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Xu D.-T.,Anhui Medical University | Yan J.-N.,Shanghai Dermatology Hospital | Cui Y.,Anhui Medical University | Liu W.,The PLA General Hospital of Air Force
Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy | Year: 2016

Background: The VISIA Red images were developed to document and measure facial skin erythema, but diffuse erythema cannot be fully segmented by the VISIA system due to the automatic thresholding segmentation method. Moreover, topical area analysis is not available in the system. Materials and methods: Erythema severity degrees of 20 simulated Red images were designated 1–20 with 1–20 inflammatory lesions for each, respectively. The RGB channel mean values of each simulated image were acquired by ImageJ and relative intensity of red values calculated. Results: The relative intensity of red values positively correlate to erythema severity with a coefficient of 0.999345 (p < 0.001). We also proposed a method for calibration when pustules were present in the erythema area. The method was proved by mathematical reasoning and verified by certified dermatologists. Conclusion: We demonstrated a simple and more precise method to quantify and compare facial skin erythema by analyzing the RGB channel values of the VISIA Red images. Our method brings convenience for erythema evaluation in dermatological studies. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Meng Y.,Shanghai University | Meng Y.,Shandong University | Zhang C.,PLA Key Laboratory of Mycosis | Yi J.,PLA Key Laboratory of Mycosis | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Cryptococcus gattii is a resurgent fungal pathogen that primarily infects immunocompetent hosts. Thus, it poses an increasingly significant impact on global public health; however, the mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis remain largely unknown. We conducted a detailed characterization of the deubiquitinase Ubp5 in the biology and virulence of C. gattii using the hypervirulent strain R265, and defined its properties as either distinctive or shared with C. neoformans. Deletion of the C. gattii Ubp5 protein by site-directed disruption resulted in a severe growth defect under both normal and stressful conditions (such as high temperature, high salt, cell wall damaging agents, and antifungal agents), similar to the effects observed in C. neoformans. However, unlike C. neoformans, the C. gattii ubp5A mutant displayed a slight enhancement of capsule and melanin production, indicating the evolutionary convergence and divergence of Ubp5 between these two sibling species. Attenuated virulence of the Cg-ubp5A mutant was not solely due to its reduced thermotolerance at 37°C, as shown in both worm and mouse survival assays. In addition, the assessment of fungal burden in mammalian organs further indicated that Ubp5 was required for C. gattii pulmonary survival and, consequently, extrapulmonary dissemination. Taken together, our work highlights the importance of deubiquitinase Ubp5 in the virulence composite of both pathogenic crypto-coccal species, and it facilitates a better understanding of C. gattii virulence mechanisms. © 2016 Meng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Gao Y.,Shanghai University | Zhang L.-J.,Shanghai University | Lian T.-Y.,Shanghai Dermatology Hospital | Yao C.,Shanghai University | And 3 more authors.
Academic Journal of Second Military Medical University | Year: 2015

Objective To explore the formulation and preparation technique of rosuvastatin calcium tablets with satisfactory stability and reproducibility. Methods Using suitable formulations, we prepared the rosuvastatin calcium granulates by high shear mixer and fluid bed separately, and compared their influences on the granulate properties, tablet characteristics and dissolution. The reproducibility of formulation and preparation technique was investigated. Furthermore, the factors affecting the formulation were also investigated. Results Compared with the fluid bed, granulation using high sheer mixer was more suitable for preparing rosuvastatin calcium granulates. The selected formulation and preparation technique yielded 3 batches of rosuvastatin calcium tablets which met the quality requirement. The tablets had a comparable dissolution profiles to "Crestor " of AstraZeneca. The stability of rosuvastatin calcium was largely affected by the strong light, high humidity and high temperature. Conclusion The optimized formulation and preparation technique have good reproducibility for preparing rosuvastatin calcium tablets, which have good stability. © 2015 Second Military Medical University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Yang D.,Shanghai Dermatology Hospital | Chen J.,Shanghai Dermatology Hospital | Zhang L.,Shanghai Dermatology Hospital | Cha Z.,Shanghai University | And 8 more authors.
Inflammation | Year: 2014

Leprosy is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium leprae, which evokes a strong inflammatory response and leads to nerve damage. Immunity-related GTPase family M protein (IRGM) plays critical roles in controlling inflammation. The objective of the study was to investigate whether IRGM is involved in the infection of M. leprae. Levels of IRGM were assessed in M. leprae-infected CD4+ T cells, monocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages. Data revealed that both protein and mRNA levels of IRGM were increased in monocytes after M. leprae infection. Interestingly, monocyte-derived macrophages showed more prominent IRGM expression with M. leprae infection, whereas the bacteria did not affect IRGM in CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, we assessed levels of IRGM in CD4+ T cells and monocytes from 78 leprosy patients and 40 healthy controls, and observed upregulated protein level of IRGM in the monocytes from leprosy patients. Also, IRGM expression was inversely correlated with the severity of the disease. These findings suggested a close involvement of IRGM in M. leprae infection and indicated a potential mechanism of defending M. leprae infection. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media. Source

Yang D.,Shanghai Dermatology Hospital | Shui T.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Miranda J.W.,Ian Therapeutics and Research Laboratory | Gilson D.J.,Ian Therapeutics and Research Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2016

Background: The persistence of Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) infection is largely dependent on the types of host immune responses being induced. Macrophage, a crucial modulator of innate and adaptive immune responses, could be directly infected by M. leprae. We therefore postulated that M. leprae-infected macrophages might have altered immune functions. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here, we treated monocyte-derived macrophages with live or killed M. leprae, and examined their activation status and antigen presentation. We found that macrophages treated with live M. leprae showed committed M2-like function, with decreased interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and MHC class II molecule expression and elevated IL-10 and CD163 expression. When incubating with naive T cells, macrophages treated with live M. leprae preferentially primed regulatory T (Treg) cell responses with elevated FoxP3 and IL-10 expression, while interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) expression and CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity were reduced. Chromium release assay also found that live M. leprae-treated macrophages were more resistant to CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity than sonicated M. leprae-treated monocytes. Ex vivo studies showed that the phenotype and function of monocytes and macrophages had clear differences between L-lep and T-lep patients, consistent with the in vitro findings. Conclusions/Significance: Together, our data demonstrate that M. leprae could utilize infected macrophages by two mechanisms: firstly, M. leprae-infected macrophages preferentially primed Treg but not Th1 or cytotoxic T cell responses; secondly, M. leprae-infected macrophages were more effective at evading CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. © 2016 Yang et al. Source

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