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Tang W.,Fudan University | Tang W.,National University of Singapore | Tang W.,Shanghai Institute of Space Power Sources | Zhu Y.,Fudan University | And 6 more authors.
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2013

Due to the energy crisis within recent decades, renewable energies such as solar, wind and tide energies have received a lot of attention. However, these renewable energies are dependent on the time and season. Consequently, energy storage systems are needed to fully utilize these energies including their connection with smart grids. Aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries (ARLBs) may be an ideal energy storage system due to its excellent safety and reliability. However, since the introduction of ARLBs in 1994, the progress on improving their performance has been very limited. Recently, their rate performance, especially superfast charging performance, reversible capacity and cycling life of their electrode materials were markedly improved. The present work reviews the latest advances in the exploration of the electrode materials and the development of battery systems. Also the main challenges in this field are briefly commented on and discussed. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.


Du G.,University of Wollongong | Guo Z.,University of Wollongong | Zhang P.,University of Wollongong | Li Y.,Shanghai University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2010

Three-dimensional (3D) anodes have been prepared for lithium ion microbatteries by depositing SnO2 nanocrystals into self-organized TiO2 nanotube arrays through the solvothermal method, with the SnO2 crystal size less than 5 nm. The 3D SnO2-TiO 2 anodes exhibit excellent electrochemical performance with a good capacity retention of up to 70.8% over 100 cycles in the voltage range of 0.05-2.5 V. SnO2 enhances the capacity to more than double that of bare TiO2, while TiO2 nanotubes accommodate the volume changes of SnO2 during charge/discharge cycling. The amount of SnO2 loading can be controlled by varying the reaction time. The capacity of the 3D electrodes is controlled by the TiO2 tube length as well as by the amount of SnO2 loading. The maximum reversible capacity of the present samples can reach as high as about 300 A h cm -2. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.


Zhan Z.,Wuhan University of Technology | Wang C.,Wuhan University of Technology | Wang C.,Shanghai Institute of Space Power Sources | Fu W.,Wuhan University of Technology | Pan M.,Wuhan University of Technology
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2012

With a high-speed camera, water transport in the channels of a transparent proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was studied under different operating conditions. The results show that (a) Liquid water production under the banks is much bigger than that in the channels; liquid water close to channel walls can be easily changed into water film due to the hydrophilic capillary force of the walls and the drag force of the flow gas; liquid water on the surface of the gas diffusion layer (GDL) is near sphere drop due to its hydrophobic. (b) When gas velocity is less than 7 m/s, liquid water can not be moved swimmingly through the turns of the serpentine channel, and a part of liquid water will adhere to the walls; when gas velocity is more than 7 m/s, liquid water can be moved cleanlily through the turns. (c) Under the test conditions, when the temperature or the air stoichiometric ratio increases, liquid water production decreases, but cell performance is improved at first due to the increase of the electrochemical activity of the catalyst or the oxygen concentration, however the further increase of the temperature or air stoichiometric ratio will decrease the performance of the cell, because the membrane is dehydrated. These findings will help with the design and operation of the PEMFCs. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Shamsi P.,Missouri University of Science and Technology | Shen A.,Shanghai Institute of Space Power Sources
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2016

This paper introduces the design procedure for a class of bidirectional Zero Fundamental Ripple or Zero Firstorder Ripple (ZFR) dc-dc converters. ZFR topologies eliminate the first order switching ripples by utilizing a coupled inductor. As a result, these converters require smaller inductive and capacitive filtering elements. After introducing the modes of operation, the average model of a ZFR converter is derived. Using this model, a scheme for optimal design of the damping circuitry is introduced. Also, the overall design procedure for a ZFR converter is introduced using an example. The designed ZFR converter is experimentally evaluated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the design procedure. © 1986-2012 IEEE.


Jiang Z.,Fudan University | Li C.,Shanghai Institute of Space Power Sources | Hao S.,Shanghai Institute of Space Power Sources | Zhu K.,Shanghai Institute of Space Power Sources | Zhang P.,Shanghai Institute of Space Power Sources
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2014

We developed a novel, simple method to prepare porous silicon powder by acid etching Al-Si alloy powder.The morphology and structure of the as-obtained material were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and BET methods. It was found that the porous silicon powder (size about 15 μm) had a spongy structure, consisting of silicon nanobars with diameter about 50 nm and length of 1.5 μm. Its specific surface area was 102.8 m2 g-1. The electrochemical properties of porous silicon electrode were evaluated by measuring voltammograms and charge and discharge curves. The porous silicon electrode with ratio of porous Si powder:Super P:binder = 1:1:1 was tested in button style lithium/Si cell. It was found that due to its ability to promote the formation of primal SEI film on the surface of electrodes, additive fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) had an effect to improve the charge and discharge cycle stability of porous silicon electrodes. In solution 1 M LiPF6, EC:DMC = 1:1 (V/V) containing 15% FEC, the first charge and discharge capacities of porous silicon electrode were 3450 mAh g-1 Si and 2072 mAh g-1 Si respectively, at current density 100 mA g-1. The discharge capacity retained 66% as 1368 mAh g-1 Si after 258 charge and discharge cycles. In 1 M LiPF6/EC:DEC = 1:1 (V/V) solution, the charge and discharge capacities of porous silicon electrode in first cycle were 3396 mAh g-1 Si and 2537 mAh g-1 Si respectively. At 69th cycle, the discharge capacity remained 59% as 1497 mAh g-1 Si. The high electrochemical performance of porous silicon powder could be attributed to its porous structure, which provides enough tiny space to buffer the huge volume change of Si anode during charging and discharging processes. The nano-size Si bars benefited the diffusion process of lithium in Li-Si alloy. Moreover, the firm connection between Si nanobars in spongy porous structure prevented the breakdown of porous Si particles. This new advanced method for preparing high performance porous Si material is simple and inexpensive, presenting a promising prospect for practical application.© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Tang W.,Fudan University | Tang W.,Shanghai Institute of Space Power Sources | Gao X.,Fudan University | Zhu Y.,Fudan University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2012

A hybrid of V2O5 nanowires and MWCNTs coated with polypyrrole (PPy) was prepared as an anode material for ARLBs. The hybrid shows a good electrochemical reversibility since the PPy coating can effectively prevent the dissolution of the reduced vanadium ions. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Tang W.,Fudan University | Tang W.,Shanghai Institute of Space Power Sources | Liu L.,Fudan University | Tian S.,Fudan University | And 4 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2011

MoO3 nanoplates were prepared as anode material for aqueous supercapacitors. They can deliver a high energy density of 45 W h kg -1 at 450 W kg-1 and even maintain 29 W h kg-1 at 2 kW kg-1 in 0.5 M Li2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. These results present a new direction to explore non-carbon anode materials. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.


Tang W.,Fudan University | Tang W.,Shanghai Institute of Space Power Sources | Liu L.,Fudan University | Zhu Y.,Fudan University | And 3 more authors.
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2012

A nanocomposite of MoO3 coated with polypyrrole (PPy) was prepared as an anode material for ARLBs. When nanochain LiMn2O 4 is used as the cathode, the ARLB can deliver an energy density of 45 Wh kg-1 at 350 W kg-1 and even maintain 38 Wh kg -1 at 6 kW kg-1 in 0.5 M Li2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, corresponding to an good rate capability. In addition, its cycling behavior is greatly improved compared with the virginal MoO3. Our findings provide valuable clues to improve the comprehensive performance of ARLBs for practical application. This unique performance demonstrates that this battery will be of great promise as a power source for large power devices such as power loading and the storage of solar and wind energies. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Liu W.,Fudan University | Liu W.,Shanghai Institute of Space Power Sources | Sun Q.,Fudan University | Yang Y.,Fudan University | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

Graphene nanosheets (GNS) were employed as an air electrode for a sodium-air battery (SAB). High discharge capacity of 9268 mA h g-1 with low overpotential was achieved, indicating its superiority to a normal carbon film electrode. Our results indicate that GNS as air electrodes could improve the electrochemical performance of rechargeable SABs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.


Tang W.,Fudan University | Tang W.,Shanghai Institute of Space Power Sources | Hou Y.,Fudan University | Wang F.,Fudan University | And 3 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2013

LiMn2O4 nanotube with a preferred orientation of (400) planes is prepared by using multiwall carbon nanotubes as a sacrificial template. Because of the nanostructure and preferred orientation, it shows a superfast second-level charge capability as a cathode for aqueous rechargeable lithium battery. At the charging rate of 600C (6 s), 53.9% capacity could be obtained. Its reversible capacity can be 110 mAh/g, and it also presents excellent cycling behavior due to the porous tube structure to buffer the strain and stress from Jahn-Teller effects. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

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