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Zhang W.,East China University of Science and Technology | Xiong B.,East China University of Science and Technology | Sun W.-F.,East China University of Science and Technology | An S.,East China University of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology | Year: 2014

The acute and chronic toxic effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) on Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa) and Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) were not well understood. The indoor experiments were carried out to observe and analyze the BPA-induced changes. Results of the observations showed that in acute tests BPA could significantly inhibit the growth of both algae, whereas chronic exposure hardly displayed similar trend. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) activities of both algae were promoted in all the treatments. Chlorophyll a synthesis of the two algae exhibited similar inhibitory trend in short-term treatments, and in chronic tests C. pyrenoidosa hardly resulted in visible influence, whereas in contrast, dose-dependent inhibitory effects of S. obliquus could be clearly observed. The experimental results indicated that the growth and Chlorophyll a syntheses of S.obliquus were more sensitive in response to BPA than that of C. pyrenoidosa, whereas for SOD andCAT activities, C. pyrenoidosa was more susceptible. This research provides a basic understanding of BPA toxicity to aquatic organisms. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Hao R.-J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Hao R.-J.,Shanghai Institute of Landscape Gardening | Li Z.-P.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Che Y.-P.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science
Agricultural Sciences in China | Year: 2011

Moisture regime plays a crucial role in the mineralization of soil organic carbon (SOC). In this paper, the dynamics of SOC mineralization in typical paddy soils of Changshu, Jiangsu Province, China, was investigated by incubation test in laboratory. The differences in SOC mineralization under aerobic and submerged conditions of paddy soils were also studied. Results showed that the daily mineralization of SOC under different moisture regimes was significantly different in the whole incubation period, at the beginning of the incubation, it decreased quickly under aerobic condition, but increased rapidly under submerged condition, and both remained constant after 10 d of incubation. The differences in SOC mineralization were found to be mainly at the beginning period of the incubation and decreased along with the incubation time. Thus, the difference was not significantly different at the later incubation period. The respiration intensity, daily and cumulative mineralization of SOC under aerobic condition was 2.26-19.11, 0.96-2.41, and 0.96-2.41 times than those under submerged condition, respectively. Statistic analyses showed that the higher the contents of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, the more significant difference in respiration intensity between aerobic and submerged conditions, but the higher the contents of microbial biomass nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon, the more significant difference in daily mineralization of SOC between the two conditions. The decrease in soil microbial activity under submerged condition was the main reason leading to the decrease in respiration intensity, but the decrease in SOC mineralization was also correlated with the changes in dissolved organic carbon over the whole incubation period. © 2011 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.


Zhang W.,East China University of Science and Technology | Lin K.,East China University of Science and Technology | Sun X.,East China University of Science and Technology | Dong Q.,Wenzhou Medical College | And 4 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2012

Cadmium selenium (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals that hold wide range of applications and substantial production volumes. Due to unique composition and nanoscale properties, their potential toxicity to aquatic organisms has increasingly gained a great amount of interest. However, the impact of CdSe QDs exposure on zebrafish embryo and larvae remains almost unknown. Therefore, the lab study was performed to determine the developmental and behavioral toxicities to zebrafish under continuous exposure to low level CdSe QDs (0.05-31.25mgL -1) coated with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The results showed MPA-CdSe exposure from embryo to larvae stage affected overall fitness. Our findings for the first time revealed that: (1) The 120h LC 50 of MPA-CdSe for zebrafish was 1.98mgL -1; (2) embryos exposed to MPA-CdSe resulted in malformations incidence and lower hatch rate; (3) abnormal vascular of FLI-1 transgenic zebrafish larvae appeared after exposure to MPA-CdSe including vascular junction, bifurcation, crossing and particle appearance; (4) larvae behavior assessment showed during MPA-CdSe exposure a rapid transition from light-to-dark elicited a similar, brief burst and a higher basal swimming rate; (5) MPA-CdSe induced embryos cell apoptosis in the head and tail region. Results of the observations provide a basic understanding of MPA-CdSe toxicity to aquatic organisms and suggest the need for additional research to identify the toxicological mechanism. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhang W.,East China University of Science and Technology | Lin K.,East China University of Science and Technology | Miao Y.,East China University of Science and Technology | Dong Q.,Wenzhou Medical College | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

CdTe quantum dots (QDs) are nanocrystals of unique composition and properties that have found many new commercial applications; therefore, their potential toxicity to aquatic organisms has become a hot research topic. The lab study was performed to determine the developmental and behavioral toxicities to zebrafish under continuous exposure to low concentrations of CdTe QDs (1-400nM) coated with thioglycolic acid (TGA). The results show: (1) the 120h LC 50 of 185.9nM, (2) the lower hatch rate and body length, more malformations, and less heart beat and swimming speed of the exposed zebrafish, (3) the brief burst and a higher basal swimming rate of the exposed zebrafish larvae during a rapid transition from light-to-dark, and (4) the vascular hyperplasia, vascular bifurcation, vascular crossing and turbulence of the exposed FLI-1 transgenic zebrafish larvae. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang W.,East China University of Science and Technology | Li L.,East China University of Science and Technology | Lin K.,East China University of Science and Technology | Xiong B.,East China University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2012

This study investigated the enhancement of synergetic degradation of Fe/Cu/C (Fe: commercial iron, Cu: solid product of Fe reacted with CuSO 4, C: carbon powder) for simulated groundwater contaminated by trichloroethylene (TCE). Zero valent iron (ZVI) as a reducing agent was proved to be effective for TCE removal. The Fe/Cu/C system resulted in higher reduction efficiency as a result of the synergetic role of Fe/Cu and Fe/C microelectrode than the Fe (ZVI) or Fe/Cu system, and the half-life was only about 0.4 h. When m(Fe) achieved 12.5 g L -1, the residual concentration of TCE almost leveled off. Fe:Cu = 10:1 or m(C) = 0.0086 g can induce the optimum function for TCE degradation. A neutral condition was appropriate for TCE degradation, and an acidic system slightly favored TCE dechlorination compared with an alkaline system. GC/MS analysis indicated that TCE was dechlorinated to 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC), and 1,1-DCE might be the precursor. Fe/Cu/C reduction is a highly promising technique for TCE removal, and it is an excellent alternative to enhance TCE reductive dechlorination. © IWA Publishing 2012.

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