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Cai W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Cai W.,Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research | Cai W.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care | Year: 2014

Purpose of review: This review is to explore the childhood nutrition and health in relation to socioeconomic changes in transitional countries, and to describe the good experiences and policies in these countries to combat childhood nutritional challenges. RECENT FINDINGS: Double burden of malnutrition - the coexistence of under-nutrition and over-nutrition in the same population - is a prominent public health concern in transitional countries. With rapid industrialization, these countries are facing a growing epidemic of overweight/obesity in children and adolescents. The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity is a likely consequence of behavioral changes, and accompanied with an increasing incidence of noncommunicable chronic diseases. Although remarkable improvement of childhood nutrition was achieved, the stunting growth and micronutrient deficiency remain to be child health issues in transitional countries. SUMMARY: The social transition caused a broad range of nutrition-associated problems. Previous successful experiences indicated that if appropriate action is undertaken, the child nutritional problems accompanied with economic transition could be controlled to some extent. However, greater efforts are needed to improve the status of childhood nutrition in transitional countries. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Chen Y.,Hua Medicine | Chen Y.,Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research | Chen Y.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Xiao Y.,Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research | And 17 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2013

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which consists of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is a chronic, inflammatory disorder of the gastro-intestinal tract with unknown etiology. Current evidence suggests that intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is prominently linked to the pathogenesis of IBD. Therefore, maintaining the intact of epithelium has potential roles in improving pathophysiology and clinical outcomes of IBD. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as post-transcriptional gene regulators and regulate many biological processes, including embryonal development, cell differentiation, apoptosis and proliferation. In this study, we found that miR-200b decreased significantly in inflamed mucosa of IBD, especially for UC, when compared with their adjacent normal tissue. Simultaneously, we also found that the genes of E-cadherin and cyclin D1 were reduced significantly and correlated positively to the miR-200b. In addition, the upregulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) was inversely correlated to the miR-200b in IBD. To investigate the possible roles of miR-200b in IECs maintaining, we used TGF-β1 to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in IEC-6 initially. After sustained over-expressing miR-200b in IEC-6, the EMT was inhibited significantly that was characterized by downregulation of vimentin and upregulation of E-cadherin. Furthermore, we found that miR-200b enhanced E-cadherin expression through targeting of ZEB1, which encode transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin. SMAD2 was found to act as a target of miR-200b with direct evidence that miR-200b binding to the 30 UTR of SAMD2 and the ability of miR-200b to repress SMAD2 protein expression. With SMAD2 depletion, the expression of vimentin decreased correspondingly, which suggested miR-200b might reduce vimentin through regulating the SMAD2. With endogenous overexpression of miR-200b, the proliferation of IEC-6 cells increased significantly by increasing S-phase entry and promoting expression of the protein cyclin D1. Summarily, our study suggested a potential role for mir-200b in maintaining intact of intestinal epithelium through inhibiting EMT and promoting proliferation of IECs. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Li F.,Shanghai Pediatric Translational Research Institute | Li F.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Jiang F.,Shanghai Pediatric Translational Research Institute | Jin X.,Shanghai Pediatric Translational Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
BMC Pediatrics | Year: 2012

Background: Unintentional injury remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. The aims of this study were to assess a baseline level of first aid knowledge and overall attitudes regarding first aid among staff members in Shanghai preschools.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among the staff members at selected preschools. A stratified random sampling method was first used to identify suitable subjects. Data were obtained using a multiple-choice questionnaire. A standardized collection of demographics was performed and participants were given the aforementioned questionnaire to indicate knowledge of and attitudes toward first aid.Results: 1067 subjects completed the questionnaire. None of the surveyed employees answered all questions correctly; only 39 individuals (3.7%) achieved passing scores. The relative number of correct answers to specific questions ranged from 16.5% to 90.2%. In particular, subjects lacked knowledge regarding first aid for convulsive seizures (only 16.5% answered correctly), chemical injuries to the eye (23%), inhaled poison (27.6%), and choking and coughing (30.1%). A multiple linear regression analysis showed scores were significantly higher among staff members with more education, those who had received first aid training before or were already healthcare providers, younger employees, and staff members from rural districts. Most employees agreed that giving first aid was helpful; the vast majority felt that it was important and useful for them to learn pediatric first aid.Conclusions: The level of first-aid knowledge among preschool staffs in Shanghai was low. There is an urgent need to educate staff members regarding first aid practices and the various risk factors relating to specific injuries. © 2012 Li et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Shen Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhang C.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Chen Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Chen Y.,Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research | Chen Y.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression | Year: 2015

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine that controls an immense number of cellular responses and plays a prominent role in maintaining homeostasis of most human organs. In the intestine, the TGF-β is involved in mucosal defense, immune tolerance, inhibition of acute inflammation, promoting the wound-healing process, and suppressing tumor initiation. However, TGF-β exhibits Janus-like features under certain physiologic conditions and chronic inflammation (e.g., inflammatory bowel diseases [IBDs]). Excessive TGF-β in IBDs favors chronic inflammation, incurs pathologic remolding, and facilitates the progression of colitis-associated inflammation (CAC). Considering the increasingly crucial roles of TGF-Β in the development of IBDs, we overview its pathways and multifaceted effects at the steady-state and IBD conditions of the gut, respectively. In addition, we present potential therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring normal TGF-β signaling in IBDs. © 2015 Begell House, Inc.

Xiao Y.,Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research | Xiao Y.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Qu C.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Ge W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 5 more authors.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Background & Aims: It has recently been reported that thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) has anti-fibrogenic effects in human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vitro, but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of Tβ4 in the proliferation, migration, and activation of HSCs. Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), immunohistochemistry, and western blot assays were utilized to determine the expression levels of Tβ4 in serum, liver tissues, and LX-2 cells. Tβ4 was depleted in LX-2 cells using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Cell proliferation was analyzed using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) viability assays, and cell migration was investigated using wound-healing and transwell migration assays. Results: The expression of Tβ4 was significantly reduced during the progression of liver fibrosis. The depletion of Tβ4 significantly promoted the proliferation and migration of LX-2 cells via the activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The pro-migratory and pro-proliferative effects of Tβ4 depletion in LX-2 cells can be counteracted by treatment with the Akt inhibitor MK-2206. In addition, Tβ4 depletion was also associated with the activation of HSCs via the enhanced expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin. Conclusions: Our results suggest that Tβ4 participates in liver fibrosis by inhibiting the migration, proliferation, and activation of HSCs and that Tβ4 may be an effective target in the treatment of liver fibrosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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