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Wang B.,Shanghai Institute of Landscaping and Gardening | Lrn Y.,Seoul National University | Guo Y.,Wuhan University | Cui X.,Shanghai Institute of Landscaping and Gardening
Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution

Knowledge on the relative contribution of sexual vs. asexual reproduction to genetic diversity is important for understanding the population dynamics of species experiencing population decline and for establishing strategies of population restoration. Potamogeton pectinatus may simultaneously reproduce sexually and asexually and plays an important role in sustaining fresh-water ecosystem; however, its populations declined dramatically in China recently. We used inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to genotype 324 ramets of P. pectinatus from 17 extant Chinese populations. In all, 192 genets were identified. The proportion of distinguishable genets, Nei's gene diversity index, and Simpson's diversity index exhibited considerable levels of clonal and genetic diversity in P. pectinatus populations. Character compatibility analysis revealed that sexual reproduction, rather than clonal reproduction, plays a predominant role in preserving genetic variation of those populations. Seed recruitments, enhanced by habitat disturbances, might partly counteract the effects of habitat loss on genetic diversity of P. pectinatus populations. Source

Wang B.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Wang B.,Shanghai Institute of Landscaping and Gardening | Wang B.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Liao H.,Fudan University | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Botany

Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were characterized in Vallisneria natans, a dominant submerged macrophyte occurring in freshwater bodies of tropical and subtropical zones. Methods and Results: Using the Microsatellite Sequence Enrichment protocol, 16 novel polymorphic codominant loci were developed and characterized in V. natans. In addition to these, six existing microsatellite loci from V. spinulosa were successfully amplified and characterized for V. natans. These primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with 2-7 alleles per locus. Most primers also amplified successfully in V. spinulosa and V. denseserrulata. Conclusions: These results indicate the utility of primers in V. natans for future studies of population genetic structure, as well as their applicability across the genus. © 2011 Botanical Society of America. Source

Shang K.-K.,Shanghai Institute of Landscaping and Gardening | Zheng S.-J.,Shanghai Institute of Landscaping and Gardening | Zhang Q.-F.,Shanghai Institute of Landscaping and Gardening
Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment

A long-term monitoring of community structure and its dynamics of urban forests using the permanent plot- based approach may help reveal development direction and intrinsic mechanism of the forest community. A 1 hm2 lot was set up in the Haiwan National Forest Park, Shanghai, in 2011. Survey was made of the plot and record kept of all the species of plants in the plot, particularly arbors taller than 1.3 m, for analysis of species composition, floristic elements, and vertical and horizontal structures of the community. Results show that a total of 73 species of vascular plants were recorded, belonging to 68 genera and 31 families. Of the 68 genera, 51.8% were of the temperate flora and 46.4% of the tropical one. Arbor individuals taller than 1.3 m reached 3 094, of which 1 670 individuals were evergreen trees of 6 species, accounting for 48.0% in community importance, while the remaining 1 424 individual, deciduous trees of 7 species, accounting for 52.0% in importance. The six species, i. e. Ligustrum lucidum, Camptotheca acuminata, Photinia davidsoniae, Sapium sebiferum, Koelreuteria integrifoliola, Cinnamomum camphora, were in the top of the list in importance, forming a hierarchic structure, vertically. At a 0 - 50 m scale, L. lucidum trees were distributed in groups, C. acuminata trees in an even-random-group pattern, P. davidsoniae and S. sebiferum trees in a group-random-even pattern, and K integrifoliola and C. camphora trees in a random-group-random pattern. In terms of characteristics of population structure, the plot was a patch of evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest dominated with north temperate and pantropic floristic elements, which characterized structure of the natural vegetation of the plot. The establishment of such long-term monitoring sample plots may provide data for following origin, development and succession of urban forests on urbanized plain area of the Yangtze River Delta. Source

Wang B.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Wang B.,Shanghai Institute of Landscaping and Gardening | Wang B.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Song Z.,Fudan University | And 4 more authors.
Aquatic Botany

Vallisneria natans and Vallisneria spinulosa are two morphologically very similar and sympatrically dominant submerged macrophytes in lakes of the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Genetic variation was compared based on a total of 196 individuals from six V. natans populations and 201 individuals from seven V. spinulosa populations. Using eight ISSR primers, a total of 139 and 129 DNA fragments were generated with 121 being polymorphic in V. natans and 99 in V. spinulosa. The two species maintained higher genetic variation both at the species and population levels in comparison with other aquatic macrophytes. A higher level of genetic diversity among populations was found in V. natans than in V. spinulosa: the percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL) in V. natans was 52-62% vs. 38-47% in V. spinulosa; gene diversity (H) was 0.21 in V. natans vs. 0.17 in V. spinulosa. Both an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and F-estimation (FST) showed that most of the total genetic variation resided within populations of both species (AMOVA: 85% and 80%; FST: 0.132 and 0.202), indicating low genetic differentiation between populations. Principal coordinates analysis (PCA) indicated evident gene flow between populations of both species. The outcrossing reproductive mode and pervasive gene flow might have played important roles in maintaining high genetic diversity and in shaping low population differentiation of the two Vallisneria species, while the extent of clonal growth might account for the different levels of population divergence between them. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Zhou Y.,Fudan University | Li X.,Fudan University | Zhao Y.,Fudan University | Zhou W.,Fudan University | And 6 more authors.
Aquatic Botany

Closely related plant species usually have similar characteristics in life history, morphology and reproduction and thus similar requirements for their environment, resulting in intense interspecific competition that may constrain the co-occurrence of congeneric plants. In this study, the reproductive strategies of Vallisneria natans, Vallisneria spinulosa and Vallisneria denseserrulata in China were compared based on studies on natural populations and common garden experiments. Variability in reproductive density (including flowering ramets, spathes, flowers, fruits and seeds) and phenotypic characteristics were significantly higher for V. natans than the other two species. V. spinulosa allocated a considerable proportion of biomass (~27%) to vegetative reproduction through the formation of turions. V. denseserrulata invested less in both sexual and vegetative reproduction than V. natans or V. spinulosa. The differences in reproductive strategy and phenotypic variation may explain the distribution patterns of the three Vallisneria species in eastern China. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.. Source

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