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Gao F.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Tang Q.,Shanghai Academy of Agricultural science SAAS | Yang P.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Fang Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Laboratory Hematology | Year: 2010

We investigated the effects of oridonin (Ori), a diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia rubescens, on apoptosis and differentiation of all-transretinoic acid (ATRA)-sensitive (NB4) and ATRA-resistant (NB4-R1) cells. The results showed that reactive oxygen species initiates Ori- induced apoptosis. In addition, we found that neither Ori nor ATRA (10 nM) alone induced marked cell differentiation, while co-treatment of these two compounds can induce differentiation of NB4 and NB4-R1 cells which was accompanied by increased RARα,C/EBPe or C/EBPβ. This is the first report to show that RARα could be accumulated by Ori which may be useful as a probe to investigate the mechanism of RARα catabolism. These results suggest that Ori is a potential candidate for acute promyelocytic leukemia cancer therapy. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Trachsel S.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Sun D.,Shanghai Academy of Agricultural science SAAS | Sanvicente F.M.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Zheng H.,Shanghai Academy of Agricultural science SAAS | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

We aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for secondary traits related to grain yield (GY) in two BC1F2:3 backcross populations (LPSpop and DTPpop) under well-watered (4 environments; WW) and drought stressed (6; DS) conditions to facilitate breeding efforts towards drought tolerant maize. GY reached 5.6 and 5.8 t/ha underWWin the LPSpop and the DTPpop, respectively. Under DS, grain yield was reduced by 65% (LPSpop) to 59% (DTPpop) relative to WW. GY was strongly associated with the normalized vegetative index (NDVI; r ranging from 0.61 to 0.96) across environmental conditions and with an early flowering under drought stressed conditions (r ranging from -0.18 to -0.25) indicative of the importance of early vigor and drought escape for GY. Out of the 105 detected QTL, 53 were overdominant indicative of strong heterosis. For 14 out of 18 detected vigor QTL, as well as for eight flowering time QTL the trait increasing allele was derived from CML491. Collocations of early vigor QTL with QTL for stay green (bin 2.02, WW, LPSpop; 2.07, DS, DTPpop), the number of ears per plant (bins 2.02, 2.05, WW, LPSpop; 5.02, DS, LPSpop) and GY (bin 2.07, WW, DTPpop; 5.04, WW, LPSpop), reinforce the importance of the observed correlations. LOD scores for early vigor QTL in these bins ranged from 2.2 to 11.25 explaining 4.6 (additivity: +0.28) to 19.9% (additivity: +0.49) of the observed phenotypic variance. A strong flowering QTL was detected in bin 2.06 across populations and environmental conditions explaining 26-31.3% of the observed phenotypic variation (LOD: 13-17; additivity: 0.1-0.6d). Improving drought tolerance while at the same time maintaining yield potential could be achieved by combining alleles conferring early vigor from the recurrent parent with alleles advancing flowering from the donor. Additionally bin 8.06 (DTPpop) harbored a QTL for GY underWW(additivity: 0.27 t/ha) and DS (additivity: 0.58 t/ha). R2 ranged from 0 (DTPpop, WW) to 26.54% (LPSpop, DS) for NDVI, 18.6 (LPSpop, WW) to 42.45% (LPSpop, DS) for anthesis and from 0 (DTPpop, DS) to 24.83% (LPSpop, WW) for GY. Lines out-yielding the best check by 32.5% (DTPpop, WW) to 60% (DTPpop, DS) for all population-by-irrigation treatment combination (except LPSpop, WW) identified are immediately available for the use by breeders. ©2016 Trachsel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Liu L.Z.,Shanghai Academy of Agricultural science SAAS | Chitrampalam P.R.,University of California at Davis | Zhai W.Q.,Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Science | Chen Y.Y.,Shanghai Academy of Agricultural science SAAS | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Hami melon [Cucumis melo L. ssp. melo convar. ameri (Pang.) Greb] is reputed to be the 'king of melons', but commercial development of transgenic Hami melon cultivars is limited by low levels of plant regeneration and a high incidence of polyploid regenerants. Regeneration systems for three Hami melon varieties, namely 'Jin Queen', 'Hongmibao', and 'Huangzhuixian', were developed via organogenesis in tissue culture. Leaf explants ranging from 0.125 - 0.500× the full-size of each leaf were prepared in vitro from seedlings of different ages, then cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing various concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP; 1.0 - 9.0 mg l-1) to determine optimal conditions for induction of adventitious shoots. Leaves from 8-d old seedlings were cut into four, approximately-equal segments. Plant regeneration was greatest on MS medium containing 3.0 mg l-1 BAP, with a shoot induction frequency of 90% for 'Hongmibao'. For 'Jin Queen' and 'Huangzhuixian', the highest frequencies of shoot induction (86% and 88%, respectively) were obtained on MS medium supplemented with 4.5 mg l-1 BAP.Adventitious shoots were then elongated on MS medium containing 0.1 mg l-1 BAP, but rooted successfully on hormone-free MS medium. Approx. 88% of the regenerated plants were diploid, as determined by flow cytometry.

Liu L.Z.,Shanghai Academy of Agricultural science SAAS | Zhu W.M.,Shanghai Academy of Agricultural science SAAS | Cheng Y.Y.,Shanghai Academy of Agricultural science SAAS | Gu W.H.,Shanghai Academy of Agricultural science SAAS | Liu T.,Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University
Plant Disease | Year: 2016

Melothria indica Lour. is an exotic perennial vine belonging to the cucurbit family. Crude extracts of M. indica leaves and roots have antiphlogistic and antibacterial properties. In the late summer of 2014, powdery mildew symptoms were observed on M. indica in a field on Chongming Island of Shanghai, China. Disease incidence reached more than 15% in a 15.5-ha field. Disease symptoms included grayish-white, irregular patches consisting of epiphytic mycelia and conidia on both surfaces of the leaves. The mycelium of the fungus grew over the leaf surface and produced many conidia. Advanced infections caused necrosis that became extensive and resulted in a severe decline and desiccation of foliage. Through light and scanning electron microscopy observation of conidia on the leaves of susceptible plants (Cook et al. 1997), conidia contained no fibrosin bodies and germinated apically. No chasmothecia were observed. Hyphae were between 5- to 8-µm wide with nipple-shaped appressoria. Conidiophores were mostly erect containing a foot cell (37 to 64 * 7 to 11 µm) followed by two or three shorter cells (8 to 12 * 8 to 10 µm); conidia were cylindrical (26 to 34 * 14 to 18 µm) and produced in chains. The basal septum of the conidiophore was just adjacent to mycelium. These morphological characters suggested the anamorph of Golovinomyces cichoracearum (Braun 1987). A specimen was deposited in the China Center for Type Culture Collection (CCTCC), Wu Han, China (CCTCC No. 92,047). To confirm the identification, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA was amplified with ITS1 and ITS4 primers (White et al. 1990) and sequenced in both directions. The obtained ITS sequence was assigned the GenBank Accession No. KR677379, and had 99% similarity to two ITS sequences from different G. cichoracearum accessions (JQ010848 and HM449077). Pathogenicity of the pathogen was confirmed on healthy M. indica plants, inoculated by touching them with mildew-infected leaves. Noninoculated plants served as controls. Inoculated and noninoculated plants were kept separately in a greenhouse. Ten days after inoculation powdery mildew colonies appeared on the infected plants, while no symptoms appeared on the controls. To our knowledge, this is the first report of occurrence of G. cichoracearum as a causal agent of powdery mildew on M. indica at Chongming Island of Shanghai, China. This could cause significant economic losses and become a limiting factor for M. indica production with the spread of the powdery mildew. © 2016 The American Phytopathological Society.

Liu L.,Shanghai Academy of Agricultural science SAAS | Chen Y.,Shanghai Academy of Agricultural science SAAS | Su Z.,Shanghai Academy of Agricultural science SAAS | Zhang H.,Shanghai Academy of Agricultural science SAAS | Zhu W.,Shanghai Academy of Agricultural science SAAS
HortScience | Year: 2010

Melon production in China is threatened by cucurbit powdery mildew incited by Podosphaera xanthii, which can cause severe yield losses. Disease reactions of 10 melon P. xanthii race differentials indicated the presence of a unique race of P. xanthii, denoted pxCh1, in the Shanghai area. Resistance to P. xanthii race pxCh1 in melon PI 134198, which originated from India, was controlled by a single, dominant gene, designated Pm-8, in a cross with susceptible melon inbred S717. A search for a molecular marker linked to Pm-8 was initiated using the same cross. Bulk segregant analysis of their F2 progeny revealed one sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) marker of 148 bp linked to Pm-8, at 3.9 cM. The SRAP segment was recovered, cloned, and sequenced and converted into a sequence-amplified characterized region marker for marker-assisted selection of Pm-8 in breeding programs to develop melon cultivars resistant to P. xanthii race pxCh1.

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