Shanghai Academy of Agriculture science

Shanghai, China

Shanghai Academy of Agriculture science

Shanghai, China
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Zhang H.,Shanghai Academy of Agriculture Science | Ji X.-Y.,Shanghai Academy of Agriculture Science | Wan N.-F.,Shanghai Academy of Agriculture Science | Jiang J.-X.,Shanghai Academy of Agriculture Science
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2017

Phenoloxidase (PO) catalyses the synthesis of o-quinones, which plays critical roles in the innate immunity of insects. The un-activated form of PO is prophenoloxidase (PPO), which has been widely reported, especially in connection with the immune response of insects to invading organisms or chemicals. However, connection between PPO and challenge by combinations of two biocontrol agents (parasitoids and virus) is not well known. We cloned the cDNA encoding an insect PPO (designated as SePPO1) from the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), and studied the response of SePPO to the challenge of Microplitis pallidipes Szepligeti and Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV). The results indicated that SePPO1 had an open reading frame of 2055 bp. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that SePPO1 shared 51% identity with SePPO2, and the two SePPO genes were positively correlated in mRNA levels, which indicated that they act synergistically. The two SePPOs were mainly expressed in older instar larvae, especially in haemolymph. Parasitism by M. pallidipes inhibited PPO transcription and PO activity, and SeMNPV infection induced the upregulation of PPO transcription and increased PO activity 72 h after treatment. And in the combined treatment, PO activity and PPO transcription were downregulated, which indicates that parasitism suppressed the upregulation induced by SeMNPV infection. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Wang W.,Zhejiang University | Wang W.,University of California at Riverside | Yue L.,Zhejiang University | Zhang S.,Zhejiang University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2013

Pyribambenz propyl, or ZJ0273, is a new and widely used pyrimidynyloxybenzoic herbicide; however, its behavior and safety in anaerobic soils remain poorly understood. In this study, ZJ0273 was labeled with 14C on its benzoate-, pyrimidyl- and benzyl- rings respectively, and applied to anoxic flooding soils to characterize its anaerobic fates. Over the 100 d incubation, the amended 14C-ZJ0273 was slightly mineralized to 14CO2 (<4%) or redistributed into the overlaying water (<10%), with the majority of the 14C (82-98%) remaining in the soil. The residues in soil underwent a gradual transformation from extractable residues (ER) to bound residues (BR), with the percentage of 14C-BR increasing from 1.1 to 2.5% at day 5 to 23.2-47.2% at day 100. The proportion of 14C-ER, 14C-BR and 14CO2 depended both on the soil property and the labeling position. Generally, ZJ0273 has the highest tendency to form BR in fluvio-marine yellow loamy soil, and the mineralization on both the benzoate and benzyl rings tends to be more extensive in red-clayed soil than the other soils. The ring-specific labeling 14C on three aromatic rings respectively provides full molecular information and yield information on sub-molecular level, i.e., the benzoate ring was generally more susceptible to cleavage than the pyrimidyl or benzyl rings (P<0.01). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

He X.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Qi W.,Shanghai Academy of Agriculture science | Quinones B.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | McMahon S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2011

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in the environment has been reported frequently. However, robust detection of STEC in environmental samples remains difficult because the numbers of bacteria in samples are often below the detection threshold of the method. We developed a novel and sensitive immuno-PCR (IPCR) assay for the detection of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) and Stx2 variants. The assay involves immunocapture of Stx2 at the B subunit and real-time PCR amplification of a DNA marker linked to a detection antibody recognizing the Stx2 A subunit. The qualitative detection limit of the assay is 0.1 pg/ml in phosphatebuffered saline (PBS), with a quantification range of 10 to 100,000 pg/ml. The IPCR method was 10,000-fold more sensitive than an analogue conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in PBS. Although the sensitivity of the IPCR for detection of Stx2 was affected by environmental sample matrices of feces, feral swine colons, soil, and water from watersheds, application of the IPCR assay to 23 enriched cultures of fecal, feral swine colon, soil, and watershed samples collected from the environment revealed that the IPCR detected Stx2 in all 15 samples that were shown to be STEC positive by real-time PCR and culture methods, demonstrating a 100% sensitivity and specificity. The modification of the sandwich IPCR we have described in this study will be a sensitive and specific screening method for evaluating the occurrence of STEC in the environment. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

Li L.,CAS Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology | Li L.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Shi Z.-Y.,CAS Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology | Shen G.-Z.,Shanghai Academy of Agriculture science | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Plant | Year: 2010

Understanding the genetic mechanism underlying rice leaf-shape development is crucial for optimizing rice configuration and achieving high yields; however, little is known about leaf abaxial curling. We isolated a rice transferred DNA (T-DNA) insertion mutant, BY240, which exhibited an abaxial leaf curling phenotype that co-segregated with the inserted T-DNA. The T-DNA was inserted in the promoter of a novel gene, ACL1 (Abaxially Curled Leaf 1), and led to overexpression of this gene in BY240. Overexpression of ACL1 in wild-type rice also resulted in abaxial leaf curling. ACL1 encodes a protein of 116 amino acids with no known conserved functional domains. Overexpression of ACL2, the only homolog of ACL1 in rice, also induced abaxial leaf curling. RT-PCR analysis revealed high expressions of ACLs in leaf sheaths and leaf blades, suggesting a role for these genes in leaf development. In situ hybridization revealed non-tissue-specific expression of the ACLs in the shoot apical meristem, leaf primordium, and young leaf. Histological analysis showed increased number and exaggeration of bulliform cells and expansion of epidermal cells in the leaves of BY240, which caused developmental discoordination of the abaxial and adaxial sides, resulting in abaxially curled leaves. These results revealed an important mechanism in rice leaf development and provided the genetic basis for agricultural improvement. © 2010 The Author.

Zhang S.,Zhejiang University | Wang W.,Zhejiang University | Wang H.,Zhejiang University | Qi W.,Shanghai Academy of Agriculture Science | And 2 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2014

A starch-graft-polyacrylamide (St-g-PAM) superabsorbent crosslinked by N,N′-methyl bisacrylamide (MBA) was prepared using 10 MeV simultaneous electron beam irradiation at room temperature and subsequent alkaline hydrolysis. The effects of the irradiation dose, acryliamide-to-anhydroglucose unit (AM-to-AGU) ratio and crosslinker amount on the properties of the obtained polymers were evaluated. The structure of the graft copolymer was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Optimisation treatments were carried out and found for a total dose of 8 kGy, an AM-to-AGU ratio of 4.5 mol mol-1 and a crosslinker-to-AM ratio of 0.4% mol mol-1. The obtained superabsorbent polymer showed the maximum absorptions of 1452 g g-1 and 83 g g-1 for distilled water and saline solution, respectively (relative to its own dry weight). The results suggest 10 MeV electron beam irradiation is more efficient than γ-ray irradiation due to its higher energy and dose rate. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Yang Z.,Zhejiang University | Wang H.,Zhejiang University | Wang W.,Zhejiang University | Qi W.,Shanghai Academy of Agriculture Science | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Biochemical properties and gel-forming ability were investigated as a function of storage time to understand the effect of 10 MeV electron linear accelerator irradiation, combined with vacuum-packaging changes, on Atlantic salmon fillets during cold storage at 4 C. The results showed that compared with those of the control samples, pH, water soluble protein and extractable protein were not significantly altered by irradiation. However, pH, water soluble protein and extractable protein changed notably as storage time increased. While salt soluble protein (SSP), total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), a* values, 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and total viable counts (TVC) were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by different irradiation doses, which inhibited the increase in TVB-N but promoted TBA values during the storage period. Moreover, irradiation up to 3 kGy did not significantly change the gel patterns, while the MHC patterns were slightly reduced with the increasing of the storage time.© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zhang H.,Zhejiang University | Zhang H.,Shanghai Academy of Agriculture science | Hu G.,Zhejiang University | Zhou X.,Zhejiang University
Journal of Phytopathology | Year: 2010

Virus isolates HaNHK7 and HaNHK8 were obtained from tomato plants showing leaf curl symptoms in Hainan Province of China. The complete DNA sequences of both isolates were determined to be 2748 nucleotides, with all the characteristic features of begomovirus genome organization. The two isolates share 99.8% identity with each other but have <88.3% nucleotide sequence identity with other begomoviruses. Consequently, HaNHK7 and HaNHK8 are considered to be isolates of a novel Begomovirus species, for which the name Tomato leaf curl Hainan virus (ToLCHnV) is proposed. ToLCHnV is most closely related to Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV, AJ558117) (88.3% in total nucleotide sequences). However, the AC2 gene more resembles that of Ageratum leaf curl virus (ALCuV, AJ851005) and AC1 and AC4 genes resemble those of Tomato leaf curl Vietnam virus (ToLCVV, AF264063). Sequence analyses suggest that ToLCHnV may have arisen by recombination between viruses related to PaLCuCNV, ALCuV and ToLCVV. Neither the DNA-B component nor the DNA-β molecule was found to be associated with ToLCHnV isolates. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Zhang H.,Zhejiang University | Zhang H.,Shanghai Academy of Agriculture science | Ma X.-Y.,Zhejiang University | Qian Y.-J.,Zhejiang University | Zhou X.-P.,Zhejiang University
Journal of Zhejiang University: Science B | Year: 2010

Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) was previously reported as a distinct begomovirus infecting papaya in southern China. Based on molecular diagnostic survey, 13 PaLCuCNV isolates were obtained from tomato plants showing leaf curl symptoms in Henan and Guangxi Provinces of China. Complete nucleotide sequences of 5 representative isolates (AJ558116, AJ558117, AJ704604, FN256260, and FN297834) were determined to be 2738-2751 nucleotides, which share 91.7%-97.9% sequence identities with PaLCuCNV isolate G2 (AJ558123). DNA-β was not found to be associated with PaLCuCNV isolates. To investigate the infectivity of PaLCuCNV, an infectious clone of PaLCuCNV-[CN:HeNZM1] was constructed and agro-inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum Samsun, N. glutinosa, Solanum lycopersicum and Petunia hybrida plants, which induced severe leaf curling and crinkling symptoms in these plants. Southern blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated a systemic infection of test plants by the agro-infectious clone. © 2010 Zhejiang University and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

PubMed | Shanghai Academy of Agriculture science and Zhejiang University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Poultry science | Year: 2016

Amino acids are considered to be anabolic factors that affect protein turnover. The aim of this study was to test the effects of dietary L-arginine (Arg) levels on protein metabolism in the liver of laying hens and the expression of genes related to protein synthesis and proteolysis. Xinyang black commercial laying hens (n = 864, 31 wk of age) were randomly allotted to 6 treatments with 4 replicates of 36 birds. The dietary treatments were corn-corn gluten meal based diets containing 0.64, 0.86, 1.03, 1.27, 1.42, and 1.66% L-Arg, respectively. Serum concentrations of total protein and albumin were maximized in the 1.27% L-Arg group, and serum concentration of urea acid was the lowest in the 1.27% L-Arg group. The 1.27% L-Arg group had the highest fractional protein synthesis rate and fractional protein gain rate in the liver. Consistent with the data on protein turnover, mRNA abundances of target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 increased in the liver of layers fed 1.27% L-Arg, while mRNA abundances of cathepsin B and 20S proteasome decreased at the same dietary L-Arg level. In conclusion, the dietary level of L-Arg increased the liver fractional protein synthesis rate and fractional protein gain rate of laying hens, and the action of an appropriate level of dietary L-Arg involves upregulating the gene expression of the TOR signaling pathway accompanied by suppressing the mRNA expression of cathepsin B and 20S proteasome in the liver.

PubMed | Shanghai Academy of Agriculture science and Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Fungal biology | Year: 2016

The carbohydrate distribution in mushrooms is reported changing greatly in its different regions during growth and fruiting. In this study, the carbohydrate distribution in the compost and fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus was analysed. Sugar, polyol, polysaccharide, and chitin content during different growth phases and in different regions of the mushroom were determined. Results indicate that trehalose, mannitol, and glucose were first accumulated in the compost and then decreased during differentiation and growth of fruiting bodies. Meanwhile, trehalose, mannitol, and glucose also accumulated in the fruiting bodies and primarily distributed in the stipe, base, and pileus region, respectively. Polysaccharides mainly accumulated within the pileus and stipe regions, and chitin was mainly observed in the base region. These findings provide insights into carbohydrate function and utilisation during mushroom growth.

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