Shanghai Jiao Tong University , also referred to as SJTU, Shanghai Jiaotong University or simply Jiaotong University, is a public research university located in Shanghai, China. Established in 1896 by an imperial edict issued by the Guangxu Emperor, the university is renowned as one of the oldest and most prestigious and selective universities in China. SJTU is a member of China's C9 League and Yangtze Delta Universities Alliance.The university also annually produces the Academic Ranking of World Universities. Wikipedia.
Zhao C.Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2012
Thermal transport in metal foams has received growing attention in both academic research and industrial applications. In this paper the recent research progress of thermal transport in metal foams has been reviewed. This paper aims to provide the comprehensive state-of-the-art knowledge and research results of thermal transport in open celled cellular metal foams, which covers the effective thermal conductivity, forced convection, natural convection, thermal radiation, pool boiling and flow boiling heat transfer, solid/liquid phase change heat transfer and catalytic reactor. The forced convection and thermal conductivity have been extensively investigated, while less research were performed on two-phase (boiling and solid/liquid phase change heat transfer) and thermal radiation in metal foams. Also most research still treats the metal foam as one type of effective continuous porous media, very few researchers investigated the detailed thermal behaviours at the pore level either by numerical or experimental approaches. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ma M.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Human reproduction (Oxford, England) | Year: 2013
Are there differences in the morphology, spectrum and biochemical phenotype between Sertoli cells from non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) patients and those from obstructive azoospermia (OA) patients with normal spermatogenesis? Sertoli cells from NOA patients are distinct from those from OA patients in terms of morphological features, Raman spectrum and phenotype including the expression of genes and proteins (e.g. SCF, BMP4 and GDNF). NOA affects 10% of infertile men and has been diagnosed in 60% of azoospermic men. In contrast with OA patients who have normal spermatogenesis, NOA patients have an impaired spermatogenesis. This case-control study included 100 NOA patients (as cases) and 100 OA patients with normal spermatogenesis (as controls). The study was performed between January 2012 and January 2013. Karyotype analysis was performed to check the chromosome content and multiplex PCR was carried out to determine the expression of numerous Y chromosome genes in NOA patients. Human Sertoli cells were then isolated from the testes of NOA and OA patients by two-step enzymatic digestion and differential plating. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the ultrastructure of the Sertoli cells and real-time Raman microspectroscopy was used to assess their spectrum. We further compared the two groups of patients for expression of SCF, GDNF and BMP4 in Sertoli cells, using RT-PCR, microarray analysis, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and Western blots. NOA patients had normal chromosome karyotypes and Y chromosome microdeletions were excluded. In morphology, Sertoli cells isolated from NOA patients had a series of abnormal ultrastructural features compared with the control Sertoli cells: (i) existence of small and spindle-shaped nuclei, (ii) smaller diameter, (iii) deficient nucleolus or endoplasmic reticulum and (iv) more vacuoles. Spectral intensities in Sertoli cells of NOA patients were distinct at four typical Raman peaks compared with the control Sertoli cells. In phenotype, SCF, BMP4 and GDNF transcripts and proteins were significantly lower in Sertoli cells of NOA patients than in the control Sertoli cells. The Sertoli cells of NOA patients were not compared with Sertoli cells of normal fertile men due to the fact that it is hard to obtain adult testes from normal donors. This study provides novel insights into understanding the underlying causes for NOA and might offer a basis for developing new therapeutic strategies for patients with NOA.
Ning G.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Annals of internal medicine | Year: 2011
Greater bisphenol A exposure has been shown to be associated with a higher risk for self-reported adverse health outcomes, including diabetes. To examine the association between bisphenol A exposure and type 2 diabetes in adults. Cross-sectional study. Songnan, Baoshan District, Shanghai, China. 3423 local residents aged 40 years or older who were enrolled from 27 June 2008 to 10 August 2009. Urinary concentrations of bisphenol A from morning spot urine samples (exposure) and fasting plasma glucose concentration, plasma glucose concentration 2 hours after an oral glucose tolerance test, and serum insulin concentration (outcomes). Median age of the participants was 59.0 years (interquartile range, 53.0 to 68.7 years), 40% were men, and 1087 had type 2 diabetes. The median urinary bisphenol A level was 0.81 ng/mL (interquartile range, 0.47 to 1.43 ng/mL). Clinical characteristics differed between participants with normal glucose regulation and those with impaired glucose regulation and by bisphenol A quartile, but in multivariable analyses, there was no clear association between bisphenol A levels and type 2 diabetes. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of type 2 diabetes was slightly increased for participants in the second bisphenol A quartile (0.48 to 0.81 ng/mL) (adjusted OR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.03 to 1.64]) and the fourth quartile (>1.43 ng/mL) (adjusted OR, 1.37 [CI, 1.08 to 1.74]) but not the third quartile (0.82 to 1.43 ng/mL) (adjusted OR, 1.09 [CI, 0.86 to 1.39]), and a test of the trend of the association was not statistically significant. The cross-sectional study design and nonrandom sample of participants limit the conclusions that can be drawn. Many patients in the study already had diabetes, successful treatment of which could have obscured apparent associations. Dietary variables were not measured; however, this is necessary in observational studies of bisphenol A and diabetes because the presence of the chemical in the body may reflect consumption of sugared drinks in plastic bottles. These findings do not confirm a previously reported association between urinary bisphenol A levels and self-reported type 2 diabetes.
Chen T.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP | Year: 2011
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy in the world with high morbidity and mortality rate. Identification of novel biomarkers in HCC remains impeded primarily because of the heterogeneity of the disease in clinical presentations as well as the pathophysiological variations derived from underlying conditions such as cirrhosis and steatohepatitis. The aim of this study is to search for potential metabolite biomarkers of human HCC using serum and urine metabolomics approach. Sera and urine samples were collected from patients with HCC (n = 82), benign liver tumor patients (n = 24), and healthy controls (n = 71). Metabolite profiling was performed by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry in conjunction with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Forty three serum metabolites and 31 urinary metabolites were identified in HCC patients involving several key metabolic pathways such as bile acids, free fatty acids, glycolysis, urea cycle, and methionine metabolism. Differentially expressed metabolites in HCC subjects, such as bile acids, histidine, and inosine are of great statistical significance and high fold changes, which warrant further validation as potential biomarkers for HCC. However, alterations of several bile acids seem to be affected by the condition of liver cirrhosis and hepatitis. Quantitative measurement and comparison of seven bile acids among benign liver tumor patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatitis, HCC patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatitis, HCC patients without liver cirrhosis and hepatitis, and healthy controls revealed that the abnormal levels of glycochenodeoxycholic acid, glycocholic acid, taurocholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid are associated with liver cirrhosis and hepatitis. HCC patients with alpha fetoprotein values lower than 20 ng/ml was successfully differentiated from healthy controls with an accuracy of 100% using a panel of metabolite markers. Our work shows that metabolomic profiling approach is a promising screening tool for the diagnosis and stratification of HCC patients.
Zhang D.,Shanghai JiaoTong University |
Yuan Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2014
The grass family is one of the largest families in angiosperms and has evolved a characteristic inflorescence morphology, with complex branches and specialized spikelets. The origin and development of the highly divergent inflorescence architecture in grasses have recently received much attention. Increasing evidence has revealed that numerous factors, such as transcription factors and plant hormones, play key roles in determining reproductive meristem fate and inflorescence patterning in grasses. Moreover, some molecular switches that have been implicated in specifying inflorescence shapes contribute significantly to grain yields in cereals. Here, we review key genetic and molecular switches recently identified from two model grass species, rice (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays), that regulate inflorescence morphology specification, including meristem identity, meristem size and maintenance, initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems, and organogenesis. Furthermore, we summarize emerging networks of genes and pathways in grass inflorescence morphogenesis and emphasize their evolutionary divergence in comparison with the model eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana. We also discuss the agricultural application of genes controlling grass inflorescence development. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews.