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Chen J.,Shanghai Institute of Neurosurgery | Xu T.,Shanghai Institute of Neurosurgery
Frontiers in Bioscience | Year: 2013

Despite recent therapeutic advances, most patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) experience disease recurrence, with very poor prognosis. Much work still needs to done to improve the treatment efficacy. The optimal management of patients with recurrent GBM is still controversial. This article summarizes the current status of therapeutic strategies in recurrent glioblastoma patients, with an emphasis on more novel approaches and important recent progress. The clinical evidence of current treatment strategies were collected and reviewed. Patients still need comprehensive treatment for recurrent GBM. Surgery may be useful as adjuvant treatment for patients with symptoms due to the effect of the mass or for patients requiring definitive histopathology, but it generally should be combined with another treatment modality; high-precision re-irradiation such as stereotactic radiosurgery or gamma knife is another option. Chemotherapy like fotemustine, or a metronomic schedule of temozolomide regimens and anti-angiogenic agents like bevacizumab could also be considered. Other targeted molecular inhibitors or antiangiogenic therapies, and immunotherapies are still under investigation and their efficacy needs to be evaluated further in the future. Source

Wang X.,Shanghai Institute of Neurosurgery | Dong Y.,Shanghai Institute of Neurosurgery | Qi X.-Q.,Shanghai Institute of Neurosurgery | Li Y.-M.,Shanghai Institute of Neurosurgery | And 2 more authors.
Critical Care | Year: 2013

To assess the efficacy of antimicrobial-impregnated catheters in preventing catheter-related infections during external ventricular drainage (EVD), we performed a meta-analysis and systematic review. We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized prospective studies (NPSs) related to antimicrobial-impregnated EVD catheters were included. The primary outcome was the rate of cerebrospinal fluid infection (CFI). The secondary outcomes included the rate of time-dependent CFI and catheter bacterial colonization. We further performed subgroup analysis, meta-regression analysis, and microbial spectrum analysis. Four RCTs and four NPSs were included. The overall rate of CFIs was 3.6% in the antimicrobial-impregnated catheter group and 13.7% in the standard catheter group. The pooled data demonstrated that antimicrobial-impregnated catheters were superior to standard catheters in lowering the rate of CFIs (odds ratio (OR) = 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12 to 0.52, P <0.05). In survival analysis, the 20-day infection rate was significantly reduced with the use of antimicrobial-impregnated catheters (hazard ratio = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.95, P <0.05). Furthermore, a significantly decreased rate of catheter bacterial colonization was noticed for antimicrobial-impregnated catheters (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.21 to 0.64, P <0.05). In subgroup analyses, although significant results remained for RCTs and NPSs, a subgroup difference was revealed (P <0.05). Compared with standard catheters, a significantly lower rate of CFIs was noticed for clindamycin/rifampin-impregnated catheters (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.73, P <0.05) and for minocycline/rifampin-impregnated catheters (OR = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.06 to 0.21, P <0.05). However, no statistical significance was found when compared with silver-impregnated catheters (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.69, P = 0.18). In microbial spectrum analysis, antimicrobial-impregnated catheters were shown to have a lower rate of Gram-positive bacterial infection, particularly the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. In conclusion, the use of antimicrobial-impregnated EVD catheters could be beneficial for the prevention of CFI and catheter bacterial colonization. Although antibiotic-coated catheters seem to be effective, no sufficient evidence supports the efficacy of silver-impregnated catheters. © 2013 BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Gong S.,Shanghai Institute of Neurosurgery | Sheng P.,Shanghai Institute of Neurosurgery | Sheng P.,Shanghai University | Jin H.,Shanghai Institute of Neurosurgery | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a common symptom affecting patients with cancer. There are an increasing number of trials examining potential treatments for CRF. Methylphenidate represents one of the most researched drugs and an up-to-date assessment of the evidence for its use is needed. Trials of methylphenidate for CRF provided inconsistent results. This meta-analysis was aimed at assessing the effect and safety of methylphenidate on CRF. Methods: We comprehensively searched the Pubmed, EMBASE, PSYCHInfo and the Cochrane databases in order to identify published studies on the effect of methylphenidate on CRF. Primary outcomes included fatigue. Secondary outcomes included depression, cognition and adverse effects. Findings: A meta-analysis was conducted on five randomized controlled trials and 498 patients were enrolled. Despite a large placebo effect observed in the studies included, pooled data suggested therapeutic effect of methylphenidate on CRF. Subgroup Analyses showed that the efficacy of methylphenidate on CRF is getting better with prolonging treatment duration, with a MD of -3.70 (95% CI -7.03- -0.37, p = 0.03) for long-time group and a MD of -2.49 (95% CI -6.01-1.03, p = 0.17) for short-time group. In general, there was no impact of methylphenidate on depression and cognition associated with CRF. Adverse events were similar between methylphenidate and placebo groups except that more patients reported vertigo, anxiety, anorexia and nausea in methylphenidate group compared to placebo group. Conclusion: Existing trials of methylphenidate on CRF provided limited evidence for the use of methylphenidate to treat CRF. The absolute numbers still remain small, and further confirmation is needed before firm recommendations on their usage and safety can be made in the treatment of CRF. © 2014 Gong et al. Source

Lv L.-Q.,Shanghai Institute of Neurosurgery | Hou L.-J.,Shanghai Institute of Neurosurgery | Yu M.-K.,Shanghai Institute of Neurosurgery | Qi X.-Q.,Shanghai Institute of Neurosurgery | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neurotrauma | Year: 2010

Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a clinical syndrome affecting a subgroup of survivors of severe brain injury. In this study, the prevalence, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) presentation, influence on the clinical course in the intensive care unit (ICU), and effect on neurological recovery of PSH were prospectively surveyed in 87 patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cranial MRI was performed during the first 30 days after injury. The outcome was assessed according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). PSH occurred in 18.4% of patients, with a greater incidence among younger patients and those with lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores. Patients with PSH had more deep lesions as shown on cranial MRI, significantly longer ICU stays, and worse outcomes. PSH was shown to be common among patients with severe TBI who also had deep intraparenchymal lesions. The mechanism by which PSH influences patient outcomes has yet to be defined, but we believe that it may be mediated by diencephalic-mesencephalic dysfunction or disconnection. © Copyright 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

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