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Shands, United States

Shi P.,Fujian Normal University | Hong J.,Fujian Medical University | Huang Y.,Xiamen University | Zhang Z.,Shands Cancer Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Optics

Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis assay has been widely used for finding drugs targeting new blood vessel development in cancer research. In addition to the setup materials and protocols, laboratory findings depend on the quantification and analysis of microscopic blood vessel images. However, it is still a challenging problem because of the high complexity of blood vessel branching structures. We applied preprocessing on CAM microscopic images by keeping the integrity of minor branches in the vessel structure. We then proposed an efficient way to automatically extract blood vessel centerlines based on vector tracing starting from detected seed points. Finally, all branches were coded to construct an abstract model of the branching structure, which enabled more accurate modeling for in-depth analysis. The framework was applied in quantifying Icaritin (ICT) inhibition effects on angiogenesis in a CAM model. Experimental results showed the high accuracy in blood vessel quantification and modeling compared with semimanual measurements. Meanwhile, a set of blood vessel growth indicators were extracted to provide fully automated analysis for angiogenesis assays. Further analysis proved that ICT took effect in a dose-dependent manner which could be applied in suppressing tumor blood vessel growth. © 2014 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Source

Ma W.,Powell Gene Therapy Center | Li B.,Powell Gene Therapy Center | Ling C.,Powell Gene Therapy Center | Jayandharan G.R.,Powell Gene Therapy Center | And 7 more authors.
Human Gene Therapy

We have recently shown that co-administration of conventional single-stranded adeno-associated virus 2 (ssAAV2) vectors with self-complementary (sc) AAV2-protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) vectors leads to a significant increase in the transduction efficiency of ssAAV2 vectors in human cells in vitro as well as in murine hepatocytes in vivo. In the present study, this strategy has been further optimized by generating a mixed population of ssAAV2-EGFP and scAAV2-PP5 vectors at a 10:1 ratio to achieve enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene expression at approximately 5- to 10-fold higher efficiency, both in vitro and in vivo. This simple coproduction method should be adaptable to any ssAAV serotype vector containing transgene cassettes that are too large to be encapsidated in scAAV vectors. © 2011 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Ko B.-S.,National Health Research Institute | Ko B.-S.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Chang T.-C.,National Health Research Institute | Chen C.-H.,National Health Research Institute | And 10 more authors.
Life Sciences

Aims: Bortezomib is a potent proteasome inhibitor currently used to treat various malignancies with promising results. To explore the role of bortezomib in reducing cancer cell migration and inducing apoptosis, we evaluated the effects of bortezomib on the expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Main methods: Various types of cancer cells including lung cancer A549, H1299; a breast cancer MCF7; a hepatocellular carcinoma Huh7, and a tongue squamous cell carcinoma SCC-25 were treated with different concentrations of bortezomib or MG-132 as indicated for 24. h. Protein and mRNA levels were determined by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Apoptosis was analyzed by caspase 3 cleavage and activity. FAK promoter and NFκB binding activities were measured by luciferase-reporter method. NFκB subunit p65 binding capacity was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis. Key findings: Both bortezomib and another proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, significantly reduced FAK expression, suppressed cancer cell migration and increased cell apoptosis. Results of real-time PCR and promoter activity assay revealed that bortezomib decreased FAK expression through transcriptional inactivation. Results of FAK promoter activity and ChIP assays in A549 and H1299 cells indicated that bortezomib suppressed FAK activity through a p53-independent pathway. Furthermore, reduction of NFκB binding capacity demonstrated by EMSA and ChIP assay suggested that NFκB plays an important role in bortezomib suppressing FAK expression. Significance: These results suggested that FAK is downregulated by bortezomib through a proteasome-dependent NFκB inhibitory mechanism. Thus, FAK could be a potential molecular target of bortezomib for therapeutic strategy. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. Source

Golubovskaya V.M.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | Golubovskaya V.M.,University of Florida | Ho B.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | Zheng M.,University of Florida | And 4 more authors.
Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor kinase that is overexpressed in many types of tumors and plays a key role in cell adhesion, spreading, motility, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and survival. Recently, FAK has been proposed as a target for cancer therapy, and we performed computer modeling and screening of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) small molecule compounds database to target the ATP-binding site of FAK, K454. More than 140,000 small molecule compounds were docked into the crystal structure of the kinase domain of FAK in 100 different orientations using DOCK5.1 that identified small molecule compounds, targeting the K454 site, called A-compounds. To find the therapeutic efficacy of these compounds, we examined the effect of twenty small molecule compounds on cell viability by MTT assays in different cancer cell lines. One compound, A18 (1,4-bis(diethylamino)-5,8-dihydroxy anthraquinon) was a mitoxantrone derivative and significantly decreased viability in most of the cells comparable to the to the level of FAK kinase inhibitors TAE-226 (Novartis, Inc) and PF-573,228 (Pfizer). The A18 compound specifically blocked autophosphorylation of FAK like TAE-226 and PF-228. ForteBio Octet Binding assay demonstrated that mitoxantrone (1,4-dihydroxy-5,8-bis [2-(2-hydroxyethylamino) ethylamino] anthracene-9,10-dione directly binds the FAK-kinase domain. In addition, mitoxantrone significantly decreased the viability of breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited the kinase activity of FAK and Y56/577 FAK phosphorylation at 10-20 μM. Mitoxantrone did not affect phosphorylation of EGFR, but decreased Pyk-2, c-Src, and IGF-1R kinase activities. The data demonstrate that mitoxantrone decreases cancer viability, binds FAK-Kinase domain, inhibits its kinase activity, and also inhibits in vitro kinase activities of Pyk-2 and IGF-1R. Thus, this novel function of the mitoxantrone drug can be critical for future development of anti-cancer agents and FAK-targeted therapy research. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Han D.,Fujian Medical University | Zhang M.,Shands Cancer Center | Ma J.,Zhengzhou University | Hong J.,Fujian Medical University | And 11 more authors.

Little is known about the effects of ionizing radiation on the transition and the related signal transduction of progenitor B cells in the bone marrow. Thus, using an NIH Swiss mouse model, we explored the impact of ionizing radiation on the early stage of B-cell development via an examination of the transition of CLP to pro-B to pre-B cells within bone marrow as a function of radiation doses and times. Our results showed that while the total number of bone marrow lymphoid cells at different stages were greatly reduced by subtotal body irradiation (sub-TBI), the surviving cells continued to transition from common lymphoid progenitors to pro-B and then to pre-B in a reproducible temporal pattern. The rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain increased significantly 1-2 weeks after irradiation, but no change occurred after 3-4 weeks. The rearrangement of the immunoglobulin light chain decreased significantly 1-2 weeks after sub-TBI but increased dramatically after 3-4 weeks. In addition, several key transcription factors and signaling pathways were involved in B-precursor transitions after sub-TBI. The data indicate that week 2 after irradiation is a critical time for the transition from pro-B cells to pre-B cells, reflecting that the functional processes for different B-cell stages are well preserved even after high-dose irradiation. © 2012 Han et al. Source

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