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Zhou S.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Ma F.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Zhang X.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Zhang J.,Shanghai Academy of Agriculture Science
Fungal Biology | Year: 2016

The carbohydrate distribution in mushrooms is reported changing greatly in its different regions during growth and fruiting. In this study, the carbohydrate distribution in the compost and fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus was analysed. Sugar, polyol, polysaccharide, and chitin content during different growth phases and in different regions of the mushroom were determined. Results indicate that trehalose, mannitol, and glucose were first accumulated in the compost and then decreased during differentiation and growth of fruiting bodies. Meanwhile, trehalose, mannitol, and glucose also accumulated in the fruiting bodies and primarily distributed in the stipe, base, and pileus region, respectively. Polysaccharides mainly accumulated within the pileus and stipe regions, and chitin was mainly observed in the base region. These findings provide insights into carbohydrate function and utilisation during mushroom growth. © 2016 The British Mycological Society.

Zhang H.,Zhejiang University | Zhang H.,Shanghai Academy of Agriculture Science | Ma X.-Y.,Zhejiang University | Qian Y.-J.,Zhejiang University | Zhou X.-P.,Zhejiang University
Journal of Zhejiang University: Science B | Year: 2010

Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) was previously reported as a distinct begomovirus infecting papaya in southern China. Based on molecular diagnostic survey, 13 PaLCuCNV isolates were obtained from tomato plants showing leaf curl symptoms in Henan and Guangxi Provinces of China. Complete nucleotide sequences of 5 representative isolates (AJ558116, AJ558117, AJ704604, FN256260, and FN297834) were determined to be 2738-2751 nucleotides, which share 91.7%-97.9% sequence identities with PaLCuCNV isolate G2 (AJ558123). DNA-β was not found to be associated with PaLCuCNV isolates. To investigate the infectivity of PaLCuCNV, an infectious clone of PaLCuCNV-[CN:HeNZM1] was constructed and agro-inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum Samsun, N. glutinosa, Solanum lycopersicum and Petunia hybrida plants, which induced severe leaf curling and crinkling symptoms in these plants. Southern blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated a systemic infection of test plants by the agro-infectious clone. © 2010 Zhejiang University and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

He X.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Qi W.,Shanghai Academy of Agriculture Science | Quinones B.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | McMahon S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2011

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in the environment has been reported frequently. However, robust detection of STEC in environmental samples remains difficult because the numbers of bacteria in samples are often below the detection threshold of the method. We developed a novel and sensitive immuno-PCR (IPCR) assay for the detection of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) and Stx2 variants. The assay involves immunocapture of Stx2 at the B subunit and real-time PCR amplification of a DNA marker linked to a detection antibody recognizing the Stx2 A subunit. The qualitative detection limit of the assay is 0.1 pg/ml in phosphatebuffered saline (PBS), with a quantification range of 10 to 100,000 pg/ml. The IPCR method was 10,000-fold more sensitive than an analogue conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in PBS. Although the sensitivity of the IPCR for detection of Stx2 was affected by environmental sample matrices of feces, feral swine colons, soil, and water from watersheds, application of the IPCR assay to 23 enriched cultures of fecal, feral swine colon, soil, and watershed samples collected from the environment revealed that the IPCR detected Stx2 in all 15 samples that were shown to be STEC positive by real-time PCR and culture methods, demonstrating a 100% sensitivity and specificity. The modification of the sandwich IPCR we have described in this study will be a sensitive and specific screening method for evaluating the occurrence of STEC in the environment. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

Wang W.,Zhejiang University | Wang W.,University of California at Riverside | Yue L.,Zhejiang University | Zhang S.,Zhejiang University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2013

Pyribambenz propyl, or ZJ0273, is a new and widely used pyrimidynyloxybenzoic herbicide; however, its behavior and safety in anaerobic soils remain poorly understood. In this study, ZJ0273 was labeled with 14C on its benzoate-, pyrimidyl- and benzyl- rings respectively, and applied to anoxic flooding soils to characterize its anaerobic fates. Over the 100 d incubation, the amended 14C-ZJ0273 was slightly mineralized to 14CO2 (<4%) or redistributed into the overlaying water (<10%), with the majority of the 14C (82-98%) remaining in the soil. The residues in soil underwent a gradual transformation from extractable residues (ER) to bound residues (BR), with the percentage of 14C-BR increasing from 1.1 to 2.5% at day 5 to 23.2-47.2% at day 100. The proportion of 14C-ER, 14C-BR and 14CO2 depended both on the soil property and the labeling position. Generally, ZJ0273 has the highest tendency to form BR in fluvio-marine yellow loamy soil, and the mineralization on both the benzoate and benzyl rings tends to be more extensive in red-clayed soil than the other soils. The ring-specific labeling 14C on three aromatic rings respectively provides full molecular information and yield information on sub-molecular level, i.e., the benzoate ring was generally more susceptible to cleavage than the pyrimidyl or benzyl rings (P<0.01). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Yuan C.,Zhejiang University | Bu X.C.,Zhejiang University | Yan H.X.,Shanghai Academy of Agriculture Science | Lu J.J.,Zhejiang University | Zou X.T.,Zhejiang University
Poultry Science | Year: 2016

Amino acids are considered to be anabolic factors that affect protein turnover. The aim of this study was to test the effects of dietary L-arginine (Arg) levels on protein metabolism in the liver of laying hens and the expression of genes related to protein synthesis and proteolysis. Xinyang black commercial laying hens (n = 864, 31 wk of age) were randomly allotted to 6 treatments with 4 replicates of 36 birds. The dietary treatments were corn-corn gluten meal based diets containing 0.64, 0.86, 1.03, 1.27, 1.42, and 1.66% L-Arg, respectively. Serum concentrations of total protein and albumin were maximized in the 1.27% L-Arg group, and serum concentration of urea acid was the lowest in the 1.27% L-Arg group. The 1.27% L-Arg group had the highest fractional protein synthesis rate and fractional protein gain rate in the liver. Consistent with the data on protein turnover, mRNA abundances of target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 increased in the liver of layers fed 1.27% L-Arg, while mRNA abundances of cathepsin B and 20S proteasome decreased at the same dietary L-Arg level. In conclusion, the dietary level of L-Arg increased the liver fractional protein synthesis rate and fractional protein gain rate of laying hens, and the action of an appropriate level of dietary L-Arg involves upregulating the gene expression of the TOR signaling pathway accompanied by suppressing the mRNA expression of cathepsin B and 20S proteasome in the liver. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

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