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Zhang H.,Khan Research Laboratories | Dong G.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Dong G.,Shanghai Regional Climate Center | Moise A.,Khan Research Laboratories | And 3 more authors.
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2015

This study addresses several significant drawbacks in our previous analyses of how Australian summer monsoon onset/retreat may respond to global warming in CMIP3 model simulations. We have analysed daily 850 hPa wind, volumetric precipitable water, precipitation and temperature data from 26 CMIP5 models over a pair of 55-year simulations. Firstly, the CMIP5 models do not show significant improvement in capturing observed features of the monsoon onset/retreat in the region, despite of a slightly reduced bias in multi-model ensemble results. We show that wind–rainfall relationship varies with models and rainfall-based wet season onsets may not adequately represent the monsoon development. Under global warming, although 26-model averages show delayed onset and shortened duration, significant uncertainty exists: 10 models simulated delayed onset but it became earlier in another group of 7 models. Similar model discrepancies are seen in the modelled changes in retreat dates. The range of uncertainty in the projected changes is similar in CMIP3 and CMIP5 models and further analysis re-affirms previously proposed reasons: one is the different influence of a number of drivers in these models and the other is the different changes in these drivers themselves in future climate. Overall, most of the models showed impacts of ENSO and the Indian Ocean on the Australian summer monsoon onset/retreat, but the models differed quite significantly in the magnitude of such impacts. Another factor is different warming patterns and magnitudes in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. When combined, the two provide a better explanation of the scatter among the 26 CMIP5 model results. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Zhang H.,CSIRO | Liang P.,Shanghai Regional Climate Center | Moise A.,CSIRO | Hanson L.,CSIRO
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2012

Using daily precipitable water (PW) and 850 hPa monsoon wind, which represent large-scale moisture and dynamic conditions for monsoon development, we analyze potential changes in Asian monsoon onset, retreat and duration simulated by 13 IPCC AR4 models. Most models are able to reproduce the observed temporal and spatial evolution patterns of the Asian monsoon system. Nevertheless, there are significant model biases and some models fail in reproducing the broad structure. Under a warmed climate, changes in onset and duration days are only moderate (about 3-10 days), with significant discrepancies among the models, particularly over the East Asia land area where the models are almost equally divided. In the tropical Indian Ocean, maritime continent and Indochina Peninsula, the majority of the models tend to simulate delayed onset and shortened duration while in the western North Pacific most models exhibit an early onset and longer duration. There are two reasons leading to such uncertainties: (1) the key processes determining the Asian monsoon onset/retreat are different among the models. Some are more influenced by ENSO-like processes. But in some models, monsoon onset/retreat is more significantly correlated to circulations in the tropics. (2) The model-simulated changes in these dominant processes are different. In some models, surface warming is more intense in the central and eastern Pacific Ocean with El Niño-like patterns, while others do not show such features. If the model-simulated monsoon onset/retreat is correlated to the central and eastern Pacific warming and at the same time the model simulates much larger warming of the central and eastern Pacific Ocean, then it is very likely that these models will show significant delay of south Asian monsoon onset and shortened duration. In some models, the delayed onsets are more related to the reduction of westerlies in the west of the warm pool region. The patterns of anomalous SST and wind conditions identified in this study are consistent with each other and both are likely linked to the weakening and westward shift of Walker circulation in the warm pool and maritime continent region. Increases in precipitable water associated with global warming do not change monsoon rainfall and circulation seasonality much but they can result in increased rainfall intensity once the summer monsoon is established. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Zhang H.,CSIRO | Moise A.,CSIRO | Liang P.,Shanghai Regional Climate Center | Hanson L.,CSIRO
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2013

In this study, we assess the potential changes in the onset, retreat and duration of austral summer monsoon covering the domain from south Sumatra and Java region in the tropics to the northern Australian continent. We simply call it the Australian summer monsoon. Daily precipitable water and 850 hPa wind from 13 CMIP3 models are used in the diagnoses. A majority of the models can capture the northwest-southeast evolution of the summer monsoon, which starts from the south Sumatra and Java region around later November and then progressively approaches the Australian continent in late December. Nevertheless, significant biases exist in the modeled onset/retreat dates and the extent of the monsoon inland penetration. Under global warming, the agreement among the model projections varies across the domain. In between the Sumatra-Java archipelago and the top end of the Australian continent, over 80 % of the models simulate delayed monsoon onset and shortened duration by ~10 days, but less model agreement is seen over interior continent where the model ensembles show an approximate 7-day delay of both the onset and retreat with relatively little change in duration. Both El Nino-Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean SST patterns appear to play important roles in determining the variations of the modeled monsoon onset. Nevertheless, the extent of their influence varies significantly across the models. Under global warming, a large proportion of models show relatively less warming in the eastern Indian Ocean and with a consequent increase in the modeled Indian Ocean Dipole index. Both a weakened and/or eastward shift of the upward branch of Walker circulation and the Indian Ocean contribute to the simulated delayed onset and shortened duration in the tropics under global warming. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

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