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Zhang X.,Shanghai University | Zhang X.,Liqun Hospital | Li Q.,Shanghai University | Xiang M.,Shanghai University | And 8 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2013

Purpose. To conduct in vivo measurements of the bulbar conjunctiva epithelial, stromal, and total thicknesses in healthy Chinese subjects using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to compare the conjunctival thickness differences between sex and age. Methods. From January to July 2012, healthy Chinese subjects were recruited to undergo a Cirrus HD-OCT examination using the Anterior Segment 5 Line Raster scanning protocol. Ophthalmoscopy and slit-lamp examinations were performed on all eyes, along with the determination of visual acuity. The bulbar conjunctiva epithelial thickness, stromal thickness, and full thickness were measured on cross-sectional conjunctiva images. The average values of each parameter were compared between males and females and among eight age groups (<20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, 71-80, and >80 years). Results. A total of 711 eyes in 711 subjects (average age 46.5 years) were included. The average conjunctiva epithelial, stromal, and full thickness measurements were 42.4 ± 7.4 μm, 197.7 ± 32.5 μm, and 240.1 ± 29.8 μm, respectively. No significant difference was found for any of the three parameters between sexes. The conjunctiva epithelial thickness values decreased significantly after age 20 and were then maintained at relatively low levels, followed by a sharp increase at 60 years of age. The conjunctiva stromal thickness decreased throughout the entire lifetime, and the full thickness decreased from the teenage to the elderly periods. Conclusions. None of the Chinese conjunctiva epithelial, stromal, and full thickness was sexrelated, but all of them were age-related. © 2013 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.


Ma Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | He X.,Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center | Zou H.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zou H.,Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center | And 3 more authors.
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2013

PURPOSE: To explore the effectiveness of combining uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and noncycloplegic autorefraction (NCAR) for large-scale myopia screening in schoolchildren with a high prevalence of myopia. METHODS: A total of 1687 children aged between 6 and 12 years, from five primary schools in the Baoshan district of Shanghai participated in the study. We measured UCVA and autorefraction before and after cycloplegia by a Topcon KR-8800. We drew receiver operating characteristic curves to achieve the best cutoff points and their corresponding sensitivities and specificities for the UCVA and NCAR, respectively. We then combined the UCVA and NCAR in serial order to explore the optimal criterion and its effectiveness. A specificity of 90% was set to compare the sensitivities among the three tests. The children were divided into three age groups (aged 6 to 7, 8 to 10, 11 to 12 years) to further examine this new method. RESULTS: A total of 1639 children with an average age of 9.35 (SD, 1.6) years were finally included, among which 428 (26.11%) children were diagnosed as being myopic (spherical equivalent refraction (SER) less than or equal to-0.5 diopters [D]). For the UCVA, the cutoff point is 0.2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (20/32), with a sensitivity and specificity of 63.6% and 94.0%, respectively. For NCAR, the cutoff point is SER less than or equal to-0.75 D, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88.6% and 86.1%, respectively. When UCVA is combined with NCAR, the best cutoff point is UCVA less than or equal to 0 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (20/20) and SER less than or equal to-0.75 D, with a sensitivity and specificity of 84.4% and 90.5%, respectively. At a specificity of 90%, the sensitivities are 63.55%, 78.50%, and 84.35%, respectively, for UCVA, NCAR, and the combination test. In all age groups, the combination test had the highest sensitivities among the three tests. CONCLUSIONS: In a population with a high prevalence of myopia, combining the UCVA and NCAR in serial order achieved higher sensitivity than either of the two tests alone, when specificity was set at 90%. © American Academy of Optometry.


PubMed | Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center, Xinjing Community Health Service Center and Shanghai JiaoTong University
Type: | Journal: Ophthalmology | Year: 2016

To calculate crystalline lens power and to determine the relationship between ocular biometry and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in an adult population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Cross-sectional, population-based study.Patients with T2DM from the Beixinjing community, Changning district, Shanghai.Random clustering sampling was used to identify adults with T2DM in the Beixinjing community. Spherical equivalent (SE) was determined by subjective refraction that achieved the best corrected vision. Axial length (AL), corneal power (CP), and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured using the IOLMaster. Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema (DME) were assessed according to the international DR classification.The crystalline lens power was calculated using the Bennett-Rabbetts formula. The AL-to-corneal radius ratio (AL/CR ratio) was defined as the axial length divided by the mean corneal radius of curvature.A total of 4011 eyes of 2057 subjects with T2DM were included in the analysis. In multivariate logistic models adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, serum creatinine, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and cataract, after categorizing values into quartiles, there were trend associations between lens power and any DR (P= 0.01), between AL/CR ratio and any DR (P= 0.02), and between AL and any DR (P= 0.03), between lens power and moderate DR (P = 0.02), and between AL and moderate DR (P= 0.02); eyes with higher AL/CR ratio were less likely to have any DR (odds ratio [OR], 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-0.78; P= 0.01 per 1 increase) and moderate DR (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.21-0.93; P= 0.03 per 1 increase), eyes with longer AL were less likely to have any DR (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.95; P= 0.002 per millimeter increase) or moderate DR (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-0.98; P= 0.02 per millimeter increase), and eyes with higher SE were more likely to have any DR (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.13; P= 0.003 per diopter increase).In persons with T2DM, lens power, AL/CR ratio, and AL were associated with the presenceofany DR and moderate DR. These findings suggested that globe elongation plays a major role inprotectiveeffectsagainst DR, with contributions from lens power and other refractive components.


Le Q.,Fudan University | Zhou X.,Fudan University | Ge L.,Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center | Wu L.,Jingan District Center Hospital | And 2 more authors.
BMC Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

Background: Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common ocular disorder occurring in general population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of DES on vision-related quality of life (QoL) in a non-clinic-based general population. Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study enrolled subjects older than 40 years, who took part in an epidemiological study on dry eye in Sanle Community, Shanghai. Apart from the collection of sociodemographics, dry eye symptoms, and other clinical data, a Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was administered to all subjects. Comparisons of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale item scores and composite score were made among subgroups divided according to the presence of dry eye symptoms or signs. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the clinical variables and the VFQ-25 composite score. Results: A total of 229 participants were enrolled in the study, with an average age of (60.7 ±10.1) years old. Majority of these participants were female (59.8 %, 137/229). The total DES symptom scores (TDSS) in subjects either with definite DES or only with dry eye symptoms were significantly higher (F = 60.331, P≥0.001). The values of tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test were significantly lower in participants with DES and those with dry eye signs only (F = 55.158 and 40.778, P≥0.001). The composite score of the NEI VFQ-25 was significantly lower in subjects with DES (F = 4.901, P = 0.003). Moreover, the subscale scores of ocular pain and mental health were significantly lower in those with either DES or dry eye symptoms only (F = 10.962 and 7.362 respectively, both P≥0.001). The multiple regression analysis showed that the TDSS had a significant negative correlation with the VFQ-25 composite score as well as with the subscale score for ocular pain and mental health, even after the adjustment of all other factors (all P≥0.01). Conclusions: The symptoms of dry eye are associated with an adverse impact on vision-related QoL in non-clinicbased general population, which is mainly represented as more ocular pain and discomfort, and impaired mental health as well. Apart from clinical examination, it is also important to refer to subjective symptoms and QoL scores when assessing the severity of DES. © 2012 Le et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Le Q.,Fudan University | Ge L.,Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center | Li M.,Fudan University | Wu L.,JingAn District Center Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Acta Ophthalmologica | Year: 2014

Purpose: To compare the impact of dry eye syndrome (DES) on vision-related quality of life (VR-QoL) between outpatients and general populations. Methods: This cross-sectional comparative study enrolled 154 participants, 77 outpatients and 77 general participants, all of whom met the diagnostic criteria of DES. Apart from the collection of sociodemographic and clinical data, the Chinese version of 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) and Ocular Surface Disease Index Questionnaire (OSDI) were administered. Main outcome measures include the comparison on the OSDI score and VFQ-25 score between two groups, and their correlation with sociodemographic and clinical data. Results: The two groups were comparable concerning sociodemographic parameters except that the outpatients were better educated (χ2 = 18.609, p < 0.001). The ophthalmic data related with DES did not have statistically significant differences between two groups except that the proportion of subjects with positive corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) was higher in outpatients (χ2 = 21.296, p < 0.001). The outpatients reported significantly higher OSDI scores and lower VFQ-25 scores. The VFQ-25 composite score had negative correlation with the OSDI score of all participants or that of outpatients solely (ρ = -0.247 and -0.397, p = 0.030 and 0.000, respectively). Among outpatients, the value of Schirmer test (ST), tear film breakup time (TBUT) and CFS in the eyes with worse DES had significant correlations with the OSDI overall scores, while TBUT and CFS of both eyes correlated with the VFQ-25 composite score. Conclusions: DES exerts more adverse impact on VR-QoL in outpatients than general patients. The impairment of VR-QoL has a significant correlation with the severity of DES. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


He J.,Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center | Lu L.,Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center | Zou H.,Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center | He X.,Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center | And 3 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2015

Background: To assess the prevalence of visual impairment and rate of wearing spectacles in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China. Methods: Children from grade 1 to 5 in schools for children of migrant workers were randomly chosen for ocular examinations. All children were screened for uncorrected visual acuity and presenting visual acuity. After screening, the children whose uncorrected visual acuity was 20/40 or less received ocular motility evaluation, cycloplegic refraction/non-cycloplegic refraction, and external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus examinations. Results: A total of 9673 children were enumerated and 9512 (98.34%) participated in this study. The prevalence of uncorrected, presenting, and best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better eye were 13.33%, 11.26%, and 0.63%, respectively. The rate of wearing spectacles of the children with visual impairment in one or both eyes was 15.50%. Of these, 26.05% were wearing spectacles with inaccurate prescriptions. Refractive error was a major cause of visual impairment, accounting for 89.48% of all the visual impairment causes. Other causes of visual impairment included amblyopia accounting for 10.12%; congenital cataract, 0.1%; congenital nystagmus, 0.1%; ocular prosthesis, 0.1%; macular degeneration, 0.05%; and opaque cornea, 0.05%. Conclusions: This is the first study of the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China. The visual impairment rate in schools for children of migrant workers in suburbs of Shanghai in the best eye before vision correction was lower than those of urban children in mainstream schools in Guangzhou in 2012, and higher than students in rural of Beijing in 1998 and in suburb of Chongqing in 2007. The refractive error was the principal cause of the visual impairment of the children of migrant workers. The rate of wearing spectacles was low and the percentage of inaccurate prescriptions, among those who wore spectacles, was high. Uncorrected refractive error was a significant cause of visual impairment in migrant children. © 2014 He et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Zhu M.,Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center | Tong X.,Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center | Zhao R.,Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center | He X.,Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center | And 3 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment associated with refractive error and the unmet need for spectacles in a special suburban senior population in Baoshan District of Shanghai, one of several rural areas undergoing a transition from rural to urban area, where data of visual impairment are limited. Methods. The study was a population based survey of 4545 Chinese aged (age: >60 years or older) at Baoshan, Shanghai, in 2009. One copy of questionnaire was completed for each subject. Examinations included a standardized refraction and measurement of presenting and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) as well as tonometry, slit lamp biomicroscopy, and fundus photography. Results: The prevalence of mild (6/12 to 6/18), moderate (6/18 to 6/60) and severe visual impairment was 12.59%, 8.38% and 0.44%, respectively, and 5.26%, 3.06% and 0.09% with refractive correction. Visual impairment was associated with age, gender, education and career, but not insurance. The prevalence of correctable visual impairment was 5.81% (using 6/18 cutoff) and 13.18% (using 6/12 cutoff). Senior people and women were significantly at a higher risk of correctable visual impairment, while the well-educated on the contrary. The prevalence of undercorrected refractive error (improves by 2 or more lines with refraction) was 24.84%, and the proportion with undercorrected refractive error for mild, moderate, severe and no visual impairment was 61.54%, 67.98%, 60.00% and 14.10%, respectively. The spectacle coverage rate was 44.12%. Greater unmet need for spectacles was observed among elderly people, females, non-peasant, and subjects with less education and astigmatism only. Conclusions: High prevalence of visual impairment, visual impairment alleviated by refractive correction, and low spectacle coverage existed among the senior population in Baoshan District of Shanghai. Education for the public of the importance of regular examination and appropriate and accessible refraction service might be helpful to solve the problem. © 2013 Zhu et al.


Le Q.,Fudan University | Cui X.,Fudan University | Xiang J.,Fudan University | Ge L.,Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Conjunctivochalasis (Cch) is a very common ocular disorder, which can cause an unstable tear film and ocular discomfort. The study of vision-related quality of life (VR-QoL) in a community population with Cch can provide a better understanding of the impact of Cch on common people than objective clinical examinations alone. This cross-sectional comparative study enrolled 360 participants ≥40 years old living in Sanle Community, Shanghai. In the study, 198 subjects were diagnosed with Cch and 86 with dry eye syndrome (DES) without Cch. The remaining 76 subjects were normal controls. Sociodemographical data were collected, and Cch and related ocular symptoms and signs were evaluated. In addition, all participants were required to complete the Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) and Ocular Surface Disease Index Questionnaire (OSDI). Main outcome measures include the comparison on the OSDI score and VFQ-25 score among the subgroups, and the correlation of these scores with the sociodemographical and clinical data. The results revealed that subjects with Cch had significantly decreased tear film stability even compared with those with DES (P = 0.001). The participants with either Cch or DES reported significantly higher OSDI scores and lower VFQ-25 composite scores than the normal controls (P<0.001 and 0.007 respectively). Further comparisons among the subgroups of Cch revealed that the following factors were associated with higher OSDI scores and lower VFQ-25 composite scores: nasal-side Cch, chalasis folds higher than tear meniscus height, punctal occlusion, or increased extent of chalasis on digital pressure. In conclusion, Cch was associated with an adverse impact on VR-QoL in a community population, and the impairment in VR-QoL had a significant correlation with disease severity and tear film abnormalities. Copyright: © 2014 Le et al.


Zhu M.,Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center | Feng H.,Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center | Zhu J.,Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center
Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Objective: To evaluate the impact of amplitude of accommodation on controlling the development of myopia in orthokeratology. Methods: Forty-nine children aged 7 to 14 years were enrolled in this prospective clinical study. Orthokeratology was performed to correct the refractive errors of these children after measurement of refraction, corneal topography, amplitude of accommodation and axial length. Axial length (AL) and amplitude of accommodation was measured after theatment. The average amplitude of accommodation was calculated and was used as the cutting point for dividing the cohort into "amplitude of accommodation above average" vs. "amplitude of accommodation below average". Data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, repeated measures-ANOVAs and Pearson correlation analysis. Results: The AL before and after 1-year and 2-year treatment was (24.98 ± 0.75) mm, (25.13 ± 0.74) mm and (25.32 ± 0.78) mm, respectively. AL increased significantly throughout the observed 24-month period (F = 75.848, P < 0.001). Amplitude of accommodation increased from(13.68 ± 2.65) D to(16.12 ± 2.41) D in 2 years(t = - 6.461, P < 0.001) and amplitude of accommodation significantly affected axial growth (F = 7.395, P =0.009). The axial growth of subjects with below average amplitude of accommodation and those with above average amplitude of accommodation was (0.23 ± 0.25) and (0.44 ± 0.30) mm, indicating a statistically difference (t = -2.119, P =0.009). AL change in subjects with below average amplitude of accommodation was 55.81% that of the subjects with above average amplitude of accommodation. Baseline amplitude of accommodation was positively correlated to axial growth at 24-month visit (r = 0.502, P < 0.001). Linear regression analysis was used between baseline amplitude of accommodation and 2-year axial growth: Axial growth = 0.055. Baseline amplitude of accommodation - 0.409 (F = 15.806, P < 0.001). The change of amplitude of accommodation for subjects with below average amplitude of accommodation and those with above average amplitude of accommodation after 2-year was (4.04 ± 2.16) D and(0.91 ± 2.15) D, indicating statistically difference(t = 5.084, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Myopic control effect would be more beneficial to lower amplitude of accommodation children than that to higher amplitude of accommodation children in orthokeratology. The enhancement of accommodation provides some basis for slowing myopia progression with orthokeratology. Copyright © 2014 by the Chinese Medical Association.


Zhu J.,Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center
BMC public health | Year: 2014

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study of the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China. The visual impairment rate in schools for children of migrant workers in suburbs of Shanghai in the best eye before vision correction was lower than those of urban children in mainstream schools in Guangzhou in 2012, and higher than students in rural of Beijing in 1998 and in suburb of Chongqing in 2007. The refractive error was the principal cause of the visual impairment of the children of migrant workers. The rate of wearing spectacles was low and the percentage of inaccurate prescriptions, among those who wore spectacles, was high. Uncorrected refractive error was a significant cause of visual impairment in migrant children.BACKGROUND: To assess the prevalence of visual impairment and rate of wearing spectacles in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China.METHODS: Children from grade 1 to 5 in schools for children of migrant workers were randomly chosen for ocular examinations. All children were screened for uncorrected visual acuity and presenting visual acuity. After screening, the children whose uncorrected visual acuity was 20/40 or less received ocular motility evaluation, cycloplegic refraction/non-cycloplegic refraction, and external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus examinations.RESULTS: A total of 9673 children were enumerated and 9512 (98.34%) participated in this study. The prevalence of uncorrected, presenting, and best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better eye were 13.33%, 11.26%, and 0.63%, respectively. The rate of wearing spectacles of the children with visual impairment in one or both eyes was 15.50%. Of these, 26.05% were wearing spectacles with inaccurate prescriptions. Refractive error was a major cause of visual impairment, accounting for 89.48% of all the visual impairment causes. Other causes of visual impairment included amblyopia accounting for 10.12%; congenital cataract, 0.1%; congenital nystagmus, 0.1%; ocular prosthesis, 0.1%; macular degeneration, 0.05%; and opaque cornea, 0.05%.

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