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Quan W.,CAS East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Zheng L.,Administration Bureau of Jiuduansha Wetland Natural Reserve | Li B.,Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center | An C.,Shanghai Fisheries Research Institute
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology

Oyster reefs have an equivalent, complex 3-dimensional structure to vegetated habitats and may provide similar functions in estuarine environments. Nevertheless, few studies have compared oyster reefs with adjacent natural shallow-water habitats. Here the resident benthic macroinvertebrate communities in an artificial oyster (Crassostrea ariakensis) reef and in adjacent natural estuarine shallow-water habitats (salt marsh, intertidal mudflat, and subtidal soft bottom) in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary were described. The mean total densities and biomass, Margalef's species richness, Pielou's evenness and Shannon-Weaver biodiversity indices of the resident benthic macroinvertebrate communities differed significantly among the habitats. Significantly higher densities and biomass of benthic macroinvertebrates occurred in the oyster reef compared with the other three habitats. Ordination plots showed a clear separation in benthic macroinvertebrate communities among the four habitat types. The results demonstrated that the artificial oyster reef supported distinct and unique benthic communities, playing an important role in the complex estuarine habitat by supplying prey resources and contributing to biodiversity. In addition, the results suggested that the oyster reef had been restored successfully. © 2013 Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Liu K.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process | Liu K.,East China University of Science and Technology | Chen L.,Shanghai Fisheries Research Institute | Zhang W.,State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process | And 4 more authors.

Lead (Pb) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites, and their potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impacts on the oxidative perturbations and hydroxyl radical (·OH) generation in earthworms of exposure to the two chemicals remain almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the effects of Pb in earthworms Eisenia fetida in the presence of BDE209 through the use of several biomarkers in microcosms. The results have demonstrated that the addition of BDE209 (1 or 10 mg kg−1) decreased the enzymatic activities [superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), peroxidase] and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) compared with exposure to BDE209 alone (50, 250 or 500 mg kg−1). Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicated that ·OH radicals in earthworms were significantly induced by Pb in the presence of BDE209. The changing pattern of malondialdehyde (MDA) contents was accordant with that of ·OH intensity suggested that reactive oxygen species might lead to cellular lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, CAT exhibited more sensitive response to single Pb exposure than the other biomarkers, while T-AOC, ·OH and MDA might be three most sensitive biomarkers in earthworms after simultaneous exposure to Pb and BDE209. The results of these observations suggested that oxidative stress appeared in E. fetida, and it may play an important role in inducing the Pb and BDE209 toxicity to earthworms. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Liu F.,Shanghai Ocean University | Liu F.,Shanghai Fisheries Research Institute | Li J.,Shanghai Ocean University | Fu J.,Shanghai Ocean University | And 2 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology

C-type lectins play important roles in glycoprotein metabolism, multicellular integration and immunity. Based on their overall domain structure, they can be classified as different groups which possess different physiological functions. In this study, two novel simple C-type lectins were identified from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), an important cultured fish in China. GcCL1 and gcCL2 share an essentially identical gene structure, a conserved promoter region shorter than 300 bp and an amino acid identity of 81.2%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated they may be products of gene duplication and could be classified as a new clade of group VII C-type lectins. Both of them were expressed in the eleven tissues examined, with the spleen having the highest abundance of transcript. The gcCL1 transcript was more abundant than gcCL2 in the majority of tissue samples from 2-yr-old grass carps, and was lower than those of gcCL2 before 15 days post-hatching. The expression of both genes was significantly up-regulated in spleen, muscle, skin, gills and hepatopancreas after induction by Aeromonas hydrophila. This is the first report that the expression of group VII C-type lectins could be induced by a pathogen, and indicates these lectins may be involved in the immune response to bacteria in fish. © 2011. Source

Zhou T.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang N.,Shanghai Fisheries Research Institute | Xue Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Ding T.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 3 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces

In this study, tilapia skin collagen sponge and electrospun nanofibers were developed for wound dressing. The collagen sponge was composed of at least two α-peptides, and its denaturation temperature was 44.99 °C. It did not change the number of spleen-derived lymphocytes in BALB/c mice, the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ lymphocytes, and the level of IgG or IgM in Sprague-Dawley rat. The contact angle, tensile strength, and weight loss temperature of collagen nanofibers were 21.2°, 6.72 ± 0.44 MPa, and 300 °C, respectively. The nanofibers could promote the viabilities of human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), inducing epidermal differentiation through the gene expression of involucrin, filaggrin, and type I transglutaminase of HaCaTs, and they could also accelerate migration of HaCaTs with the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Besides, the nanofibers could upregulate the protien level of Col-I in HDFs both via a direct effect and TGF-β1 secreted from HaCaTs, thus facilitating the formation of collagen fibers. Furthermore, the collagen nanofibers stimulated the skin regeneration rapidly and effectively in vivo. These biological effects could be explained as the contributions from the biomimic extracellular cell matrix structure, hydrophilicity, and the multiple amino acids of the collagen nanofibers. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

Yu A.-Q.,Shanghai Fisheries Research Institute | Shi Y.-H.,Shanghai Fisheries Research Institute | Wang Q.,East China Normal University
Fish and Shellfish Immunology

Antimicrobial peptides are important immune effectors involved in mediating innate immune responses against intruding pathogens. Here, we successfully isolated and characterized a novel Type I crustin from the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. The full-length cDNA encoded by this gene, designated CqCrs, comprised 608 bp, containing a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 55 bp, a 3'-UTR of 229 bp with a poly (A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 324 bp encoding a polypeptide of 107 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of CqCrs exhibited a configuration typical of other crustacean Type I crustin orthologs, including one signal peptide region at the N-terminus between residues 1 and 16 and a long whey acidic protein (WAP) domain at the C-terminus between residues 60 and 107, along with a WAP-type "four-disulfide core" motif. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CqCrs was clustered first with other crustacean Type I crustins, then with other crustacean Type II crustins, and finally with other crustacean Type III crustins. Transcription of CqCrs was detected in all tissues, especially in immune tissues and was differentially induced in hemocytes post-stimulation with β-1, 3-glucan, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and peptidoglycans (PG) at selected time-points. To clarify the biological activity of CqCrs, the recombinant CqCrs protein (r. CqCrs) was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Purified r. CqCrs bound to diverse bacteria and inhibited the growth of different microbes to varying degrees. These findings suggest that CqCrs is involved in a specific innate immune recognition and defense mechanisms against bacterial and fungal in C. quadricarinatus. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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