Shanghai Institute of Landscape Gardening

Shanghai, China

Shanghai Institute of Landscape Gardening

Shanghai, China
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Wu H.-B.,Shanghai Institute of Landscape Gardening | Fang H.-L.,Shanghai Institute of Landscape Gardening | Peng H.-L.,Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2016

The effects of different vegetation types, compaction ways and soil basic physico-chemical properties on soil water reservoir in the typical newly-established green belts of Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden were studied. The results showed that the total reservoir capacity, detention capacity and effective storage for the Botanical Garden were lower than those of natural forests. However, the dead storage was very high accounting for 60.6% of the total reservoir capacity, resulting in reduced flood storage and drainage capacity for the greens. The total reservoir capacity and detention capacity of different vegetation types were in order of brush land> tree land> grassland> bamboo land> bare land. The effective storages of the brush land and the tree land were relatively high, whereas those of the bare land and the bamboo land were lower. The ratios of the dead storage over the total reservoir capacity in the bare land and the bamboo land were relatively high with the values 65.5% and 67.6%, respectively. The total reservoir capacity, detention capacity and effective storage of the brush land were significantly different from those of the bare land. The vegetation significantly improved the water storage and retention capacity for the soil, while the compaction by large machinery and man-caused trampling reduced the total reservoir capacity, detention capacity and effective storage of soils. The water reservoir properties were influenced by soil bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, capillary porosity, non-capillary porosity, total porosity, clay and organic matter contents. Therefore, improving the soil physico-chemical properties might increase the soil reservoir capacity of the urban green belt effectively. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.


Liang J.,Shanghai Institute of Landscape Gardening | Ma G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Fang H.,Shanghai Institute of Landscape Gardening | Chen L.,Tongji University | Christie P.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2011

An extensive soil survey was carried out in Shanghai to investigate the spatial distribution and possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban soils. Soil samples were collected from highways, iron-smelting plants, steel-smelting plants, shipbuilding yards, coking plants, power plants, chemical plants, urban parks, university campuses and residential areas and were analyzed for 16 PAHs by gas chromatography with mass detection. High PAH concentrations were found in all locations investigated, with mean values of soil total PAH concentrations in the range 3,279-38,868 μg/kg DM, and the PAH concentrations were significantly influenced by soil organic matter content. Soil PAH profiles in all districts were dominated by PAHs with 4-6 rings. Principal components analysis and diagnostic ratios of PAHs indicate that they were mainly derived from coal combustion and petroleum but in soils from highways the PAHs were derived largely from vehicle exhaust emissions. The high concentrations of PAHs found indicate that many urban soils in Shanghai represent a potential hazard to public health. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Zhang W.,East China University of Science and Technology | Lin K.,East China University of Science and Technology | Miao Y.,East China University of Science and Technology | Dong Q.,Wenzhou Medical College | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

CdTe quantum dots (QDs) are nanocrystals of unique composition and properties that have found many new commercial applications; therefore, their potential toxicity to aquatic organisms has become a hot research topic. The lab study was performed to determine the developmental and behavioral toxicities to zebrafish under continuous exposure to low concentrations of CdTe QDs (1-400nM) coated with thioglycolic acid (TGA). The results show: (1) the 120h LC 50 of 185.9nM, (2) the lower hatch rate and body length, more malformations, and less heart beat and swimming speed of the exposed zebrafish, (3) the brief burst and a higher basal swimming rate of the exposed zebrafish larvae during a rapid transition from light-to-dark, and (4) the vascular hyperplasia, vascular bifurcation, vascular crossing and turbulence of the exposed FLI-1 transgenic zebrafish larvae. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang W.,East China University of Science and Technology | Lin K.,East China University of Science and Technology | Sun X.,East China University of Science and Technology | Dong Q.,Wenzhou Medical College | And 4 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2012

Cadmium selenium (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals that hold wide range of applications and substantial production volumes. Due to unique composition and nanoscale properties, their potential toxicity to aquatic organisms has increasingly gained a great amount of interest. However, the impact of CdSe QDs exposure on zebrafish embryo and larvae remains almost unknown. Therefore, the lab study was performed to determine the developmental and behavioral toxicities to zebrafish under continuous exposure to low level CdSe QDs (0.05-31.25mgL -1) coated with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The results showed MPA-CdSe exposure from embryo to larvae stage affected overall fitness. Our findings for the first time revealed that: (1) The 120h LC 50 of MPA-CdSe for zebrafish was 1.98mgL -1; (2) embryos exposed to MPA-CdSe resulted in malformations incidence and lower hatch rate; (3) abnormal vascular of FLI-1 transgenic zebrafish larvae appeared after exposure to MPA-CdSe including vascular junction, bifurcation, crossing and particle appearance; (4) larvae behavior assessment showed during MPA-CdSe exposure a rapid transition from light-to-dark elicited a similar, brief burst and a higher basal swimming rate; (5) MPA-CdSe induced embryos cell apoptosis in the head and tail region. Results of the observations provide a basic understanding of MPA-CdSe toxicity to aquatic organisms and suggest the need for additional research to identify the toxicological mechanism. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Hao R.-J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Hao R.-J.,Shanghai Institute of Landscape Gardening | Li Z.-P.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Che Y.-P.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science
Agricultural Sciences in China | Year: 2011

Moisture regime plays a crucial role in the mineralization of soil organic carbon (SOC). In this paper, the dynamics of SOC mineralization in typical paddy soils of Changshu, Jiangsu Province, China, was investigated by incubation test in laboratory. The differences in SOC mineralization under aerobic and submerged conditions of paddy soils were also studied. Results showed that the daily mineralization of SOC under different moisture regimes was significantly different in the whole incubation period, at the beginning of the incubation, it decreased quickly under aerobic condition, but increased rapidly under submerged condition, and both remained constant after 10 d of incubation. The differences in SOC mineralization were found to be mainly at the beginning period of the incubation and decreased along with the incubation time. Thus, the difference was not significantly different at the later incubation period. The respiration intensity, daily and cumulative mineralization of SOC under aerobic condition was 2.26-19.11, 0.96-2.41, and 0.96-2.41 times than those under submerged condition, respectively. Statistic analyses showed that the higher the contents of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, the more significant difference in respiration intensity between aerobic and submerged conditions, but the higher the contents of microbial biomass nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon, the more significant difference in daily mineralization of SOC between the two conditions. The decrease in soil microbial activity under submerged condition was the main reason leading to the decrease in respiration intensity, but the decrease in SOC mineralization was also correlated with the changes in dissolved organic carbon over the whole incubation period. © 2011 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.


Zhang W.,East China University of Science and Technology | Zhang M.,East China University of Science and Technology | Lin K.,East China University of Science and Technology | Sun W.,East China University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2012

The acute and chronic toxicological effects of Carbamazepine (CBZ) on Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella pyrenoidosa were explored for the first time in this study. The results showed that CBZ could significantly inhibit the growth of the two algae in almost all treatment groups. EC 50 values indicated that, CBZ had a relatively limited acute toxic effect (0-144h) on S. obliquus and C. pyrenoidosa, while, chronic tests (5-30d) displayed higher toxicity. Chlorophyll a syntheses were nearly all inhibited by CBZ exposure. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in acute tests of both algae were markedly promoted. According to the results, Chlorophyll a content and CAT activity of S. obliquus were more sensitive to CBZ than that of C. pyrenoidosa. While for SOD, quite to the contrary, C. pyrenoidosa was more vulnerable. We obtained a similar result in chronic tests. This research furthers our understanding of CBZ toxicity to aquatic organisms. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang W.,East China University of Science and Technology | Xiong B.,East China University of Science and Technology | Sun W.-F.,East China University of Science and Technology | An S.,East China University of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology | Year: 2014

The acute and chronic toxic effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) on Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa) and Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) were not well understood. The indoor experiments were carried out to observe and analyze the BPA-induced changes. Results of the observations showed that in acute tests BPA could significantly inhibit the growth of both algae, whereas chronic exposure hardly displayed similar trend. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) activities of both algae were promoted in all the treatments. Chlorophyll a synthesis of the two algae exhibited similar inhibitory trend in short-term treatments, and in chronic tests C. pyrenoidosa hardly resulted in visible influence, whereas in contrast, dose-dependent inhibitory effects of S. obliquus could be clearly observed. The experimental results indicated that the growth and Chlorophyll a syntheses of S.obliquus were more sensitive in response to BPA than that of C. pyrenoidosa, whereas for SOD andCAT activities, C. pyrenoidosa was more susceptible. This research provides a basic understanding of BPA toxicity to aquatic organisms. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Zhang W.,East China University of Science and Technology | Xiong B.,Shanghai Institute of Landscape Gardening | Chen L.,East China University of Science and Technology | Lin K.,East China University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

The short- and long-term toxic effects of Pb(II) exposure on Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) and Chlorella protothecoides (C. protothecoides) were not well understood. The lab study was performed to observe the Pb(II) exposure induced changes. Results of the observations show: (1) higher level of Pb(II) (50 or 80mgL-1) could significantly inhibit the growth and chlorophyll a synthesis of both algae in almost all the treatments and dose-response relationships could be clearly observed, (2) the range of EC50 values (24-120h, 67.73-172.45mgL-1) indicated that Pb(II) had a relatively limited short-term toxicity to the two algae, while long-term tests (7-28d, 50.41-63.91mgL-1) displayed higher toxicity and (3) SOD and CAT activities of both algae after exposed to medium level of Pb(II) were significantly promoted, and their response might be more susceptible in short-term exposure. This research provides a basic understanding of Pb(II) toxicity to aquatic organisms. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Wu H.-B.,Shanghai Institute of Landscape Gardening | Fang H.-L.,Shanghai Institute of Landscape Gardening
Chinese Journal of Ecology | Year: 2015

Soil infiltration is the process of water penetrating into soils through surface to form soil water, and it is one of the most important indexes to evaluate the capacity of adjusting soil water. This paper introduces the basic concepts, experimental methods and the major influencing factors on soil infiltration. The important functions of soil infiltration in rain-flood reduction, groundwater supply, pollutant purification and plant growth are discussed in detail. The situation and influencing factors of soil infiltration in Chinese urban green space are also analyzed. Based on the importance of soil infiltration and insufficient consciousness of most people in China, we put forward four lines of suggestion on the research and application of soil infiltration as follows: (1) Soil infiltration should be taken as an index to evaluate the soil quality of urban green space in China as early as possible, and to improve the soil quality evaluation system. (2) Basic research on soil infiltration of green space should be strengthened. (3) Application of the techniques to improve soil infiltration should be enhanced and the infiltration-improved integration technology that is suitable for application in China should be developed. (4) Soil construction and maintenance of the greening projects should be changed. © 2015, Chinese Journal of Ecology. All rights reserved.


Zhang W.,East China University of Science and Technology | Li L.,East China University of Science and Technology | Lin K.,East China University of Science and Technology | Xiong B.,East China University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2012

This study investigated the enhancement of synergetic degradation of Fe/Cu/C (Fe: commercial iron, Cu: solid product of Fe reacted with CuSO 4, C: carbon powder) for simulated groundwater contaminated by trichloroethylene (TCE). Zero valent iron (ZVI) as a reducing agent was proved to be effective for TCE removal. The Fe/Cu/C system resulted in higher reduction efficiency as a result of the synergetic role of Fe/Cu and Fe/C microelectrode than the Fe (ZVI) or Fe/Cu system, and the half-life was only about 0.4 h. When m(Fe) achieved 12.5 g L -1, the residual concentration of TCE almost leveled off. Fe:Cu = 10:1 or m(C) = 0.0086 g can induce the optimum function for TCE degradation. A neutral condition was appropriate for TCE degradation, and an acidic system slightly favored TCE dechlorination compared with an alkaline system. GC/MS analysis indicated that TCE was dechlorinated to 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC), and 1,1-DCE might be the precursor. Fe/Cu/C reduction is a highly promising technique for TCE removal, and it is an excellent alternative to enhance TCE reductive dechlorination. © IWA Publishing 2012.

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