Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control

Shanghai, China

Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control

Shanghai, China
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Hu K.,Fudan University | Hu K.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Shi Y.,Lanzhou University | Jiang W.,Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Pharmaceutics | Year: 2011

A novel biodegradable brain drug delivery system, the lactoferrin (Lf) conjugated polyethylene glycol-polylactide-polyglycolide (PEG-PLGA) nanoparticle (Lf-NP) was constructed in this paper with its in vitro and in vivo delivery properties evaluated by a fluorescent probe coumarin-6. Lf was thiolated and conjugated to the distal maleimide function surrounding on the pegylated nanoparticle to form Lf-NP. TEM observation and ELISA analysis confirmed the existence of active Lf on the surface of Lf-NP. The results of qualitative and quantitative uptake studies of coumarin-6 incorporated Lf-NP showed a more pronounced accumulation of Lf-NP in bEnd.3 cells than that of unconjugated nanoparticle (NP). Further uptake inhibition study indicated that the increased uptake of Lf-NP was via an additional clathrin mediated endocytosis processes. Following intravenous administration, a near 3 fold of coumarin-6 was found in the mice brain carried by Lf-NP compared to that carried by NP. Intravenous injection of urocortin loaded Lf-NP effectively attenuated the striatum lesion caused by 6-hydroxydopamine in rats as indicated by the behavioral test, the immunohistochemistry test and striatal transmitter content detection results. The cell viability test and CD68 immunohistochemistry demonstrated the acceptable toxicity of the system. All these results demonstrated that Lf-NP was a promising brain drug delivery system with reasonable toxicity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wang Q.,Dalian Medical University | Long Y.,Dalian Medical University | Hang A.,Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control | Zan G.-Y.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica | And 3 more authors.
Psychopharmacology | Year: 2016

Rationale: Opioid receptors are implicated in the regulation of motivation and emotion. However, animal studies show that activation of κ opioid receptor produces contrasting mood-altering effects in models of anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, and consequently, the role of κ receptor in mood control remains unsettled. The effect of κ/μ opioid combination in emotion regulation was unexplored. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of (-)-3-N-ethylaminothiazolo [5,4-b]-N-cyclopropylmethylmorphinan hydrochloride (ATPM-ET), a novel κ agonist and μ partial agonist, in regulating emotional responses. Methods: The emotional responses of ATPM-ET were detected in the elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST). Selective κ antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) and μ antagonist β-funaltrexamine (β-FNA) were applied to determine the type of receptor involved. The conditioned place aversion model was used to evaluate the effects on aversive emotion. Results: In the EPM and OFT, ATPM-ET (1 and 2 mg/kg, s.c.) significantly increased the time spent in the open arm and in the central area, respectively. In the FST and TST, ATPM-ET (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, s.c.) significantly reduced the duration of immobility. These effects were prevented by nor-BNI (10 mg/kg, i.p., −24 h), but not by β-FNA (10 and20 mg/kg, i.p., −24 h) pretreatment. At the dose of 2 mg/kg, ATPM-ET did not induce conditioned place aversion. Conclusions: ATPM-ET, at doses from 0.5 to 2 mg/kg, produced anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects without inducing aversive emotion. These effects were more closely mediated by activation of κ receptor than μ receptor. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Xiong Y.,Zhejiang Chinese Medical University | Chen J.,China Pharmaceutical University | Guo D.,Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2014

Nobiliside A (Nob) is a new triterpenoid saponin separated from Holothuria noblilis. In this article, a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method was established to quantify Nob, a hemolytic saponin, in rat blood and tissue homogenates. Standard curves were linear (r= 0.9988-0.9995) over the range 50-5000. ng/mL in blood and 100-10000. ng/g in tissues. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 50. ng/mL for Nob. The novel method was rapid, accurate, highly sensitive and highly selective. Using this method, the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of Nob liposome and Nob solution in Sprague-Dawley rats after a single intravenous dose of 1. mg/kg were then investigated. Nob was cleared slowly from circulation. There was no significant difference of the pharmacokinetic parameters in blood between Nob solution and Nob liposome. The highest AUC of Nob was observed in liver for the two groups, followed by spleen, lungs, kidney and heart. Compared with Nob solution, Nob liposome showed much higher AUC in liver and spleen and much lower AUC in kidney, heart and lung, which might be one important reason for the decreased toxicity of Nob. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Chen G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Miao S.,Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Residues of malachite green (MG), gentian violet (GV), and their leuco metabolites in channel catfish muscle were individually determined by HPLC using diode array and fluorescence detectors and confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. This detection scheme obviates a PbO2 reactor that converts leuco forms to chromatic forms for absorbance detection, therefore eliminating uncertainties in oxidant depletion and data integrity. Extraction was performed once in pH 3 McIlvaine buffer and acetonitrile, followed by cleanup using a polymeric strong cation-exchange column. Liquid-liquid extraction was excluded to provide an environmentally responsible and relatively rapid protocol. Spectrometric limits of detection (LOD; S/N = 3) for MG (λ = 620 nm) and GV (λ = 588 nm) were 0.38 and 0.26 ng/g with 44.5-49.2% and 92.2-101.4% recoveries (1-10 ng/g, n = 6), respectively. Fluorometric LOD (S/N = 3) for LMG and LGV (λex = 266 nm, λem = 360 nm) were 0.10 and 0.09 ng/g with 74.3-84.5% and 80.6-86.5% recoveries (1-10 ng/g, n = 6), respectively. This simplified protocol saves costs and meets the sensitivity requirements set by the Food and Drug Administration and the European Union. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Chen G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Liu G.,Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control | Qin F.,Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Oxytetracycline (OTC) is used worldwide to protect crops against bacterial diseases. The US Environmental Protection Agency approved its use in apple, pear, nectarine, and peach, and set residue tolerance at 350 ng g-1. A europium-sensitised luminescence (ESL) method was developed for in-situ determination of OTC residue in these fruits. After extraction in Na 2EDTA-NaCl-McIlvaine buffer at pH 4 and filtration, cleanup was performed using hydrophilic-lipophilic balance cartridges. ESL was measured using a portable time-resolved fluorometer. The signal responded linearly over three orders of magnitude (10-10000 ng g-1) with 17-50 ng g -1 limits of quantitation and 2% averaged relative standard deviation. Recoveries were 84% and 82% at 100 and 350 ng g-1, respectively. Inter-laboratory validation was performed by HPLC-MS/MS. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chen G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Liu G.,Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control
Sensing and Instrumentation for Food Quality and Safety | Year: 2011

Oxytetracycline residue in shrimp muscle was determined using a portable time-resolved analyzer. After extraction in EDTA-metaphosphoric acid and filtration, the analyte was cleaned up using hydrophilic-lipophilic balance cartridges. Europium-sensitized luminescence (ESL) was measured at λ ex = 385 nm and λ em = 620 nm. Recoveries were 80. 3 and 79. 7% at 100 ng g -1 and 2 μg g -1, respectively. The signal intensity was linear (r 2 ≥ 0.996) in each decade in the 5-5,000 ng g -1 range. Averaged relative standard deviation was ~2% and limit of detection was 8. 3 ng g -1. This instrument-method combination enabled sensitive in-situ quantification of OTC residue in shrimp. The ESL results were validated by HPLC-MS/MS. © 2012 Science+Business Media, LLC.

Chen G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Du Y.,Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Danofloxacin (DANO) residue in bovine muscle was screened at 200 ng/g by terbium-sensitized luminescence (TSL) directly measured on 10 x 6 mm C18 sorbent strips. The analyte was first adsorbed on sorbent surface by immersion in defatted homogenates. After reagent application and desiccation, TSL was directly measured on sorbent surfaces at λex = 273 nm and λem = 546 nm. The luminescence intensity was linearly dependent on DANO concentration in the 0-1000 ng/g range (R2 = 0.9967). A threshold was established at x200 - 3σ 200, where x200 and σ200 are the mean and standard deviation, respectively, of the DANO signals at 200 ng/g. Among 48 blind samples randomly fortified at 0-1000 ng/g, 45 were screened correctly and 3 negative samples were presumed positive. This simple screening protocol has the potential to significantly reduce sample numbers and hence improve sample throughput and save assay costs. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Koesukwiwat U.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Koesukwiwat U.,Chulalongkorn University | Lehotay S.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Miao S.,Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control | Leepipatpiboon N.,Chulalongkorn University
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2010

A higher monitoring rate is highly desirable in the labs, but this goal is typically limited by sample throughput. In this study, we sought to assess the real-world applicability of fast, low-pressure GC-time-of-flight MS (LP-GC/TOFMS) for the identification and quantification of 150 pesticides in tomato, strawberry, potato, orange, and lettuce samples. Buffered and unbuffered versions of QuEChERS (which stands for " quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" ) using dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) and disposable pipette extraction (DPX) for clean-up were compared for sample preparation. For clean-up of all sample types, a combination of 150mg MgSO4, 50mg primary secondary amine (PSA), 50mg C18, and 7.5mg graphitized carbon black (GCB) per mL extract was used. No significant differences were observed in the results between the different sample preparation versions. QuEChERS took <10min per individual sample, or <1h for two chemists to prepare 32 pre-homogenized samples, and using LP-GC/TOFMS, <10min run time and <15min cycle time allowed >32 injections in 8h. Overall, >126 analytes gave recoveries (3 spiking levels) in the range of 70-120% with <20% RSD. The results indicate that LP-GC/TOFMS for GC-amenable analytes matches UHPLC-MS/MS in terms of sample throughput and turnaround time for their routine, concurrent use in the analysis of a wide range of analytes in QuEChERS extracts to achieve reliable quantification and identification of pesticide residues in foods. © 2010.

Mao D.-Z.,Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control | Weng X.-X.,Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control | Yang Y.-J.,Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2012

Sildenafil and tadalafil are inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type 5, which are frequently added into healthcare products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using micro-Raman spectroscopy as a non-destructive technique to screen for sildenafil and tadalafil in adulterated healthcare products. Using a viewing microscope, the suspect area of healthcare products was selected, which had a discernable crystal form or shape from the surrounding zone. Optimization of instrumental parameters of the Raman spectrometer was chosen to reduce the background fluorescence, and the Raman spectra were collected. The spectra collected were compared with the standard Raman spectra of pure sildenafil and tadalafil. Samples with an identifiable Raman signature to that of sildenafil or tadalafil could be confirmed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Additionally, wavelet denoising combined with similarity calculation was used to establish an automated approach for discrimination of adulterated healthcare products. Correlation coefficient was chosen for similarity calculation based on the spectra collected and the standard Raman spectra of pure sildenafil and tadalafil. We compared ten samples, secured by administrative authorities in Shanghai, to analyse and demonstrate the capabilities of our proposed method. We established six samples containing sildenafil or tadalafil warranting analysis using LC/MS. Thus, the use of micro Raman spectroscopy provides a quick, convenient and non-destructive method for screening adulterated chemicals in healthcare products. Raman spectroscopy combined with similarity calculation requires little training after spectra library is developed, thus showing great promise to identify the adulterated healthcare products in the future. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Chen G.-L.,Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control | Fang Y.-Y.,Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

This chapter describes the LC-MS/MS methods for the determination of antibiotics residues in food matrices. The types of antibiotics include β-lactam antibiotics, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, nitrofurans, and chloramphenicol (CAP). The food matrices are mainly from animal origin, such as animal tissues, fishes (marine products), eggs, milk, honey, and so on. The methods and procedures are covered, including three parts: (1) Liquid chromatographic conditions, (2) mass spectrometer conditions, including ionization source, analyzer, and acquisition, and (3) extraction and clean-up methods. In each case, the standard operating procedures (SOPs) for analysis are given with sensitivity, linearity, precision, and recovery. Some criteria of maximum residue limits (MRLs) from the legislation are listed. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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