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Qin X.-J.,Shanghai Eighth Peoples Hospital | Ling B.X.,Stanford University
Oncology Letters

Breast cancer is one of the most common types of invasive cancer in females worldwide. Despite major advances in early cancer detection and emerging therapeutic strategies, further improvement has to be achieved for precise diagnosis to reduce the chance of metastasis and relapses. Recent proteomic technologies have offered a promising opportunity for the identification of new breast cancer biomarkers. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and the derived surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) enable the development of high-throughput proteome analysis based on comprehensive reliable biomarkers. In this review, we examined proteomic technologies and their applications, and provided focus on the proteomics-based profiling analyses of tumor tissues/cells in order to identify and confirm novel biomarkers of breast cancer. Source

Fu J.-L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Liu Y.,Shanghai Eighth Peoples Hospital | Li Y.-M.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Chang C.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Li W.-B.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Journal of Neuroimaging

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is therefore important to identify biomarkers of conversion to AD. This study examined whether the integrity of white matter can predict this conversion. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neuropsychological features of aMCI subjects (n = 41) were compared with normal controls (n = 20) for 12-36 months. RESULTS: Compared to controls, 22 aMCI subjects had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the cingulate fasciculus (CF) at baseline, and 19 of those converted to AD during follow-up. Only two of the other 19 aMCI patients converted to AD. Compared to baseline, AD converters showed lower FA values in the anterior frontal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus, inferior fronto-occipital fascicles, corpus callosum genu and CF, and higher apparent diffusion coefficient values in the temporal lobe and hippocampus. CONCLUSIONS: Those aMCI subjects with lower than normal FA values in the CF were more likely to convert to AD. The connectivity of the hippocampus and cingulate bundles may be affected in the early stage of AD. Impairment of white matter and fiber bundles was more severe at the AD stage than the aMCI stage. © 2013 by the American Society of Neuroimaging. Source

Scopolamine hydrobromide (SH)-loaded microparticles were prepared from a colloidal fluid containing ionotropic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles using a spray-drying method. The spray-dried microparticles were then formulated into orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) using a wet granulation tablet formation process. A drug entrapment efficiency of about 90% (w/w) and loading capacity of 20% (w/w) were achieved for the microparticles, which ranged from 2 μm to 8 μm in diameter. Results of disintegration tests showed that the formulated ODTs could be completely dissolved within 45 seconds. Drug dissolution profiles suggested that SH is released more slowly from tablets made using the microencapsulation process compared with tablets containing SH that is free or in the form of nanoparticles. The time it took for 90% of the drug to be released increased significantly from 3 minutes for conventional ODTs to 90 minutes for ODTs with crosslinked microparticles. Compared with ODTs made with noncrosslinked microparticles, it was thus possible to achieve an even lower drug release rate using tablets with appropriate chitosan crosslinking. Results obtained indicate that the development of new ODTs designed with crosslinked microparticles might be a rational way to overcome the unwanted taste of conventional ODTs and the side effects related to SH's intrinsic characteristics. Source

Li Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Li Z.,Washington University in St. Louis | Wu S.,Shanghai Eighth Peoples Hospital | Ye C.,Nanjing Agricultural University
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

The central region of the hypermineralized dolphin's bulla (ear bone), contains >95wt% mineral with ~10wt% structurally incorporated carbonate. The mineral-bioapatite undergoes phase changes during heating. However, the step-by-step changes with increasing temperature are still unclear. Raman spectroscopy is proved to be a powerful technique in analyzing crystallographic transformation of bioapatite. The bulla was heated stepwise from 100°C to 900°C for the Raman analyses. Both positions and widths of Raman peaks were studied. Crystals of the bioapatite are stable up to 200°C. From 300°C to 600°C, the decrystallization is a gradual process with delicate changes rather than a sharp transformation. Carbonate is depleted at ~500°C, and then decrystallization is terminated. At temperature over 600°C, bioapatite re-crystallizes and is transformed to OHAp at 700°C. The crystallinity is then gradually improved while the temperature increased to 900°C. No phases of β-tricalcium phosphate or calcium pyrophosphate were detected in this study. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Xiao J.,Changzheng Hospital | Yang X.-J.,Shanghai Eighth Peoples Hospital | Xiao X.-S.,Changzheng Hospital
Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma

Objective: To investigate the early influence of traction on blood supply to the femur head after femoral neck fractures using digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Design: Prospective case series. Setting: University Level I trauma center. Patients: Nine patients who sustained a unilateral femoral neck fracture underwent selective femoral artery DSA within 2-23 days after their injury. Intervention: DSA of the medial and lateral circumflex femoral artery was performed for all 9 fractured hips before traction. Repeat DSA study of the femoral head circulation was performed after the addition of 3 kg of traction in 7 patients and 5 kg of traction in 6 patients. For comparison, DSA was also performed on the uninjured hip in 8 of the 9 patients. Main Outcome Measure: Blood circulation of the femoral head was evaluated by observing morphology of the feeding arteries, perfusion volume, venous drainage, and the circulation time of the microvasculature. Results: Femoral neck fracture damaged the retinaculum artery and led to femoral head hemodynamic disorder in all 9 cases. Application of linear traction and repeat DSA decreased femoral head perfusion (faint arterial imaging and delayed venous display) in all patients' retinaculum arteries except the inferior branch compared with the pretraction imaging. These findings were more pronounced as the traction was increased from 3 to 5 kg. These findings were significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Traction impairs blood perfusion to the femoral head. Blood flow in the retinacular arteries was reduced and venous drainage impeded. Traction may be one of the major causes of femoral head osteonecrosis after femoral neck fracture. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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