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Isasi R.,McGill University | Andrews P.W.,University of Sheffield | Baltz J.M.,Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | Bredenoord A.L.,University Utrecht | And 16 more authors.
Cell Stem Cell

Data sharing is an essential element of research; however, recent scientific and social developments have challenged conventional methods for protecting privacy. Here we provide guidance for determining data sharing thresholds for human pluripotent stem cell research aimed at a wide range of stakeholders, including research consortia, biorepositories, policy-makers, and funders. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Kallberg M.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Bhardwaj N.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Bhardwaj N.,Yale University | Langlois R.,University of Illinois at Chicago | And 5 more authors.

Motivation: Peripheral membrane-targeting domain (MTD) families, such as C1-, C2- and PH domains, play a key role in signal transduction and membrane trafficking by dynamically translocating their parent proteins to specific plasma membranes when changes in lipid composition occur. It is, however, difficult to determine the subset of domains within families displaying this property, as sequence motifs signifying the membrane binding properties are not well defined. For this reason, procedures based on sequence similarity alone are often insufficient in computational identification of MTDs within families (yielding less than 65% accuracy even with a sequence identity of 70%). Results: We present a machine learning protocol for determining membrane-targeting properties achieving 85-90% accuracy in separating binding and non-binding domains within families. Our model is based on features from both sequence and structure, thereby incorporation statistics obtained from the entire domain family and domain-specific physical quantities such as surface electrostatics. In addition, by using the enriched rules in alternating decision tree classifiers, we are able to determine the meaning of the assigned function labels in terms of biological mechanisms. Conclusions: The high accuracy of the learned models and good agreement between the rules discovered using the ADtree classifier and mechanisms reported in the literature reflect the value of machine learning protocols in both prediction and biological knowledge discovery. Our protocol can thus potentially be used as a general function annotation and knowledge mining tool for other protein domains. © The Author(s) 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. Source

Kallberg M.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Lu H.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Lu H.,Shanghai Institute of Medical Genetics | Lu H.,Key Laboratory of Embryo Molecular Biology
BMC Bioinformatics

Background: Mass spectrometry has become a standard method by which the proteomic profile of cell or tissue samples is characterized. To fully take advantage of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques in large scale protein characterization studies robust and consistent data analysis procedures are crucial. In this work we present a machine learning based protocol for the identification of correct peptide-spectrum matches from Sequest database search results, improving on previously published protocols.Results: The developed model improves on published machine learning classification procedures by 6% as measured by the area under the ROC curve. Further, we show how the developed model can be presented as an interpretable tree of additive rules, thereby effectively removing the 'black-box' notion often associated with machine learning classifiers, allowing for comparison with expert rule-of-thumb. Finally, a method for extending the developed peptide identification protocol to give probabilistic estimates of the presence of a given protein is proposed and tested.Conclusions: We demonstrate the construction of a high accuracy classification model for Sequest search results from MS/MS spectra obtained by using the MALDI ionization. The developed model performs well in identifying correct peptide-spectrum matches and is easily extendable to the protein identification problem. The relative ease with which additional experimental parameters can be incorporated into the classification framework, to give additional discriminatory power, allows for future tailoring of the model to take advantage of information from specific instrument set-ups. © 2010 Källberg and Lu; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Isasi R.,McGill University | Knoppers B.M.,McGill University | Andrews P.W.,University of Sheffield | Bredenoord A.,University Utrecht | And 10 more authors.
Regenerative Medicine

Prompted by an increased interest of both research participants and the patient advocacy community in obtaining information about research outcomes and on the use of their biological samples; the international community has begun to debate the emergence of an ethical 'duty to return research results to participants. Furthermore, the use of new technologies (e.g., whole-genome and -exome sequencing) has revealed both genetic data and incidental findings with possible clinical significance. These technologies together with the proliferation of biorepositories, provide a compelling rationale for governments and scientific institutions to adopt prospective policies. Given the scarcity of policies in the context of stem cell research, a discussion on the scientific, ethical and legal implications of disclosing research results for research participants is needed. We present the International Stem Forum Ethics Working Partys Policy Statement and trust that it will stimulate debate and meet the concerns of researchers and research participants alike. © 2012 Future Medicine Ltd. Source

Genchev G.Z.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Kobayashi T.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Lu H.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Lu H.,Shanghai Institute of Medical Genetics | And 2 more authors.

The interaction between calcium and the regulatory site(s) of striated muscle regulatory protein troponin switches on and off muscle contraction. In skeletal troponin binding of calcium to sites I and II of the TnC subunit results in a set of structural changes in the troponin complex, displaces tropomyosin along the actin filament and allows myosin-actin interaction to produce mechanical force. In this study, we used molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the calcium dependent dynamics of the fast skeletal troponin molecule and its TnC subunit in the calcium saturated and depleted states. We focused on the N-lobe and on describing the atomic level events that take place subsequent to removal of the calcium ion from the regulatory sites I and II. A main structural event - a closure of the A/B helix hydrophobic pocket results from the integrated effect of the following conformational changes: the breakage of H-bond interactions between the backbone nitrogen atoms of the residues at positions 2, 9 and sidechain oxygen atoms of the residue at position 12 (N2-OE12/N9-OE12) in sites I and II; expansion of sites I and II and increased site II N-terminal end-segment flexibility; strengthening of the β-sheet scaffold; and the subsequent re-packing of the N-lobe hydrophobic residues. Additionally, the calcium release allows the N-lobe to rotate relative to the rest of the Tn molecule. Based on the findings presented herein we propose a novel model of skeletal thin filament regulation. © 2013 Genchev et al. Source

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