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Nie Y.,Fudan University | Nie Y.,Shanghai Institute of Kidney Disease and Dialysis | Zou J.,Fudan University | Zou J.,Shanghai Institute of Kidney Disease and Dialysis | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Background: Sudden cardiac death is one of the primary causes of mortality in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Prolonged QTc interval is associated with increased rate of sudden cardiac death. The aim of this article is to assess the abnormalities found in electrocardiograms (ECGs), and to explore factors that can influence the QTc interval. Methods: A total of 141 conventional HD patients were enrolled in this study. ECG tests were conducted on each patient before a single dialysis session and 15 minutes before the end of dialysis session (at peak stress). Echocardiography tests were conducted before dialysis session began. Blood samples were drawn by phlebotomy immediately before and after the dialysis session. Results: Before dialysis, 93.62% of the patients were in sinus rhythm, and approximately 65% of the patients showed a prolonged QTc interval (i.e., a QTc interval above 440 ms in males and above 460ms in females). A comparison of ECG parameters before dialysis and at peak stress showed increases in heart rate (77.45±11.92 vs. 80.38±14.65 bpm, p = 0.001) and QTc interval (460.05±24.53 ms vs. 470.93±24.92 ms, p<0.001). After dividing patients into two groups according to the QTc interval, lower pre-dialysis serum concentrations of potassium (K+), calcium (Ca (Ca2+), phosphorus, calcium∗ phosphorus (Ca∗P), and higher concentrations of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were found in the group with prolonged QTc intervals. Patients in this group also had a larger left atrial diameter (LAD) and a thicker interventricular septum, and they tended to be older than patients in the other group. Then patients were divided into two groups according to ΔQTc (ΔQTc = QTc peak-stress-QTc pre-HD). When analyzing the patients whose QTc intervals were longer at peak stress than before HD, we found that they had higher concentrations of Ca2+ and P5+ and lower concentrations of K+, ferritin, UA, and BNP. They were also more likely to be female. In addition, more cardiac construction abnormalities were found in this group. In multiple regression analyses, serum Ca2+ concentration before HD and LAD were independent variables of QTc interval prolongation. UA, ferritin, and interventricular septum were independent variables of ΔQTc. Conclusion: Prolonged QT interval is very common in HD patients and is associated with several risk factors. An appropriate concentration of dialysate electrolytes should be chosen depending on patients' clinical conditions. © 2016 Nie et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Nie Y.,Fudan University | Nie Y.,Shanghai Institute of Kidney Disease and Dialysis | Zhang Z.,Fudan University | Zhang Z.,Shanghai Institute of Kidney Disease and Dialysis | And 13 more authors.
Hemodialysis International | Year: 2016

Introduction Hemodialysis (HD) patients are under observably elevated cardiovascular mortality. Cardiac dysfunction is closely related to death caused by cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In the general population, repetitive myocardial ischemia induced left ventricular (LV) dysfunction may progress to irreversible loss of contraction step by step, and finally lead to cardiac death. In HD patients, to remove water and solute accumulated from 48 or 72 hours of interdialysis period in a 4-hour HD session will induce myocardial ischemia. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with HD-induced LV systolic dysfunction and provide some evidences for clinical strategies. Methods We recruited 31 standard HD patients for this study from Fudan University Zhongshan hospital. Echocardiography was performed predialysis, at peak stress during HD (15 minutes prior to the end of dialysis), and 30 minutes after HD. Auto functional imaging (AFI) was used to assess the incidence and persistence of HD-induced regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMAs). Blood samples were drawn to measure biochemical variables. Findings Among totally 527 segments of 31 patients, 93.54% (29/31) patients and 51.40% (276/527) segments were diagnosed as RWMAs. Higher cTnT (0.060 ± 0.030 vs. 0.048 ± 0.015 ng/mL, P = 0.023), phosphate (2.07 ± 0.50 vs. 1.49 ± 0.96 mmol/L, P = 0.001), UFR (11.00 ± 3.89 vs. 8.30 ± 2.66 mL/Kg/h, P = 0.039) and lower albumin (37.83 ± 4.48 vs. 38.38 ± 2.53 g/L, P = 0.050) were found in patients with severe RWMAs (RWMAs in more than 50% segments). After univariate and multivariate analysis, interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) was found as independent risk factor of severe RWMAs (OR = 1.047, 95%CI 1.155–4.732, P = 0.038). Discussion LV systolic dysfunction induced by HD is prevalent in conventional HD patients and should be paid attention to. Patients would benefit from better weight control during interdialytic period to reduce ultrafiltration rate. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis

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