-type lignan, vitexdoin F (1), and three phenylnaphthalene-type lignans, vitexdoins G, H and I (2-4). Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analyses on the basis of NMR, IR, and MS data. All compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoporotic activities, employing RAW264.7 macrophages, osteoblast-like UMR106 and osteoclastic cells, respectively. Compound 1 showed significant inhibition on the nitric oxide (NO) production (IC50 4.17 μg/mL) due to its down-regulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, which also exhibited potent stimulatory effects on the proliferation and ALP (alkaline phosphatase) activity of UMR106 cells, and significantly up-regulated the OPG/RANKL protein ratio. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Zheng C.-J.,Shanghai University | Zhao X.-X.,Shanghai University | Ai H.-W.,Shanghai University | Lin B.,Shanghai University | And 5 more authors.
Phytomedicine | Year: 2014

The seeds of Vitex negundo L. (Verbenaceae) have been commonly used as a folk remedy for the treatment of rheumatism and joint inflammation in Traditional Chinese Medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of the extract of V. negundo seeds (EVNS) using Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis (AA) in rat model. As a result, EVNS, with abundant phenylnaphthalene-type lignans, significantly inhibited the paw edema, decreased the arthritis score and spleen index, and reversed the weight loss of CFA-injected rats. Histopathological studies showed a marked decrease of synovial inflammatory infiltration and synovial lining hyperplasia in the joints of EVNS-treated animals. The remarkable decrement of serum inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) were observed in EVNS-treated rats, whereas, IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was found to be significantly increased by EVNS. The expressions of COX-2 and 5-LOX in PBMC were also inhibited by administration of EVNS. Our results demonstrated that V. negundo seeds possessed potential therapeutic effect on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats by decreasing the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 and increasing that of IL-10 in serum as well as down-regulating the levels of COX-2 and 5-LOX, and therefore may be an effective cure for the treatment of human rheumatoid arthritis. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Chen X.,China Pharmaceutical University | Chen X.,Shanghai Key Laboratory for Pharmaceutical Metabolite Research | Cao Y.,China Pharmaceutical University | Cao Y.,Shanghai Key Laboratory for Pharmaceutical Metabolite Research | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2012

Cell membrane chromatography (CMC) is a biological affinity chromatographic method using specific cell membrane as stationary phase. It has been proved to be a practical tool for investigating binding interactions between drugs and membrane receptors. In this study, a novel comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) chromatography approach was established for screening anti-tumor components from herbal medicines (HMs). HepG2/CMC model was first developed and applied as the first dimensional column. Using an automatic ten-port switching valve equipped with two sample loops, the fractions of the first-dimension were introduced in the second-dimension consists of a monolithic column and a time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) with high resolving ability. Based on the stability, selectivity and suitability assays of the HepG2/CMC/monolithic column/TOFMS system, berberine (BBR) and tetrahydropalmatine (THP) from Cortex phellodendri amurensis, oxymatrine and matrine from Radix sophorae fl{ligature}avescentis were screened and identified as potential active components. The competitive displacement assay suggested that the four components could act on epidermal growth factor receptor region on the HepG2 cell membrane in similar manner of gefitinib. Furthermore, their inhibiting effects on cell proliferation in vitro were also confirmed and, BBR and THP showed concentration dependently inhibitory ability on HepG2 cell proliferation (p<0.05). The result demonstrated that the proposed comprehensive 2D HepG2/CMC/monolithic column/TOFMS system has the advantages of strong recognition and rapid analysis abilities for the total screening procedure, which will be selectable and practical in drug discovery from complex HM samples and can also be applied to other biochromatography models. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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