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He X.,Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center
Retina | Year: 2016

PURPOSE:: To explore the characteristics of choroidal thickness (ChT) in Chinese children. METHODS:: A total of 144 healthy children, aged 6 years to 12 years old, were enrolled in the study. The ChT of subfovea and peripheral locations 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mm away from the fovea were evaluated by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. The association between subfoveal ChT and systemic, as well as ocular factors, including age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, axial length, refractive error, intraocular pressure, preterm history, and the refractive status of parents were studied. RESULTS:: The mean subfoveal ChT was 302 ± 63 μm. In the nasal, superior, and inferior areas, the ChT of locations closer to the fovea was thicker than those farther away from the fovea (all P < 0.05); however, ChT was not significantly different among different locations in the temporal area (P = 0.16). The ChT of the nasal quadrant was significantly thinner than that of other areas (P < 0.01). Subfoveal ChT decreased with age, axial length, preterm history, and increased with height. Sex was not statistically associated with subfoveal ChT. CONCLUSION:: In Chinese children, the ChT is thinnest in the nasal quadrant and thicker in central regions than in peripheral areas. The subfoveal ChT independently decreases with age, axial length, preterm history, and increases with height.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. © 2016 by Ophthalmic Communications Society, Inc. Source

Zhang X.,Shanghai University | Li Q.,Shanghai University | Xiang M.,Shanghai University | Zou H.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 7 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2013

Purpose. To conduct in vivo measurements of the bulbar conjunctiva epithelial, stromal, and total thicknesses in healthy Chinese subjects using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to compare the conjunctival thickness differences between sex and age. Methods. From January to July 2012, healthy Chinese subjects were recruited to undergo a Cirrus HD-OCT examination using the Anterior Segment 5 Line Raster scanning protocol. Ophthalmoscopy and slit-lamp examinations were performed on all eyes, along with the determination of visual acuity. The bulbar conjunctiva epithelial thickness, stromal thickness, and full thickness were measured on cross-sectional conjunctiva images. The average values of each parameter were compared between males and females and among eight age groups (<20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, 71-80, and >80 years). Results. A total of 711 eyes in 711 subjects (average age 46.5 years) were included. The average conjunctiva epithelial, stromal, and full thickness measurements were 42.4 ± 7.4 μm, 197.7 ± 32.5 μm, and 240.1 ± 29.8 μm, respectively. No significant difference was found for any of the three parameters between sexes. The conjunctiva epithelial thickness values decreased significantly after age 20 and were then maintained at relatively low levels, followed by a sharp increase at 60 years of age. The conjunctiva stromal thickness decreased throughout the entire lifetime, and the full thickness decreased from the teenage to the elderly periods. Conclusions. None of the Chinese conjunctiva epithelial, stromal, and full thickness was sexrelated, but all of them were age-related. © 2013 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc. Source

Le Q.,Fudan University | Cui X.,Fudan University | Xiang J.,Fudan University | Ge L.,Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Conjunctivochalasis (Cch) is a very common ocular disorder, which can cause an unstable tear film and ocular discomfort. The study of vision-related quality of life (VR-QoL) in a community population with Cch can provide a better understanding of the impact of Cch on common people than objective clinical examinations alone. This cross-sectional comparative study enrolled 360 participants ≥40 years old living in Sanle Community, Shanghai. In the study, 198 subjects were diagnosed with Cch and 86 with dry eye syndrome (DES) without Cch. The remaining 76 subjects were normal controls. Sociodemographical data were collected, and Cch and related ocular symptoms and signs were evaluated. In addition, all participants were required to complete the Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) and Ocular Surface Disease Index Questionnaire (OSDI). Main outcome measures include the comparison on the OSDI score and VFQ-25 score among the subgroups, and the correlation of these scores with the sociodemographical and clinical data. The results revealed that subjects with Cch had significantly decreased tear film stability even compared with those with DES (P = 0.001). The participants with either Cch or DES reported significantly higher OSDI scores and lower VFQ-25 composite scores than the normal controls (P<0.001 and 0.007 respectively). Further comparisons among the subgroups of Cch revealed that the following factors were associated with higher OSDI scores and lower VFQ-25 composite scores: nasal-side Cch, chalasis folds higher than tear meniscus height, punctal occlusion, or increased extent of chalasis on digital pressure. In conclusion, Cch was associated with an adverse impact on VR-QoL in a community population, and the impairment in VR-QoL had a significant correlation with disease severity and tear film abnormalities. Copyright: © 2014 Le et al. Source

Le Q.,Fudan University | Ge L.,Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center | Li M.,Fudan University | Wu L.,Jingan District Center Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Acta Ophthalmologica | Year: 2014

Purpose: To compare the impact of dry eye syndrome (DES) on vision-related quality of life (VR-QoL) between outpatients and general populations. Methods: This cross-sectional comparative study enrolled 154 participants, 77 outpatients and 77 general participants, all of whom met the diagnostic criteria of DES. Apart from the collection of sociodemographic and clinical data, the Chinese version of 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) and Ocular Surface Disease Index Questionnaire (OSDI) were administered. Main outcome measures include the comparison on the OSDI score and VFQ-25 score between two groups, and their correlation with sociodemographic and clinical data. Results: The two groups were comparable concerning sociodemographic parameters except that the outpatients were better educated (χ2 = 18.609, p < 0.001). The ophthalmic data related with DES did not have statistically significant differences between two groups except that the proportion of subjects with positive corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) was higher in outpatients (χ2 = 21.296, p < 0.001). The outpatients reported significantly higher OSDI scores and lower VFQ-25 scores. The VFQ-25 composite score had negative correlation with the OSDI score of all participants or that of outpatients solely (ρ = -0.247 and -0.397, p = 0.030 and 0.000, respectively). Among outpatients, the value of Schirmer test (ST), tear film breakup time (TBUT) and CFS in the eyes with worse DES had significant correlations with the OSDI overall scores, while TBUT and CFS of both eyes correlated with the VFQ-25 composite score. Conclusions: DES exerts more adverse impact on VR-QoL in outpatients than general patients. The impairment of VR-QoL has a significant correlation with the severity of DES. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Zhu J.,Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center
BMC public health | Year: 2014

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study of the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China. The visual impairment rate in schools for children of migrant workers in suburbs of Shanghai in the best eye before vision correction was lower than those of urban children in mainstream schools in Guangzhou in 2012, and higher than students in rural of Beijing in 1998 and in suburb of Chongqing in 2007. The refractive error was the principal cause of the visual impairment of the children of migrant workers. The rate of wearing spectacles was low and the percentage of inaccurate prescriptions, among those who wore spectacles, was high. Uncorrected refractive error was a significant cause of visual impairment in migrant children.BACKGROUND: To assess the prevalence of visual impairment and rate of wearing spectacles in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China.METHODS: Children from grade 1 to 5 in schools for children of migrant workers were randomly chosen for ocular examinations. All children were screened for uncorrected visual acuity and presenting visual acuity. After screening, the children whose uncorrected visual acuity was 20/40 or less received ocular motility evaluation, cycloplegic refraction/non-cycloplegic refraction, and external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus examinations.RESULTS: A total of 9673 children were enumerated and 9512 (98.34%) participated in this study. The prevalence of uncorrected, presenting, and best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better eye were 13.33%, 11.26%, and 0.63%, respectively. The rate of wearing spectacles of the children with visual impairment in one or both eyes was 15.50%. Of these, 26.05% were wearing spectacles with inaccurate prescriptions. Refractive error was a major cause of visual impairment, accounting for 89.48% of all the visual impairment causes. Other causes of visual impairment included amblyopia accounting for 10.12%; congenital cataract, 0.1%; congenital nystagmus, 0.1%; ocular prosthesis, 0.1%; macular degeneration, 0.05%; and opaque cornea, 0.05%. Source

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