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Li Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Fan C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Xing Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yun P.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 9 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2014

Grain chalkiness is a highly undesirable quality trait in the marketing and consumption of rice grain. However, the molecular basis of this trait is poorly understood. Here we show that a major quantitative trait locus (QTL), Chalk5, influences grain chalkiness, which also affects head rice yield and many other quality traits. Chalk5 encodes a vacuolar H + -translocating pyrophosphatase (V-PPase) with inorganic pyrophosphate (PP i) hydrolysis and H + -translocation activity. Elevated expression of Chalk5 increases the chalkiness of the endosperm, putatively by disturbing the pH homeostasis of the endomembrane trafficking system in developing seeds, which affects the biogenesis of protein bodies and is coupled with a great increase in small vesicle-like structures, thus forming air spaces among endosperm storage substances and resulting in chalky grain. Our results indicate that two consensus nucleotide polymorphisms in the Chalk5 promoter in rice varieties might partly account for the differences in Chalk5 mRNA levels that contribute to natural variation in grain chalkiness. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. Source

Bai X.F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Luo L.J.,Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center | Yan W.H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Kovi M.R.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Xing Y.Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Journal of Genetics | Year: 2011

The thousand-grain weight and spikelets per panicle directly contribute to rice yield. Heading date and plant height also greatly influence the yield. Dissection of genetic bases of yield-related traits would provide tools for yield improvement. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for spikelets per panicle, thousand-grain weight, heading date and plant height was performed using recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between two diverse cultivars, Nanyangzhan and Chuan7. In total, 20 QTLs were identified for four traits. They were located to 11 chromosomes except on chromosome 4. Seven and five QTLs were detected for thousand-grain weight and spikelets per panicle, respectively. Four QTLs were identified for both heading date and plant height. About half the QTLs were commonly detected in both years, 2006 and 2007. Six QTLs are being reported for the first time. Two QTL clusters were identified in regions flanked by RM22065 and RM5720 on chromosome 7 and by RM502 and RM264 on chromosome 8, respectively. The parent, Nanyangzhan with heavy thousand-grain weight, carried alleles with increased effects on all seven thousand-grain weight QTL, which explained why there was no transgressive segregation for thousand-grain weight in the population. In contrast, Chuan7 with more spikelets per panicle carried positive alleles at all five spikelets per panicle QTL except qspp5. Further work on distinction between pleiotropic QTL and linked QTL is needed in two yield-related QTL clusters. © 2011 Indian Academy of Sciences. Source

Peng B.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Fan C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Jiang G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2014

Background: Chalkiness is a major constraint in rice production because it is one of the key factors determining grain quality (appearance, processing, milling, storing, eating, and cooking quality) and price. Its reduction is a major goal, and the primary purpose of this study was to dissect the genetic basis of grain chalkiness. Using five populations across two environments, we also sought to determine how many quantitative trait loci (QTL) can be consistently detected. We obtained an integrated genetic map using the data from five mapping populations and further confirmed the reliability of the identified QTL.Results: A total of 79 QTL associated with six chalkiness traits (chalkiness rate, white core rate, white belly rate, chalkiness area, white core area, and white belly area) were mapped on 12 chromosomes using five populations (two doubled haploid lines and three recombinant inbred lines) across two environments (Hainan in 2004 and Wuhan in 2004). The final integrated map included 430 markers; 58.3% of the QTL clustered together (QTL clusters), 71.4% of the QTL clusters were identified in two or more populations, and 36.1% of the QTL were consistently detected in the two environments. The QTL could be detected again and showed dominance (qWBR1, qWBR8, qWBR12, and qCR5) or overdominance effects (qWCR7) for the rate of the white belly or white core, respectively, and all four QTL clusters derived from Zhenshan 97 controlling white belly rate were stably and reliably identified in an F2 population.Conclusions: Our results identified 79 QTL associated with six chalkiness traits using five populations across two environments and yielded an integrated genetic map, indicating most of the QTL clustered together and could be detected in different backgrounds. The identified QTL were stable and reliable in the F2 population, and they may facilitate our understanding of the QTL related to chalkiness traits in different populations and various environments, the relationships among the various chalkiness QTL, and the genetic basis for chalkiness. Thus, our results may be immediately used for map-based cloning of important QTL and in marker-assisted breeding to improve grain quality in rice breeding. © 2014 Peng et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Bai X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Luo L.,Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center | Yan W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Kovi M.R.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2010

Background: The three-dimensional shape of grain, measured as grain length, width, and thickness (GL, GW, and GT), is one of the most important components of grain appearance in rice. Determining the genetic basis of variations in grain shape could facilitate efficient improvements in grain appearance. In this study, an F7:8recombinant inbred line population (RIL) derived from a cross between indica and japonica cultivars (Nanyangzhan and Chuan7) contrasting in grain size was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed with 164 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The major aim of this study was to detect a QTL for grain shape and to fine map a minor QTL, qGL7.Results: Four QTLs for GL were detected on chromosomes 3 and 7, and 10 QTLs for GW and 9 QTLs for GT were identified on chromosomes 2, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 10, respectively. A total of 28 QTLs were identified, of which several are reported for the first time; four major QTLs and six minor QTLs for grain shape were also commonly detected in both years. The minor QTL, qGL7, exhibited pleiotropic effects on GL, GW, GT, 1000-grain weight (TGW), and spikelets per panicle (SPP) and was further validated in a near isogenic F2population (NIL-F2). Finally, qGL7 was narrowed down to an interval between InDel marker RID711 and SSR marker RM6389, covering a 258-kb region in the Nipponbare genome, and cosegregated with InDel markers RID710 and RID76.Conclusion: Materials with very different phenotypes were used to develop mapping populations to detect QTLs because of their complex genetic background. Progeny tests proved that the minor QTL, qGL7, could display a single mendelian characteristic. Therefore, we suggested that minor QTLs for traits with high heritability could be isolated using a map-based cloning strategy in a large NIL-F2population. In addition, combinations of different QTLs produced diverse grain shapes, which provide the ability to breed more varieties of rice to satisfy consumer preferences. © 2010 Bai et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Luo L.J.,Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2010

Rice is the staple food and rice production consumes about 50% of the fresh water resources in China. In addition, drought is one of the most important constraints in rice resulting in large yield losses and limiting the average yield increase of the country. There is an urgent need to enhance water-saving (W) capacity or drought resistance (DR) of rice. WDR varieties can be developed through introgressing the water-saving and drought resistance capacity mainly from the traditional upland to the commercialized paddy rice cultivars. The breeding target is a high yield potential under irrigation, an acceptable grain quality, and water consumption reduced by about 50% compared with paddy rice. In a water-limited environment, a higher level of drought resistance and reduced yield loss by drought stress are required. In recent years, the field drought-resistance screening facility was established and the evaluation standard was developed. Some DR rice varieties were identified and used in both molecular mapping and breeding programmes. Several WDR varieties were developed and released to farmers. This article describes our initial achievement towards this goal and provides some details on the rationale and the specific steps and methods used. © 2010 The Author. Source

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