Time filter

Source Type

Chung W.-H.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital | Chung W.-H.,Drug Hypersensitivity Clinical and Research Center | Chung W.-H.,Chang Gung University | Chang W.-C.,National Yang Ming University | And 43 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

IMPORTANCE: The antiepileptic drug phenytoin can cause cutaneous adverse reactions, ranging from maculopapular exanthema to severe cutaneous adverse reactions, which include drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. The pharmacogenomic basis of phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the genetic factors associated with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Case-control study conducted in 2002-2014 among 105 cases with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions (n=61 Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis and n=44 drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms), 78 cases with maculopapular exanthema, 130 phenytoin-tolerant control participants, and 3655 population controls from Taiwan, Japan, and Malaysia. A genome-wide association study (GWAS), direct sequencing of the associated loci, and replication analysis were conducted using the samples from Taiwan. The initial GWAS included samples of 60 cases with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions and 412 population controls from Taiwan. The results were validated in (1) 30 cases with severe cutaneous adverse reactions and 130 phenytoin-tolerant controls from Taiwan, (2) 9 patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis and 2869 population controls from Japan, and (3) 6 cases and 374 population controls from Malaysia. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Specific genetic factors associated with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions. RESULTS: The GWAS discovered a cluster of 16 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP2C genes at 10q23.33 that reached genome-wide significance. Direct sequencing of CYP2C identified missense variant rs1057910 (CYP2C9*3) that showed significant association with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions (odds ratio, 12; 95%CI, 6.6-20; P=1.1 × 10-17). The statistically significant association between CYP2C9*3 and phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions was observed in additional samples from Taiwan, Japan, and Malaysia. Ameta-analysis using the data from the 3 populations showed an overall odds ratio of 11 (95%CI, 6.2-18; z=8.58; P < .00001) for CYP2C9*3 association with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions. Delayed clearance of plasma phenytoin was detected in patients with severe cutaneous adverse reactions, especially CYP2C9*3 carriers, providing a functional link of the associated variants to the disease. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This study identified CYP2C variants, including CYP2C9*3, known to reduce drug clearance, as important genetic factors associated with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions. Copyright 2014 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

Wu H.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Cao X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wu Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 12 more authors.
ACS Synthetic Biology

The ability to regulate endogenous gene expression is critical in biological research. Existing technologies, such as RNA interference, zinc-finger regulators, transcription-activator-like effectors, and CRISPR-mediated regulation, though proved to be competent in significantly altering expression levels, do not provide a quantitative adjustment of regulation effect. As a solution to this problem, we place CRISPR-mediated interference under the control of blue light: while dCas9 protein is constitutively expressed, guide RNA transcription is regulated by YF1-FixJ-PFixK2, a blue light responding system. With a computer-controlled luminous device, the quantitative relationship between target gene expression and light intensity has been determined. As the light intensifies, the expression level of target gene gradually ascends. This remarkable property enables sensor-CRISPRi to accurately interrogate cellular activities. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Li M.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Li M.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Shi C.-J.,Peking Union Medical College | Shi Y.-Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 16 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics

ZNF804A, a recently identified risk gene for schizophrenia, has been extensively investigated and the principle finding for this locus has been the association with SNP rs1344706 in populations of European ancestries. However, in Asian populations, only a few studies have been conducted for rs1344706 and the results were inconsistent. Here, we studied rs1344706 and schizophrenia susceptibility in multiple Asian case-control samples (10 Chinese and 2 Japanese samples; N=21,062), and the meta-analyses indicated non-significant association of rs1344706 with schizophrenia (P=0.26), suggesting the same SNP identified in European samples is not predisposing risk in Asians. Further genotyping and association analyses of a set of SNPs spanning the entire genomic region of ZNF804A (520kb) identified no association except for SNP rs359895 (P=7.8×10-5, N=5,172), a newly reported risk SNP located in the ZNF804A promoter region with functional implications. This suggests that ZNF804A may also contribute to schizophrenia susceptibility in Asians although the risk SNP is different from that in Europeans, and it was supported by the detected up-regulation of ZNF804A mRNA expression in the blood cells of Chinese schizophrenia patients compared with normal controls (P=0.004). Additionally, the linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure analyses using data from HapMap indicated distinct LD blocks across ZNF804A between Chinese and Europeans, which may explain the different association patterns between them, and also highlight the compounding difficulty of genetic studies of complex diseases like schizophrenia when studying multiple ethnic populations. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Du H.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Du H.,Shanghai Genome Pilot Institutes for Genomics and Human Health | Wei Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wei Z.,Shanghai Genome Pilot Institutes for Genomics and Human Health | And 18 more authors.
Frontiers in Pharmacology

Variability in activity of CYP2C9, which is involved in the metabolism of approximately 15% of current therapeutic drugs, is an important contributor to interindividual differences in drug response. To evaluate the functional alternations of CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP2C9*8, CYP2C9*11 and CYP2C9*31, identified in our previous study in Chinese Han population, allelic variants as well as the wild-type CYP2C9 were transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. Kinetic parameters (Km, Vmax, and Clint) for S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation by these recombinant CYP2C9s were determined. Relative to CYP2C9.1, recombinant CYP2C9.3 and CYP2C9.11 exhibited significantly higher Km values, and all allelic variants showed significantly decreased Vmax and Clint values. Among all allelic variants, catalytic activity of CYP2C9.3 and CYP2C9.11 reduced the most (8.2% and 9.8% of Clint ratio, respectively; P < 0.001). These findings should be useful for predicting the phenotype profiles of CYP2C9 in Chinese Han population, comparing the functional results of these alleles accurately, and finally optimizing pharmacotherapy of drug treatment. © 2016 Du, Wei, Yan, Xiong, Zhang, Shen, Ruan, Wu, Xu, He and Qin. Source

Gong X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Gong X.,Shanghai Genome Pilot Institutes for Genomics and Human Health | Liu Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Liu Y.,Shanghai Genome Pilot Institutes for Genomics and Human Health | And 12 more authors.

The promoter polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing genes can lead to interindividual differences in gene expression, which may result in adverse drug effects and therapeutic failure. Based on the database of CYP2D6 gene polymorphisms in the Chinese Han population established by our group, we functionally characterized the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the promoter region and corresponding haplotypes in this population. Using site-directed mutagenesis, all the five SNPs identified and ten haplotypes with a frequency equal to or greater than 0.01 in the population were constructed on a luciferase reporter system. Dual luciferase reporter systems were used to analyze regulatory activity. The activity produced by Haplo3(-2183G>A, -1775A>G, -1589G>C, -1431C>T, -1000G>A, -678A>G), Haplo8(-2065G>A, -2058T>G, -1775A>G, -1589G>C, -1235G>A, -678A>G) and MU3(-498C>A) was 0.7-, 0.7-, 1.2- times respectively compared with the wild type in human hepatoma cell lines(p<0.05). These findings might be useful for optimizing pharmacotherapy and the design of personalized medicine. © 2013 Gong et al. Source

Discover hidden collaborations