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Zhang X.Z.,Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research
Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology | Year: 2013

To identify the proteins that could improve the resistance of human sperm to cryopreservation using comparative proteomics. A total of 31 semen samples from 10 donors were divided into a high recovery and a low recovery group. Differentially expressed proteins in sperm and seminal plasma were detected and compared between the two groups by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Totally, 22 differentially expressed proteins were found in the two groups, 12 seminal plasma proteins, 9 sperm proteins, and 1 belonging to both. These identified proteins were involved in the maturation, movement, energy metabolism, DNA repair and other activities of spermatozoa. Many proteins were identified in sperm and seminal plasma that might influence the resistance of human sperm to cryopreservation.

Wu J.Q.,Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2012

To explore the effect and heaviness of smoking on the routine parameters of semen quality. A total of 727 eligible subjects including 421 smokers and 306 nonsmokers were selected in 2004 - 2006 in Hebei, Shanxi, Guizhou, Zhejiang and Shandong provinces. Data on background information, general demographic characteristics, exposure to smoking and related confounding factors were obtained through a questionnaire survey. Semen samples of all the subjects were collected during the period of study. Parameters of semen were examined according to the manual recommended by WHO. Four models from the multiple logistic regression regarding the semen routine parameters were used as the dependent variables to be fitted in descending order respectively, while six confounders including area, age, abstinence time, education level, history of alcohol intake and the exposure to pesticides etc., were adjusted. showed that smoking could affect the sperm viability, with significantly higher proportion of abnormal sperm viability seen in the smoking group (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.12 - 2.80). Proportions regarding the abnormal mobility and morphology of sperms in the smoking group were also significantly higher than in the control group, with OR values as 1.51 (95%CI: 1.00 - 2.27) and 2.55 (95%CI: 1.68 - 3. 88) respectively. The density of sperms was significantly decreased in the smoking groups who smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day (OR = 1.70, 95%CI: 1.05 - 2.76) or the total numbers of cigarette consumption exceeding 150 000 (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.03 - 3.29). Smoking showed adverse effects on the quality of semen, especially for heavy or long-term smokers.

Zhu Q.X.,Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research
Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology | Year: 2011

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are natural or man-made agents that interfere in some way with human or animal normal endocrine function, and even influence the endocrine function of their offspring. There are many kinds of EDCs, which are widely present in soil, water, and even food. This review elaborates the impact of EDCs on human and animal semen quality from the viewpoint of epidemiology and biology by focusing on pesticides, plasticizers and detergents.

Xie S.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Shen B.,Nanjing University | Zhang C.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Huang X.,Nanjing University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Although the CRISPR/Cas9/sgRNA system efficiently cleaves intracellular DNA at desired target sites, major concerns remain on potential "off-target" cleavage that may occur throughout the whole genome. In order to improve CRISPR-Cas9 specificity for targeted genome editing and transcriptional control, we describe a bioinformatics tool "sgRNAcas9" , which is a software package developed for fast design of CRISPR sgRNA with minimized off-target effects. This package consists of programs to perform a search for CRISPR target sites (protospacers) with user-defined parameters, predict genome-wide Cas9 potential off-target cleavage sites (POT), classify the POT into three categories, batch-design oligonucleotides for constructing 20-nt (nucleotides) or truncated sgRNA expression vectors, extract desired length nucleotide sequences flanking the on- or off-target cleavage sites for designing PCR primer pairs to validate the mutations by T7E1 cleavage assay. Importantly, by identifying potential off-target sites in silico, the sgRNAcas9 allows the selection of more specific target sites and aids the identification of bona fide off-target sites, significantly facilitating the design of sgRNA for genome editing applications. sgRNAcas9 software package is publicly available at BiooTools website (www.biootools.com) under the terms of the GNU General Public License. © 2014 Xie et al.

Cheng L.,Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Emergency contraception (EC) is using a drug or copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) to prevent pregnancy shortly after unprotected intercourse. Several interventions are available for EC. Information on the comparative effectiveness, safety and convenience of these methods is crucial for reproductive healthcare providers and the women they serve. To determine which EC method following unprotected intercourse is the most effective, safe and convenient to prevent pregnancy. The search included the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Popline, MEDLINE, PubMed, Biosis/EMBASE, Chinese biomedical databases and UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme on Human Reproduction (HRP) emergency contraception database (July 2011). Content experts and pharmaceutical companies were contacted. Randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials including women attending services for EC following a single act of unprotected intercourse were eligible. Data on outcomes and trial characteristics were extracted in duplicate and independently by two review authors. Quality assessment was also done by two review authors independently. Meta-analysis results are expressed as risk ratio (RR) using a fixed-effect model with 95% confidence interval (CI). In the presence of statistically significant heterogeneity a random-effects model was applied. One hundred trials with 55,666 women were included. Most trials were conducted in China (86/100). Meta-analysis indicated that mid-dose mifepristone (25-50 mg) (20 trials; RR 0.64; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.92) or low-dose mifepristone (< 25 mg) (11 trials; RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.50 to 0.97) were significantly more effective than levonorgestrel (LNG), but the significance was marginal when only high-quality studies were included (4 trials; RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.49 to 1.01). Low-dose mifepristone was less effective than mid-dose mifepristone (25 trials; RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.55 to 0.97). This difference was not statistically significant when only high-quality trials were considered (6 trials; RR 0.75; 95% CI 0.50 to 1.10). Ulipristal acetate (UPA) appeared more effective (2 trials; RR 0.63) than LNG at a marginal level (P = 0.09) within 72 hours of intercourse.Regarding effectiveness in relation to the time of administration, women who took LNG within 72 hours of intercourse were significantly less likely to be pregnant than those who took it after 72 hours (4 trials; RR 0.51; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.84). It was not evident that the coitus-treatment time affected the effectiveness of mifepristone and UPA.Single-dose LNG (1.5 mg) showed similar effectiveness as the standard two-dose regimen (0.75 mg 12 h apart) (3 trials; RR 0.84; 95% CI 0.53 to 1.33). This conclusion was not modified by the time elapsed from intercourse to treatment administration.Mifepristone (all doses) (3 trials; RR 0.14; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.41) and LNG (5 trials; RR 0.54; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.80) were more effective than the Yuzpe regimen in preventing pregnancy. One trial compared gestrinone with mifepristone. No significant difference of effectiveness was identified in this trial (996 women; RR 0.75; 95% CI 0.32 to 1.76).All methods of EC were safe. Nausea and vomiting occurred with oestrogen-containing EC methods and progestogen and anti-progestogen methods caused changes in subsequent menses. LNG users were more likely to have a menstrual return before the expected date, but UPA users were more likely to have a menstrual return after the expected date. Menstrual delay was the main adverse effect of mifepristone and seemed to be dose-related. Intermediate-dose mifepristone (25-50 mg) was superior to LNG and Yuzpe regimens. Mifepristone low dose (< 25 mg) may be more effective than LNG (0.75 mg two doses), but this was not conclusive. UPA may be more effective than LNG. LNG proved to be more effective than the Yuzpe regimen. The copper IUD was the most effective EC method and was the only EC method to provide ongoing contraception if left in situ.

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