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Shandong University is a public comprehensive university in Shandong, China. It is one of the largest universities in China by student population and is supported directly by the national government.Present-day Shandong University is the result of multiple mergers as well as splits and restructurings that have involved more than a dozen academic institutions over time. The oldest of Shandong University's precursor institutions, Cheeloo University, was founded by American and English mission agencies in the late 19th century . Tengchow College was the first modern institution of higher learning in China. Shandong University derives its official founding date from the Imperial Shandong University established in Jinan in November 1901 as the second modern national university in the country.Shandong University has seven campuses, all but one of which are located in the provincial capital city of Jinan. A campus to the northeast of the port city of Qingdao is under construction. The university has been classified as a National Key University by the Chinese Ministry of Education since 1960. It has been included in major national initiatives seeking to enhance the international competitiveness of the top-tier universities in China such as Project 985 and Project 211.Shandong University offers master and doctoral degree programs in all major academic disciplines covering the humanities, science and engineering, as well as medicine. Wikipedia.


Li Y.,Shandong University
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2014

Molecular mechanics results show that a hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) membrane can spontaneously assemble on the single-walled boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) in a scroll or helical manner, showing an interesting dependence on h-BN width. The size of BNNTs should meet the required conditions to guarantee self-assembly. Further analyses of energy components and structural geometry show that this unique phenomenon is because of the combined action of van der Waals interactions and the π-π stacking effect. The h-BNs with arbitrary sizes and shapes can wrap onto BNNTs to form various configurations. The self-assembly conditions and the stability of the formed nanoconfigurations are investigated for numerous potential applications. © the Partner Organisations 2014. Source


Cao S.,Shandong University
Journal of Molecular Structure | Year: 2012

The purpose of the present study was to develop in silico models allowing for a reliable prediction of polo-like kinase inhibitors based on a large diverse dataset of 136 compounds. As an effective method, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) was applied using the comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). The proposed QSAR models showed reasonable predictivity of thiophene analogs (Rcv2=0.533, Rpred2=0.845) and included four molecular descriptors, namely IC3, RDF075m, Mor02m and R4e+. The optimal model for imidazopyridine derivatives (Rcv2=0.776,Rpred2=0.876) was shown to perform good in prediction accuracy, using GATS2m and BEHe1 descriptors. Analysis of the contour maps helped to identify structural requirements for the inhibitors and served as a basis for the design of the next generation of the inhibitor analogues. Docking studies were also employed to position the inhibitors into the polo-like kinase active site to determine the most probable binding mode. These studies may help to understand the factors influencing the binding affinity of chemicals and to develop alternative methods for prescreening and designing of polo-like kinase inhibitors. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Liu T.C.,Shandong University
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2011

To explore the relationship between 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism of the parents and the susceptibility to their offspring having neural tube defects. To forecast and evaluate the onset risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) on the basis of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism on parents of the patients. Electronic search strategy was carried out among the five databases from home and abroad to collect qualified research papers, according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Case-control studies on association between MTHFR polymorphism and susceptibility to NTDs were collected and divided into two groups as mothers and fathers. The combined OR values and their 95%CI were calculated with Review Manager 5.0. 33 eligible studies were included. Statistics of the combined data showed a significant difference between the mothers with NTDs offspring carrying TT/CC, CT/CC of MTHFR gene C677T and controls. The pooled OR (95%CI) were 1.68 (1.32-2.14) and 1.20 (1.07-1.35) respectively. These was a significant difference between the fathers of the offspring with NTDs that carrying of TT/CC, CT/CC of MTHFR gene C677T and controls. The pooled ORs (95%CI) were 1.38 (1.08-1.76) and 1.32 (1.13-1.55) respectively. The results suggested that the paternal and maternal MTHFR gene C677T polymorphism were risk factors to NTDs. Source


Wang K.-Y.,Shandong University | Wang K.-H.,China Institute of Technology | Zhang Z.-P.,Second People Hospital of Muping District
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology | Year: 2011

Background Vitiligo can adversely affect the quality of life and sexual relationships of patients. Combination of the DLQI with the generic SF-36 and ENRICH may give further insight in the evaluation of the burden in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and marital quality of Chinese vitiligo patients and to identify the relevant clinical and socio-demographic determinants. Methods A total of 101 vitiligo patients and 126 healthy controls completed the questionnaires. HRQoL was measured using DLQI and SF-36, and marital quality was measured using the ENRICH marital inventory. Results Patients with vitiligo experienced significantly impaired health-related quality of life and unstable marital relationships. Gender, distribution pattern of vitiligo and disease severity were independent predictors of DLQI, SF-36 and ENRICH in this cohort. Conclusions Vitiligo is associated with impairment of HRQoL and marital quality among Chinese patients. Alongside the medical interventions, the psychological and sociocultural assessment and intervention should be an essential part of the management of these cases. © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. Source


A novel sensor based on a gold nanoparticles (Au NPs)/over-oxidized polypyrrole (OPPy) nanotube (NT) composite arrays electrode proved to be highly effective for electrochemical determination of dopamine (DA). Oriented Au NPs/OPPy NT arrays were electrodeposited by using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) arrays as templates. The morphologies of ZnO NW arrays, OPPy NT arrays, and Au NPs/OPPy NT arrays were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical behaviors of the modified electrodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques. The Au NPs/OPPy NT arrays electrode had strong catalytic activity toward the oxidation of DA. The peak currents obtained from SWV increased linearly with increasing DA concentrations in the range of 25 nM to 2.5 μM. The simultaneous analysis of ascorbic acid (AA) and DA was investigated, the results demonstrated that the Au NPs/OPPy NT arrays electrodes exhibited good selectivity and sensitivity for the determination of DA without interference by the oxidation of AA. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Source


Wang G.,Shandong University | Li Y.W.,University of Alberta
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2010

A novel parabolic carrier pulsewidth modulation (PWM) method is proposed in this paper for direct current control in a voltage-source converter (VSC). This method employs a pair of parabolic PWM carriers (a positive one and a negative one) to determine the switching states of the two switches in a converter phase leg while limiting the current tracking error within a nonlinear hysteresis band. Similar to the hysteresis PWM method, the proposed parabolic PWM can regulate both dc current and ac current with excellent and accurate dynamic response. Furthermore, as a carrier-based PWM method, the proposed parabolic PWM can maintain a constant switching frequency by the automatic peak current error adjustment through the PWM process. In this paper, the basic operation principle of the proposed PWM method is discussed, and its implementation scheme is presented. Simulation and experimental results based on a single-phase VSC with bipolar PWM implementation are provided. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Liu H.,Shandong University
Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics | Year: 2010

The aim of this paper is to discuss the approximate reasoning problems with interval-valued fuzzy environments based on the fully implicational idea. First, this paper constructs a class of interval-valued fuzzy implications by means of a type of implications and a parameter on the unit interval, then uses them to establish fully implicational reasoning methods for interval-valued fuzzy modus ponens (IFMP) and interval-valued fuzzy modus tollens (IFMT) problems. At the same time the reversibility properties of these methods are analyzed and the reversible conditions are given. It is shown that the existing unified forms of a-triple I (the abbreviation of triple implications) methods for FMP and FMT can be seen as the particular cases of our methods for IFMP and IFMT. Source


Ma Z.M.,Shandong University
Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2014

In this paper, MTL-L-filters of type I and type II in residuated lattices are proposed, some properties and alternative definitions of them are given. In particular, by the MTL-algebras derived from MTL-L-filters of type II, a one-to-one correspondence between the set of L-filters and the set of L-congruences is determined. © 2014-IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source


Zhang M.,Shandong University
Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology] | Year: 2013

To explore the relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene expression and radiosensitivity of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. EGFR sequence-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA-EGFR) was chemically synthesized. NSCLC cell line SPC-A1 was transfected with dsRNA-EGFR formulated with Lipofectamine 2000. Western blot and real-time PCR were used to determine the EGFR mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Colony inhibition test was adopted to observe the radiosensitizing effect. To establish the nude mouse tumor models, calculate the tumor growth inhibition rate and make the tumor growth curve by measuring its size and weight. EGFR mRNA levels were 1.51 ± 0.22, 1.38 ± 0.15 and 0.45 ± 0.11 in the control group, dsRNA-unrelated group and dsRNA-EGFR group, respectively (F = 482.7, P < 0.01). The contents of EGFR protein were 2340.87 ± 10.99, 2231.85 ± 35.66 and 832.03 ± 39.13 in the control group, dsRNA-unrelated group and dsRNA-EGFR group, respectively (F = 263.3, P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, dsRNA-EGFR sequence specifically decreased the expressions of EGFR mRNA by 70.2% and EGFR protein by 64.5%. The colony inhibition rates of the control group, dsRNA-unrelated combined with radiotherapy group and dsRNA-EGFR combined with radiotherapy group were 9.3%, 12.5% and 65.5%, and the tumor growth inhibition rates were 21.3%, 24.4% and 64.2%, respectively. The combination of dsRNA-EGFR and radiotherapy significantly inhibited the tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. DsRNA-EGFR shows an apparent inhibitory effect on the expression of EGFR mRNA and protein of NSCLC cells, effectively inhibit the tumor growth in vivo, and enhance the radiosensitivity of NSCLC. Source


Hao W.,Taiyuan University of Technology | Zhang J.,Shandong University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2013

High density CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics has been prepared by the hot-press sintering technique under ambient atmosphere. Its microstructure, crystalline structure and dielectric property are investigated and compared with those of the conventionally sintered ceramics. While the conventionally sintered ceramics show generally the theoretical relative densities lower than 95.0%, the hot-pressed one with a short sintering duration reaches the value of 99.3% and exhibits the microstructure of very uniform grain size distribution with the average large grain size of about 3 μm. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that there are Cu2O minor phases in the hot-pressed ceramics whereas no secondary phase exists after a further thermal treatment in ambience. Both the hot-pressed ceramics and its further thermally treated one exhibit two dielectric relaxations at room temperature, whereas the conventionally sintered ceramics have only one dielectric relaxation. Moreover, the hot-pressed CCTO ceramics has an extremely large low-frequency permittivity of 4.3 × 105, which further increases to nearly 2 × 106 through the ambient thermal treatment. The relation between microstructure and dielectric property is discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Zhang Y.-X.,Shandong University
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2016

Objective: Nutritional status during childhood plays an important role in the human life cycle. The present study examined the prevalence trends in different grades of nutritional status (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) among children and adolescents in Shandong, China. Design: Data for the study were obtained from six cross-sectional surveys of schoolchildren carried out in 1985, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014. Height and weight of all children were measured; BMI was calculated from their height and weight. International BMI cut-offs were used to define thinness, overweight and obesity. Setting: Shandong Province, China. Subjects: A total of 56 045 students aged 7–18 years were included in the current analysis. Results: In the past 29 years, the prevalence of thinness decreased from 18·22 % and 23·45 % in 1985 to 7·18 % and 9·49 % in 2014 for boys and girls, respectively. Conversely, the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity increased from 1·79 % and 1·66 % in 1985 to 31·12 % and 20·11 % in 2014 for boys and girls, respectively. Conclusions: The nutritional profile of Shandong children and adolescents had an obvious change over the past 29 years. Special attention should be paid to controlling the rapid rise of childhood overweight and obesity. Copyright © The Authors 2016 Source


Energetic ion beams with diverse energies, species and beam dimensions have been extensively utilized to modify the properties of materials to achieve versatile applications in many aspects of industry, agriculture and scientific research. In optics, the ion-beam technology has been applied to fabricate various micro- and submicrometric guiding structures on a wide range of optical crystals through the efficient modulation of the refractive indices or structuring of the surface, realizing various applications in many branches of photonics. The ion-beam fabricated optical waveguides and other photonic structures have shown good guiding performance as well as properties related to the materials, suggesting promising potential for many aspects of photonics. This paper gives the state-of-the-art review of fabrication, characterization and application on the ion-beam-processed micro- and submicrometric photonic structures by highlighting the most recent research progress. A brief prospect is presented by focusing on a few potential spotlights. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Liang H.,Shandong University
European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2013

There are discordant results in the studies of the peritonsillar infiltration in adults undergoing the tonsillectomy. The study is to compare the effect of the preemptive peritonsillar infiltration with lidocaine in bipolar tonsillectomy in adult. 172 adult patients were randomly located into five groups before tonsillectomy: group 0: without the peritonsillar infiltration, group 1: for 3 ml normal saline with 1:200,000 epinephrine per tonsil, group 2: for 3 ml 1 %lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine per tonsil, group 3: for 8 ml normal saline with 1:200,000 epinephrine per tonsil, group 4: for 8 ml lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine per tonsil. The post-operative pain in the following 7 days was assessed by visual analog scale. Operation time and post-operative bleeding were also recorded. No significant differences were found between operative times, post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage between the five groups. The differences between pain scores of the group 0, group 1 and group 2 were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The differences between pain scores of group 3, group 4 against group 0, group 1, group 2 were statistically significant (P < 0.05). We found the volume of peritonsillar infiltration might contribute to the relief of pain of the bipolar post-tonsillectomy. Source


Zhang C.,Shandong University
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2015

We studied and analyzed the phenomenon of small cracks on the surface of the TiN/Si3N4 nanocomposite ceramics when cut by wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). When power density of plasma in the discharge channel reaches a certain value, gasification cracks will appear. The effect of small cracks on heat transfer process when the TiN/Si3N4 nanocomposite ceramics are machined by WEDM was also analyzed. Results show that these small cracks make the surface heat source change toward the body heat source, so thermal stress damage happens and the crack propagation depth increases rapidly when the TiN/Si3N4 nanocomposite ceramics are machined by WEDM. © 2015 Springer-Verlag London Source


Chang Y.-C.,Shandong University
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2011

The South West of England is a very extensive region, with constraints in terms of its transport network. It is imperative if the region is to optimise its economic development for transport services to fully utilise all transport modes, not least, short sea shipping. To achieve this objective will require, inter alia, investment in the region's port infrastructure. The result of this study suggests that each South West port provides a hub to develop a small maritime cluster which provides some sort of platform for marine and maritime related activities or businesses to co-ordinate and communicate. In addition, the region is well placed geographically in relation to a number of other European Union countries, with which to develop seaborne trade links. If this can be supported both by the development of coastal shipping links between regional ports and the incremental capability of rail and road transport within the region, then substantial increased economic activity for the region could result. Moreover, it would be beneficial if the region's ports could act as a maritime cluster, optimising the contribution each port can make. This in no way would preclude healthy competition between the ports. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Baidas S.,Stevens Institute of Technology | Baidas S.,Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research | Gao B.,Shandong University | Meng X.,Stevens Institute of Technology
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

We report a kinetic and equilibrium study of perchlorate adsorption onto giant reed modified by quaternary amine (QA) functional groups in batch reactors. The effect of pH, contact time, and initial perchlorate concentration on removal was investigated. The adsorption capacity for perchlorate was 169. mg/g on the modified reed (MR) particles ranging in size from 100 to 250 μm. The isotherm results were best described by the combined Langmuir-Freundlich equation. Optimum removal occurred in the pH range 3.5-7.0 and was reduced at pH > 8.5. The maximum adsorption rate occurred within the first minute of contact and equilibrium was achieved within 7. min. A three-stage adsorption occurred. In stage 1, adsorption was rapid and was controlled by boundary layer diffusion. In stage 2, adsorption was gradual and was controlled by both boundary layer and intraparticle diffusion. In stage 3, adsorption reached a plateau. The kinetic results fit well with a pseudo second-order equation. The adsorption mechanism was explored using Zeta potential analysis and Raman spectroscopy. Zeta potential measurements showed that reed modification enhanced perchlorate removal by increasing the surface potential. Electrostatic attraction between perchlorate anion and positively charged quaternary amine groups on the MR was the primary mechanism responsible for perchlorate removal. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Chen W.,Shandong University
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011

Particulate carriers are necessary to control the release of endostar and prolong its circulation in vivo. The purpose of this study was to identify a suitable carrier for the capsulation and delivery of endostar. We prepared a series of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-modified PLGA (PEG-PLGA) particulate carriers, and then characterized them according to their ability to prolong the circulation of endostar, their physicochemical properties, endostar-loading content, and in vitro and in vivo particulate carrier release profiles. All the particulate carriers had spherical core shell structures. The PEG-PLGA material and nanosize range appeared to enable the carriers to encapsulate more endostar, release endostar faster in vitro, and accumulate more endostar in vivo. The drug loading capacity of PEG-PLGA and PLGA nanoparticles was 8.03% ± 3.41% and 3.27% ± 5.26%, respectively, and for PEG-PLGA and PLGA microspheres was 15.32% ± 5.61% and 9.21% ± 4.73%. The cumulative amount of endostar released from the carriers in phosphate-buffered saline over 21 days was 23.79%, 20.45%, 15.13%, and 10.41%, respectively. Moreover, the terminal elimination half-life of endostar in the rabbit was 26.91 ± 7.93 hours and 9.32 ± 5.53 hours in the PEG-PLGA group and the PLGA nanoparticle group. Peak endostar concentration was reached at day 7 in the group treated with subcutaneous injection of PEG-PLGA microspheres and at day 14 in the group receiving subcutaneous injection of PLGA microspheres. Endostar was detectable in vivo in both groups after injection of the particulate carriers. PEG-PLGA nanoparticles might be better than other nanoparticulate carriers for encapsulation and distribution of endostar. Source


Wang X.,Shandong University
Pattern Recognition | Year: 2010

Denoising in wavelet domain is an attractive research field. Recently, the research focused on finding some algorithms that can detect line singularities of image while smoothing noise. Based on the finite Radon transform a finite ridgelet transform was derived for this purpose. But the wrap-around effect of the finite Radon transform limits its power greatly. In this paper, a way is pointed out to remove the wrap-around effect of the finite Radon transform. By embedding it into a moving window pyramid, a multiscale image denoising algorithm is developed. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Li Y.,Shandong University
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2014

A simple method of fabricating graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with closed edges by utilizing the spontaneous collapsing mechanism of few-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is demonstrated. The diameter of the tube that can be used to fabricate GNRs should be larger than a critical value, which is 16.27, 24.41 and 39.15 Å for single-, double- and triple-walled CNTs, respectively. The geometry of fabricated multi-layered GNRs consists of two highly strained bulbs on the two edges and a flat region with an interlayer distance of 3.4 Å. Defects at the initial tube wall affect the collapsing speed and GNR configuration. The encapsulated molecules slow the collapsing speed, and may even hinder the collapse of the tube. This journal is © 2014 the Owner Societies. Source


Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol), one of the most commonly used intravenous anaesthetic agents during cancer resection surgery, has been reported to have the ability of influencing the invasion of human cancer cells. However, the mechanisms are not very clear. In this study, we investigated the effects of propofol on the proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis of human Eca-109 cells, and explored the mechanism. The human Eca-109 cells was treated with propofol at the concentrations of 10-100 μmol/L for 72 hours or at the concentration of 100 μmol for 8-72 hours. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay; the effect of propofol on apoptosis by 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. The effect of propofol on angiogenesis was determined by the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis assay. The effect of propofol on cell invasion using a modified Matrigel Boyden chamber assay. ERK1/2, MMP-9 and VEGF leves was detected by western blotting assay. In human Eca-109 cells, propofol significantly promoted cell apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in a dose and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, propofol inhibited dose and time-dependent invasion and angiogenesis. Propofol significantly dose and time-dependently down-regulated gene expression and protein production of ERK/pERK, VEGF and MMP-9. The functional effects and MMP-9/VEGF inhibition were shown to be dependent on the ERK/VEGF and ERK/MMP-9 signaling pathways. It was noteworthy that the ERK activator (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate [PMA]) treatment increased the MMP-9/VEGF levels after propofol treatment, and led to significant increase of proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis. These findings indicate that propofol inhibited proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis of human Eca-109 cells in vitro through modulation of ERK-VEGF /MMP-9 signaling. Propofol not only can be an anesthesia agent which reduces pain but plays an important role of inhibiting the migration and angiogenesis of ESCC cells in the therapy of ESCC patients. Source


Li M.X.,Shandong University
Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery | Year: 2012

To explore the expression of gut-enriched Kruppel-like factor 4(KLF4) in gastric cancer, and its association with prognosis. Surgical specimens were collected from 264 patients undergoing radical surgery between 2004 and 2009 in the Affiliated Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University. KLF4 mRNA level of specimens was detected by real-time PCR. KLF4 protein expression was measured by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray, which contained primary gastric cancer, corresponding para-cancerous tissue, and paired lymph node metastases. Real-time PCR revealed that mRNA level of KLF4 was down-regulated in gastric cancer compared with paired normal gastric mucosa. Immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray showed gastric cancer tissues had significantly lower KLF4 levels compared with paired normal gastric tissues. By univariate and multivariate analysis, KLF4 was a significant predictor of survival and recurrence. KLF4 expression is significantly down-regulated in gastric cancer, and is an independent predictor of survival and recurrence. Source


Zhou S.,Shandong Jiaotong University | Zhang Y.,Shandong Green Energy Gas Industrial Co. | Dong Y.,Shandong University
Energy | Year: 2012

Stack-pretreatment is introduced to gain higher biogas production from corn stover through solid state anaerobic digestion. The purpose of this study is to find the effects of naturally microbial pretreatment on stalk lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose degradation, and biogas production. The result indicates that the corn straws which had been stack-pretreated for 20 days decreases of the content of the middle corn straws cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin by 5.8%, 16.8% and 5.7% respectively lower than that of the untreated samples.The highest cumulative biogas yield for 60-day digestion was obtained in B group, which was 23.2% higher than that of A group, 29.1% higher than H group and also 40.7% higher than I group. The result indicates the biogas yield of anaerobic digestion of the pretreated corn stover mixed with cow dung is higher than that of the untreated ones mixed with cow dung, and higher than that of the untreated ones alone, also higher than the cow dung alone. The biogas yield of the pretreated corn stover mixed with cow is higher than the pretreated ones with the sludge. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Xu C.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Xu C.,Shandong University | Cheng Z.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Yu W.,Chinese University of Hong Kong
Plant Journal | Year: 2012

Telomere truncation has been shown to be an efficient technology for the creation of mini-chromosomes that can be used as artificial chromosome platforms for genetic engineering. Artificial chromosome-based genetic engineering is considered to be superior to the existing techniques of randomized gene integration by Agrobacterium or biolistic-mediated genetic transformation. It organizes multiple transgenes as a unique genetic linkage block for subsequent manipulations in breeding. Telomere truncation technology relies on three components: the telomere sequence that mediates chromosomal truncation, a selection marker that allows the selection of transgenic events, and a site-specific recombination system that can be used to accept future genes into the mini-chromosome by gene targeting. These elements are usually pre-assembled before transformation, a process that is both time and labor consuming. We found in this research that the three elements could be mixed to transform plant cells in a biolistic transformation, and produced efficient chromosomal truncations and mini-chromosomes in rice. This system will allow rapid construction of mini-chromosomes with a flexible selection of resistant markers, site-specific recombination systems and other desirable elements. In addition, a rice telotrisomic line was used as the starting material for chromosomal truncations. Mini-chromosomes from the truncations of both the telocentric chromosome and other chromosomes were recovered. The mini-chromosomes remained stable during 2 years of subculture. The construction of mini-chromosomes in rice, an economically important crop, will provide a platform for future artificial chromosome-based genetic engineering of rice for stacking multiple genes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Wu Z.,Shandong University | Zhang F.,Shandong University of Finance and Economics
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2011

We consider a stochastic optimal control problem of a forward-backward system in which the control variable consists of two components: the continuous control and the impulse control. The domain of the control is assumed to be convex. Necessary optimality conditions of the Pontryagin maximum principle type are obtained for this stochastic optimal control problem. We also give additional conditions, under which the necessary optimality conditions turn out to be sufficient. © 2006 IEEE. Source


Xu M.,Shandong University
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2015

Based on the mean-field dynamo theory, the integral equation approach is extended to investigate the impact of the small scale turbulence on the onset of the dynamo actions in the cylindrical vessel by taking the Beltrami-like flows as mean flows and modeling the small scale turbulence with α-effect. The numerical results show that the small scale isotropic turbulence may have a detrimental or helpful effect on the onset of the dynamo action, which depends on the mean flow. However, the strong isotropic turbulence prefers to excite the m=0 magnetic mode. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Wu Z.,Shandong University
Science China Information Sciences | Year: 2010

This paper studies an optimal control problem for partially observed forward-backward stochastic control system with a convex control domain and the forward diffusion term containing control variable. A maximum principle is proved for this kind of partially observable optimal control problems and the corresponding adjoint processes are characterized by the solutions of certain forward-backward stochastic differential equations in finite-dimensional spaces. One partially observed recursive linear-quadratic (LQ) optimal control example is also given to show the application of the obtained maximum principle. An explicit observable optimal control is obtained in this example. © Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010. Source


OBJECTIVE—: Tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) is a high-affinity receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor. In addition to its nervous system functions, TrkB is also expressed in the cardiovascular system. However, the association of TrkB and coronary artery disease (CAD) remains unknown. We investigated the role of TrkB in the development of CAD and its mechanism.APPROACH AND RESULTS—: We performed a case–control study in 2 independent cohort of Chinese subjects and found –69C>G polymorphisms of TrkB gene significantly associated with CAD. TrkB –69C homozygotes, which corresponded to decreased TrkB expression by luciferase reporter assay, showed increased risk for CAD. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that TrkB was expressed in the aortic endothelium in atherosclerotic lesions in humans and ApoE mice. TrkB knockdown in the aortic endothelium resulted in vascular leakage in ApoE mice. Mechanistic studies showed that TrkB regulated VE-cadherin expression through induction and activation of Ets1 transcriptional factor. Importantly, TrkB activation attenuated proatherosclerotic factors induced-endothelial hyperpermeability in human vascular endothelial cells.CONCLUSIONS—: Our data demonstrate that TrkB protects endothelial integrity during atherogenesis by promoting Ets1-mediated VE-cadherin expression and plays a previously unknown protective role in the development of CAD. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Source


Pang J.,Shandong University
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011

Ibuprofen- (IBU) loaded biocompatible poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films were prepared by spreading polymer/ibuprofen solution on the nonsolvent surface. By controlling the weight ratio of drug and polymer, different drug loading polymer films can be obtained. The synthesized ibuprofen-loaded PLGA films were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. The drug release behavior of the as-prepared IBU-loaded PLGA films was studied to reveal their potential application in drug delivery systems. The results show the feasibility of the as-obtained films for controlling drug release. Furthermore, the drug release rate of the film could be controlled by the drug loading content and the release medium. The development of a biodegradable ibuprofen system, based on films, should be of great interest in drug delivery systems. Source


Zheng F.-B.,University of Jinan | Zhang C.-W.,University of Jinan | Yan S.-S.,Shandong University | Li F.,University of Jinan
Journal of Materials Chemistry C | Year: 2013

Motivated by experimental developments on silicene nanosheets, we performed first-principles calculations to study the geometric, electronic and magnetic properties of pristine, N or B doped, as well as N and B co-doped silicene nanoribbons (SiNRs). It is shown that the substitution of N or B for Si is preferentially at the ribbon edge sites. A singly substituted N or B atom at the edges results in a semiconductor-metal transition in armchair silicene nanoribbons (ASiNRs) because of the appearance of half-filled impurity band near the Fermi level. When the N/N or B/B atoms are doped into ASiNRs at two opposite edges, they preserve the metallic character due to a negligible impurity-impurity interaction, independent of the ribbon widths. However, the co-doped systems with N and B atoms exhibit semiconducting behavior with band gaps smaller than the corresponding pristine forms, due to effective charge compensation between N or B atoms. When Si is substituted by an N or B atom in zigzag silicene nanoribbons (ZSiNRs), the systems show ferromagnetic (FM) character, which is attributed to the perturbation of π and π* states localized at the doped edges. More importantly, the marvelous half-metal and spin gapless semiconductor with 100% spin polarized currents around the Fermi level has been found in N-doped ZSiNRs. Providing that the doping with two N/N or B/B atoms is made in ZSiNRs, the spin-polarization at both Si edges is found to be compressed, and thus they exhibit nonmagnetic behavior. However, when the N and B atoms are co-doped into ZSiNRs at the most stable edge positions, a transition from metallic to semiconducting state will appear. These predicted properties may lead to a new route for energy band engineering of SiNRs and benefit the design of silicene-based electronic devices in nanoelectronics. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Tang Y.,Nanyang Technological University | Loh P.C.,Nanyang Technological University | Wang P.,Nanyang Technological University | Choo F.H.,Nanyang Technological University | Gao F.,Shandong University
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2012

This paper investigates the inherent damping characteristic of LCL-filters for three-phase grid-connected voltage source inverters. Specifically, it is found that when the converter-side current is used for implementing the feedback control, there will be an inherent damping term embedded in the control loop, which can neutralize the resonance introduced by LCL-filters. Theoretical analysis is then presented to suggest a general design guideline for choosing values of grid-and converter-side inductors, so that optimum damping can be naturally achieved by solely using converter current control, doing away with active damping, passive damping, or complex state observer. In cases where the design criterion is not fulfilled, the damping information contained in the converter current is extracted by a second-order notch filter, and then processed by a compensation gain to tune the system damping factor. The proposed compensation strategy requires no additional hardware and it will not cause an overmodulation problem due to its free of fundamental component. Both simulation and experimental results are finally provided to validate the theoretical findings developed in this paper. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Zhang L.,Nanyang Technological University | Loh P.C.,Nanyang Technological University | Gao F.,Shandong University
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2012

A nine-switch power converter having two sets of output terminals was recently proposed in place of the traditional back-to-back power converter that uses 12 switches in total. The nine-switch converter has already been proven to have certain advantages, in addition to its component saving topological feature. Despite these advantages, the nine-switch converter has so far found limited applications due to its many perceived performance tradeoffs like requiring an oversized dc-link capacitor, limited amplitude sharing, and constrained phase shift between its two sets of output terminals. Instead of accepting these tradeoffs as limitations, a nine-switch power conditioner is proposed here that virtually converts most of these topological short comings into interesting performance advantages. Aiming further to reduce its switching losses, an appropriate discontinuous modulation scheme is proposed and studied here in detail to doubly ensure that maximal reduction of commutations is achieved. With an appropriately designed control scheme then incorporated, the nine-switch converter is shown to favorably raise the overall power quality in experiment, hence justifying its role as a power conditioner at a reduced semiconductor cost. © 2011 IEEE. Source


In this paper we investigate the existence of quasi-periodic solutions of non-autonomous two-dimensional reversible and Hamiltonian systems under the Bruno condition. As an application we study the dynamical stability of the trivial solution at the origin of a quasi-periodically forced planar system. Under a mild non-degeneracy condition we give a criterion that is necessary and sufficient for a large class of systems. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd and London Mathematical Society. Source


Three new coordination polymers, [Ni(2,4′-oba)(1,10-phen)] n (1), {[Ni (2,4′-Hoba) 2(4,4′-bipy)(H 2O) 2]·2H 2O} n (2) and [Zn(2,4′-oba) (4,4′-bipy)] n (3) (2,4′-H 2oba = 2-(4-carboxyphenoxy)benzoic acid, 1,10- phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, and 4,4′-bipy = 4,4′-bipyridine) have been obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. The framework structures of these polymeric complexes have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Complex 1 exhibits double-helical chains formed by π-π stacking interactions from the phenyl rings of the 1,10-phen ligands. Complex 2 forms a two-dimensional supramolecular architecture directed by hydrogen bonding. Complex 3 exhibits a three-dimensional structure; Schläfli symbol of {4 4·6 10·8}. The luminescent property of compound 3 is discussed. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Gu T.,Shandong University
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2014

The electronic structure of ZnO with defects of oxygen vacancies were investigated by using first-principles methods. Some structure models were constructed in order to investigate the effects of the distribution of oxygen vacancies on the electronic properties of ZnO. By analyzing the calculated results, we found that only the aligned oxygen vacancies can form the conducting channel in ZnO, and the transformation of the oxygen vacancy from charged state to neutral state is consistent with the energetics rule of the forming aligned oxygen vacancies. As for the heterojunction of Pt/ZnO/Pt, the oxygen vacancies near the interface of Pt/ZnO depress the local Schottky barrier effectively, and the aligned oxygen vacancies in ZnO form a conducting filament connecting two Pt electrodes. The metallic filament formation in Pt/ZnO/Pt resistive switching cells should be closely related to the carrier injection from Pt electrode into ZnO and the arrangement of oxygen vacancies in ZnO slab. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. Source


Zhang F.,Shandong University
ESAIM - Control, Optimisation and Calculus of Variations | Year: 2011

A zero-sum stochastic differential game problem on infinite horizon with continuous and impulse controls is studied. We obtain the existence of the value of the game and characterize it as the unique viscosity solution of the associated system of quasi-variational inequalities. We also obtain a verification theorem which provides an optimal strategy of the game. © EDP Sciences, SMAI, 2010. Source


Lin J.,Shandong University
Pacific Economic Review | Year: 2016

A macro-prudential approach to financial regulation should reasonably evaluate the systemic risk of individual institutions. We introduce a measure of the systemic risk of interconnected banks using the weighted Shapley value, which characterizes banks' systemic risk by capturing two characteristics: (i) a bank's risk exposure of the primitive asset structure; and (ii) its position in the interbank network. An empirical implementation reveals that the primitive asset structure and interbank connections are main drivers of each bank's systemic risk. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd. Source


Zhang W.,Pennsylvania State University | Zhang W.,Shandong University | Jeon B.W.,Pennsylvania State University | Assmann S.M.,Pennsylvania State University
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2011

Heterotrimeric G proteins composed of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits are important signalling agents in both animals and plants. In plants, G proteins modulate numerous responses, including abscisic acid (ABA) and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) regulation of guard cell ion channels and stomatal apertures. Previous analyses of mutants deficient in the sole canonical Arabidopsis Gα subunit, GPA1, have shown that Gα-deficient guard cells are impaired in ABA inhibition of K+ influx channels, and in pH-independent activation of anion efflux channels. ABA-induced Ca2+ uptake through ROS-activated Ca2+- permeable channels in the plasma membrane is another key component of ABA signal transduction in guard cells, but the question of whether these channels are also dependent on Gα for their ABA response has not been evaluated previously. We used two independent Arabidopsis T-DNA null mutant lines, gpa1-3 and gpa1-4, to investigate this issue. We observed that gpa1 mutants are disrupted both in ABA-induced Ca2+-channel activation, and in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to ABA. However, in response to exogenous H2O2 application, ICa channels are activated normally in gpa1 guard cells. In addition, H 2O2 inhibition of stomatal opening and promotion of stomatal closure are not disrupted in gpa1 mutant guard cells. These data indicate that absence of GPA1 interrupts ABA signalling between ABA reception and ROS production, with a consequent impairment in Ca2+-channel activation. © The Author 2010. Source


Wang B.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics | Hao J.,Shandong University | Li H.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2013

Versatile efforts have been made to improve the stability of graphite/ethylene glycol (EG) nanofluids. Primitively, non-dispersible graphite nanoparticles were converted to graphite oxide nanoparticles (GONs) by acid treatment. Although GONs could be well dispersed in EG, the GONs/EG nanofluids exhibited limited stability up to less than 1 day. And then, a GO (2 wt%) percolation structure formed in EG was used to anchor and support GONs by common non-covalent interactions including hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces and π-π conjugation. Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that a GON-GO hybrid forms in the GON-GO (2 wt%)/EG nanofluids with evenly distributed GONs on the GO sheets, which accounted for the high stability of nanofluids up to at least 4 weeks obtained from stability tests, in sharp contrast to that of the GONs/EG nanofluids. In addition, due to the better dispersed state of GONs induced by the GO percolation structure, thermal conductivity (TC) tests demonstrated that the TC enhancements of the GON-GO (2 wt%)/EG nanofluids were also strengthened compared to that of GONs/EG nanofluids. Excitingly, the GONs-GO (2 wt%)/EG nanofluids presented here exhibited anomalous thermal conductivity enhancements up to 123% at 21 wt% GONs content and were highly stable, which might have potential applications in engineering field and energy systems. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


This paper is concerned with a Pontryagin's maximum principle for stochastic optimal control problems of delay systems with random coefficients involving both continuous and impulse controls. This kind of control problems is motivated by some interesting phenomena arising from economics and finance. We establish a necessary maximum principle and a sufficient verification theorem by virtue of the duality and the convex analysis. To explain the theoretical results, we apply them to a production and consumption choice problem. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Liu Z.,Shandong University
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics | Year: 2012

With the development of consumer electronics, the demand for simple, convenient, and high-security authentication systems for protecting private information stored in mobile devices has steadily increased. In consideration of emerging requirements for information protection, biometrics, which uses human physiological or behavioral features for personal identification, has been extensively studied as a solution to security issues. However, most existing biometric systems have high complexity in time or space or both, and are thus not suitable for mobile devices. In this paper, we propose a real-time embedded finger-vein recognition system for authentication on mobile devices. The system is implemented on a DSP platform and equipped with a novel finger-vein recognition algorithm. The proposed system takes only about 0.8 seconds to verify one input fingervein sample and achieves an equal error rate (EER) of 0.07% on a database of 100 subjects. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed finger-vein recognition system is qualified for authentication on mobile devices. © 1975-2011 IEEE. Source


Zheng X.-X.,Peking Union Medical College | Xu Y.-L.,Peking Union Medical College | Li S.-H.,Shandong University | Hui R.,Peking Union Medical College | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background: The effect of green tea catechins (GTCs) with or without caffeine on glycemic control is controversial. Objective: We aimed to identify and quantify the effects of GTCs or GTC-caffeine mixtures on glucose metabolism in adults. Design: A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant trials of GTCs with or without caffeine on markers of glycemic control [fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin (FBI), glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)]. Weighted mean differences were calculated for net changes by using fixed-effects models. Prespecified subgroup analyses were performed to explore the influence of covariates on net changes in FBG and FBI concentrations. Results: Twenty-two eligible randomized controlled trials with 1584 subjects were identified. Pooled analyses showed that FBG (-1.48 mg/dL; 95% CI: -2.57, -0.40 mg/dL) decreased significantly with GTCs with or without caffeine, whereas FBI (0.04 μU/mL; 95% CI: 20.36, 0.45 μU/mL), Hb A1c (20.04%; 95% CI: 20.15, 0.08%), and HOMA-IR (20.05; 95% CI: 20.37, 0.26) did not. Subgroup analyses indicated that the glucose-lowering effect was apparent when the duration of follow-up was over a median of 12 wk. Overall, no significant heterogeneity was detected for FBG, FBI, Hb A1c, or HOMA-IR. Conclusions: The meta-analysis showed that the administration of GTCs with or without caffeine resulted in a significant reduction in FBG. The limited data available on GTCs did not support a positive effect on FBI, Hb A1c, or HOMA-IR. Thus, more large and welldesigned trials are needed in the future. This trial was registered at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero as CRD42012002139. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Nutrition. Source


Fan C.,Shandong University | Lin H.,Ningde Normal University
Journal of Convergence Information Technology | Year: 2012

P-sets(packet sets) is a novel mathematics model obtained by improving finite general set X(Cantor set X), which has dynamic characteristic. P-sets is a set pair composed of internal P-set X F (internal packet set X F) and outer P-set X F (outer packet set X F), or (X F, X F) is a P-sets. Internal P-set X F is obtained by deleting some attributes from the attribute set α. Outer P-set X F is obtained by supplementing some attributes into the attribute set α. α is the attribute set of finite general set X. Using the structure of P-sets, it gives the status characteristics of information and the unit circle theorem of information status identification in the paper. Based on the theoretical results, it gives the application of P-sets in disaster information reasoning-identification. P-sets is a novel mathematical method and model studying information identification. Source


Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are elevated in aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), and they can stimulate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) via NADPH oxidase, induce oxidative stress that lead to cell death. In the current study, we investigated the molecular events underlying the process that AGEs induce cell death in SH-SY5Y cells and rat cortical neurons. We found: (1) AGEs increase intracellular ROSs; (2) AGEs cause cell death after ROSs increase; (3) oxidative stress-induced cell death is inhibited via the blockage of AGEs receptor (RAGE), the down-regulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, and the increase of scavenging by anti-oxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALA); (4) endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was triggered by AGE-induced oxidative stress, resulting in the activation of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase-12 that consequently initiates cell death, taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) inhibited AGE-induced ER stress and cell death. Blocking RAGE-NADPH oxidase, and RAGE-NADPH oxidase-ROSs and ER stress scavenging pathways could efficiently prevent the oxidative and ER stresses, and consequently inhibited cell death. Our results suggest a new prevention and or therapeutic approach in AGE-induced cell death. Source


Deng J.,Shandong University
Physics of Particles and Nuclei | Year: 2014

The longitudinal spin transfer DLL of Λ Λ̄ and hyperons is expected to be sensitive to the helicity distribution function of strange (anti-)quarks, and to the polarized fragmentation functions. We report new results on DLL, extracted from √s = 200 GeV polarized pp collisions recorded at the STAR detector during the 2009 RHIC run. These new results cover mid-rapidity {pipe}η{pipe} < 1.2, with extended pT up to 6 GeV/c. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source


Tang C.L.,Shandong University | Tang C.L.,Chinese Academy of Sciences
Annales Geophysicae | Year: 2012

We presented a large-scale plasma flow vortex event that occurred on 1 March 2009 observed by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) satellites. During the interval, THEMIS satellites were located in the premidnight region between 11 and 16 R E downtail. Dawnward-earthward plasma flows were seen initially in the magnetotail, followed by duskward-tailward flows. This suggests that a clockwise plasma flow vortex (seen from above the equatorial plane) was observed on the dawn side of the plasma sheet. Furthermore, high energy (>1 keV) electrons were observed. Auroral images at 427.8 nm and THEMIS white light all-sky imager (ASI) at Fort Smith showed a discrete auroral patch formed at the poleward of the auroral oval, it then intensified. It extended eastward and equatorward first and followed by westward motion to form the clockwise auroral vortex. The auroral feature corresponded to the ionospheric signatures of the plasma flow vortex in the magnetotail when the Alfv́en transit time between the magnetotail and the ionosphere was taken into account. We suggest that the large-scale clockwise plasma flow vortex in association with the high energy (>1 keV) electrons on the dawn side of the plasma sheet generated a downward field-aligned current (FAC) that caused the related ionospheric signatures. The plasma flow vortex had rotational flow speeds of up to 300 km s -1. The current density associated with the plasma flow vortex was estimated at 2.0 μA m -2, mapped to the ionosphere. © 2012 Author(s). CC Attribution 3.0 License. Source


Shi L.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Zhang H.,Shandong University
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2012

We consider scheduling two Gauss-Markov systems. Two sensors, each measuring the state of one of the two systems, compute and report their local state estimates to a central remote estimator, respectively. Due to the bandwidth constraint, at each time, only one of the sensors is allowed to communicate its estimate with the remote estimator. Upon receiving the data from the sensors, the remote estimator computes the minimum mean squared error estimate of each system's state. We provide an explicit construction of an optimal schedule, which is periodic (hence allows simple and efficient practical implementation) and minimizes the sum of the average estimation error covariance of each system. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Zhang H.,Shandong University | Song X.,Shandong Normal University | Song X.,Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory for Novel Distributed Computer Software Technology | Shi L.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2012

We consider remote state estimation over a packet-dropping network. A new suboptimal filter is derived by minimizing the mean squared estimation error. The estimator is designed by solving one deterministic Riccati equation. Convergence of the estimation error covariance and mean square stability of the estimator are proved under standard assumptions. It is shown that the new estimator has smaller error covariance and has wider applications when compared with the linear minimum mean squared error estimator. One of the key techniques adopted in this technical note is the introduction of the innovation sequence for the multiplicative noise systems. © 2012 IEEE. Source


This paper introduces a type of modified hybrid projective synchronization with complex transformationmatrix (CMHPS) for different dimensional fractional-order complex chaos and fractional-order real hyper-chaos. The transformationmatrix in this type of chaotic synchronization is a non-square matrix, and its elements are complex numbers. Based on the stability theory of fractional-order systems, by employing the feedback control technique, necessary and sufficient criteria on CMHPS are derived. Furthermore, CMHPS between fractional-order real hyper-chaotic Rössler system and other two different dimensional fractional-order complex Lorenz-like chaotic systems is provided as two examples to discuss reduced order and increased order synchronization, respectively. © 2014 by the authors. Source


Tan Q.,Shandong University
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study was to investigate lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles as a topical delivery system for quercetin. Tocopheryl propylene glycol succinate was chosen to be the surfactant for the nanosystem. The mean particle size of the nanoparticles was 95.3 nm, and the entrapment efficiency and drug loading for quercetin were 48.5% and 2.45%, respectively. Topical delivery in vitro and in vivo of the quercetin-loaded nanoparticles was evaluated using quercetin propylene glycol solution as the control. Compared with quercetin solution, the quercetin-loaded nanoparticles showed higher permeation ability, and significantly increased accumulation of quercetin in the skin, especially in the epidermis. Microstructure observation of the skin surface after administration indicated that the interaction between ingredients of the nanoparticles and the skin surface markedly changed the morphology of the stratum corneum and disrupted the corneocyte layers, thus facilitating the permeation and accumulation of quercetin in skin. Lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles are a promising carrier for topical delivery of quercetin. Source


Ge H.X.,Ningbo University | Cheng R.J.,Zhejiang University | Lei L.,Shandong University
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2010

The lattice hydrodynamic model is not only a simplified version of the macroscopic hydrodynamic model, but also connected with the microscopic car following model closely. The modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation related to the density wave in a congested traffic region has been derived near the critical point since Nagatani first proposed it. But the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation near the neutral stability line has not been studied, which has been investigated in detail for the car following model. We devote ourselves to obtaining the KdV equation from the original lattice hydrodynamic models and the KdV soliton solution to describe the traffic jam. Especially, we obtain the general soliton solution of the KdV equation and the mKdV equation. We review several lattice hydrodynamic models, which were proposed recently. We compare the modified models and carry out some analysis. Numerical simulations are conducted to demonstrate the nonlinear analysis results. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Ma S.,Shandong University | Boukas E.-K.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control | Year: 2011

The guaranteed cost control problem for discrete-time singular Markov jump systems with parameter uncertainties is discussed. The weighting matrix in quadratic cost function is indefinite. For full and partial knowledge of transition probabilities cases, state feedback controllers are designed based on linear matrix inequalities method which guarantee that the closed-loop discrete-time singular Markov jump systems are regular, causal and robust stochastically stable, and the cost value has a zero lower bound and a finite upper bound. A numerical example to illustrate the effectiveness of the method is given in the paper. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Saravelos S.H.,University of Sheffield | Yan J.,Shandong University | Rehmani H.,University of Sheffield | Li T.-C.,University of Sheffield
Human Reproduction | Year: 2011

Backgrounda: lthough uterine fibroids have been associated with spontaneous miscarriage, to our knowledge there have been no studies in the literature assessing their role in the recurrent miscarriage (RM) population. The aims of this study are to examine the impact of different types of fibroids on the pregnancy outcome of women with RM and to investigate to what extent resection of fibroids distorting the uterine cavity affects the outcome of a future pregnancy.Methods: The study analysed retrospective and prospective data from a large tertiary referral RM clinic. Couples were investigated as per an established protocol. Fibroids were diagnosed using combined transvaginal ultrasound and hysterosalpingography. Fibroids distorting the uterine cavity were resected via hysteroscopy. Two study groups were subsequently examined: women with cavity-distorting fibroids who underwent surgery (n 25) and women with fibroids not distorting the cavity who did not undergo any intervention (n 54). The latter was compared with a control group of women with unexplained RM (n 285).Results: The prevalence of fibroids was found to be 8.2 (79/966). In total, 264 pregnancies of women with fibroids and 936 pregnancies of women with unexplained RM were analysed. Women with intracavitary distortion and undergoing myomectomy significantly reduced their mid-trimester miscarriage rates in subsequent pregnancies from 21.7 to 0 (P< 0.01). This translated to an increase in the live birth rate from 23.3 to 52.0 (P< 0.05). Women with fibroids not distorting the cavity behaved similarly to women with unexplained RM achieving a 70.4 live birth rate in their subsequent pregnancies without any intervention. Conclusions: Fibroids are associated with increased mid-trimester losses amongst women with RM. Resection of fibroids distorting the uterine cavity can eliminate the mid-trimester losses and double the live birth rate in subsequent pregnancies. Women with fibroids not distorting the uterine cavity can achieve high live birth rates without intervention. © 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. Source


Li H.,Shandong University
Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

A photon model is proposed, and the parameter equations of the photon are obtained. This model can explain the polarization, total reflection, evanescent wave, and Goos-Hanchen shift of a single photon. The evanescent waves of photons with different frequencies are refractively dispersed. The Goos-Hanchen shift is dependent on the difference between the two refractive indices of media, the incident angle, and the frequency of the photon. According to this model, an evanescent wave of light does not decay exponentially along the z direction and does not propagate along the x direction infinitely. The laws of refraction and reflection for a single photon can be derived. The refractive dispersion of light can be explained. According to this model, every photon is polarized. Polarization is the intrinsic nature of the photon. The motion of a single photon is either clockwise or counterclockwise. The so-called unpolarized light refers to light that consists of an equal number of photons with clockwise motion and counterclockwise motion. The trajectories of two photons with the same frequency but opposite spiral directions are mirror- image isomers. They cannot be superimposed upon each other. © The Authors. Source


Tong D.M.,Shandong University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

The quantitative condition has been widely used in the practical applications of the adiabatic theorem. However, it had never been proved to be sufficient or necessary before. It was only recently found that the quantitative condition is insufficient, but whether it is necessary remains unresolved. In this Letter, we prove that the quantitative condition is necessary in guaranteeing the validity of the adiabatic approximation. © 2010 The American Physical Society. Source


Chen M.,Xiamen University | Chen M.,Shandong University
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2012

We prove that the maximum norm of velocity gradients controls the possible breakdown of smooth (strong) solutions for the 3-dimensional viscous, compressible micropolar fluids. More precisely, if a solution of the system is initially regular and loses its regularity at some later time, then the loss of regularity implies the growth without the bound of the velocity gradients as the critical time approaches. Our result is a generalization of Huang et al. (2011) [13] from viscous barotropic flows to the viscous, compressible micropolar fluids. In addition, initial vacuum states are also allowed in our result. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Preeclampsia, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, is a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors. A recent genome-wide association study of blood pressure reported an association between hypertension and rs11646213. This study evaluated the association between preeclampsia and rs11646213. A total of 454 cases and 460 controls were recruited to participate in this study. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11646213 was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. The allele frequency of rs11646213 was significantly different between the preeclampsia and control groups (P = 0.017, OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06-1.76). Differences were particularly significant in the severe preeclampsia subgroup (P = 0.002, OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.17-2.03) and the early-onset preeclampsia subgroup (P = 0.004, OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.16-2.13). Genotyping analysis showed that the T allele of rs11646213 could confer a risk for preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia and early-onset preeclampsia. Rs11646213 upstream of the CDH13 gene is associated with preeclampsia in Han Chinese women. Source


Feng Z.,University of Washington | Feng Z.,Shandong University | Zhang J.,University of Washington | Zhang J.,Case Western Reserve University
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2012

Homologous recombination (HR) is a major mechanism utilized to repair blockage of DNA replication forks. Here, we report that a sister chromatid exchange (SCE) generated by crossover-associated HR efficiently occurs in response to replication fork stalling before any measurable DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Interestingly, SCE produced by replication fork collapse following DNA DSBs creation is specifically suppressed by ATR, a central regulator of the replication checkpoint. BRCA1 depletion leads to decreased RPA2 phosphorylation (RPA2-P) following replication fork stalling but has no obvious effect on RPA2-P following replication fork collapse. Importantly, we found that BRCA1 promotes RAD51 recruitment and SCE induced by replication fork stalling independent of ATR. In contrast, BRCA1 depletion leads to a more profound defect in RAD51 recruitment and SCE induced by replication fork collapse when ATR is depleted. We concluded that BRCA1 plays a dual role in two distinct HR-mediated repair upon replication fork stalling and collapse. Our data established a molecular basis for the observation that defective BRCA1 leads to a high sensitivity to agents that cause replication blocks without being associated with DSBs, and also implicate a novel mechanism by which loss of cell cycle checkpoints promotes BRCA1-associated tumorigenesis via enhancing HR defect resulting from BRCA1 deficiency. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. Source


Jiang F.,Shandong University | Liu G.-S.,University of Melbourne | Dusting G.J.,University of Melbourne | Chan E.C.,University of Melbourne
Redox Biology | Year: 2014

Uncontrolled fibrosis in organs like heart, kidney, liver and lung is detrimental and may lead to end-stage organ failure. Currently there is no effective treatment for fibrotic disorders. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β has a fundamental role in orchestrating the process of fibrogenesis; however, interventions directly targeting TGF-β would have undesired systemic side effects due to the multiple physiological functions of TGF-β. Further characterization of the downstream signaling pathway(s) involved in TGF-β-mediated fibrosis may lead to discovery of novel treatment strategies for fibrotic disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that Nox4 NADPH oxidase may be an important downstream effector in mediating TGF-β-induced fibrosis, while NADPH oxidase-dependent redox signaling may in turn regulate TGF-β/Smad signaling in a feed-forward manner. It is proposed that pharmacological inhibition of the Nox4 function may represent a novel approach in treatment of fibrotic disorders. © 2014 The Authors. Source


BACKGROUND: Although various cross-sectional studies have shown that erythrocyte parameters, including red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (HCT), were linked with metabolic syndrome (MetS), few longitudinal studies have been used to confirm their relationship. The study, therefore, constructed a large-scale longitudinal cohort in urban Chinese population to highlight and confirm the association between erythrocyte parameters and MetS/its components.METHODS: A longitudinal cohort with 6,453 participants was established based on the routine health check-up systems to follow up MetS, and Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) model was used to detect the association between erythrocyte parameters and MetS/its components (obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension).RESULTS: 287 MetS occurred over the four-year follow-up, leading to a total incidence density of 14.19 per 1,000 person-years (287/20218 person-years). Both RBC and Hb were strongly associated with MetS (RR/95% CI, P value; 3.016/1.525-5.967, 0.002 for RBC; 3.008/1.481-6.109, 0.002 for Hb), with their dose-response trends detected. All three erythrocyte parameters (RBC, Hb and HCT) were found to be associated with obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia with similar dose-response trends respectively, while only Hb showed a significant association with hyperglycemia.CONCLUSIONS: Elevated erythrocyte parameters were confirmed to be associated with MetS/its components in urban Chinese population, suggesting that erythrocyte parameters might be served as a potential predictor for risk of MetS. Source


Li H.,Shandong University
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2012

Inspirited by Li and Jin (Nonlinear Dyn. 67:2857-2864 2012), this paper investigates the Hopf bifurcation of a four-dimensional hyperchaotic system with only one equilibrium. A detailed set of conditions are derived, which guarantee the existence of the Hopf bifurcation. Furthermore, the standard normal form theory is applied to determine the direction and type of the Hopf bifurcation, and the approximate expressions of bifurcating periodic solutions and their periods. In addition, numerical simulations are used to justify theoretical results. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012. Source


He H.,Shandong University
ICPCA10 - 5th International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Applications | Year: 2010

SaaS (Software as a Service) is a kind of application services which is provided via Internet, and customers can order and receive their peculiar types of software application services from the SaaS provider via the Internet according to their actual needs. This paper analysis current development of SaaS, by means of comparing SaaS model with traditional software model, a new engineering method is illustrated. Besides, this paper assays the architecture of SaaS-based software application, what's more, the approach of data separate and the implementation of UI is present. The instance of service outsourcing public technical platform at Weihai illustrates design of SaaS architecture. ©2010 IEEE. Source


Xu M.,Shandong University
Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences | Year: 2013

In a Knudsen layer with thickness comparable to the mean free path, collisions between heat carriers and solid walls play an important role in nanoscale heat transports. An interesting question is that whether these collisions also induce the slip of heat flow similar to the velocity slip condition of the rarefied gases on solid walls. In this work based on the discrete Boltzmann transport equation, the slip boundary condition of heat flux on solid walls in the Knudsen layer is established. This result is exemplified by the slip boundary condition of heat flux in nanowires, which has been proposed in a phenomenological way. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. Source


Li D.,Nanyang Technological University | Loh P.C.,Nanyang Technological University | Zhu M.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Gao F.,Shandong University | Blaabjerg F.,University of Aalborg
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2013

Inverters with high-output voltage gain usually face the problem of high-input current flowing through their components. The problem might further be exaggerated if the inverters use high-frequency magnetic devices like transformers or coupled inductors. Leakage inductances of these devices must strictly be small to prevent overvoltages caused by switching of their winding currents. To avoid these related problems, cascaded trans-Z-source inverters are proposed. They use multiple magnetic cells in an alternately cascading pattern rather than a single magnetic cell with large turns ratio. Simulation and experimental results have shown that the multicell inverters can produce the same high-voltage gain, while keeping currents and voltages of the components low. The inverters can also step down their output voltages like a traditional voltage-source inverter without compromising waveform quality. © 1986-2012 IEEE. Source


Li D.,Nanyang Technological University | Loh P.C.,Nanyang Technological University | Zhu M.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Gao F.,Shandong University | Blaabjerg F.,University of Aalborg
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics | Year: 2013

Traditional voltage-source inverter is limited by its only voltage step-down operation, while current-source inverter is limited by its only current step-down mode. In order to add an extra boosting flexibility while keeping the number of active semiconductors unchanged, voltage-type and current-type Z-source inverters were earlier proposed. These new classes of inverters are generally more robust and less sensitive to electromagnetic noises. However, their boosting capabilities are somehow compromised by high component stresses and poorer spectral performances caused by low modulation ratios. Their boosting gains are, therefore, limited in practice. To overcome these shortcomings, the generalized switched-inductor and switched-capacitor Z-source inverters are proposed, whose extra boosting abilities and other advantages have already been verified in simulation and experiment. © 1986-2012 IEEE. Source


The tyrosine phosphorylation barcode encoded in C-terminus of HER2 and its ubiquitination regulate diverse HER2 functions. PTPN18 was reported as a HER2 phosphatase; however, the exact mechanism by which it defines HER2 signaling is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that PTPN18 regulates HER2-mediated cellular functions through defining both its phosphorylation and ubiquitination barcodes. Enzymologic characterization and three crystal structures of PTPN18 in complex with HER2 phospho-peptides revealed the molecular basis for the recognition between PTPN18 and specific HER2 phosphorylation sites, which assumes two distinct conformations. Unique structural properties of PTPN18 contribute to the regulation of sub-cellular phosphorylation networks downstream of HER2, which are required for inhibition of HER2-mediated cell growth and migration. Whereas the catalytic domain of PTPN18 blocks lysosomal routing and delays the degradation of HER2 by dephosphorylation of HER2 on pY1112, the PEST domain of PTPN18 promotes K48-linked HER2 ubiquitination and its rapid destruction via the proteasome pathway and an HER2 negative feedback loop. In agreement with the negative regulatory role of PTPN18 in HER2 signaling, the HER2/PTPN18 ratio was correlated with breast cancer stage. Taken together, our study presents a structural basis for selective HER2 dephosphorylation, a previously uncharacterized mechanism for HER2 degradation and a novel function for the PTPN18 PEST domain. The new regulatory role of the PEST domain in the ubiquitination pathway will broaden our understanding of the functions of other important PEST domain-containing phosphatases, such as LYP and PTPN12.Cell Research advance online publication 1 August 2014; doi:10.1038/cr.2014.99. Source


Li F.,Shandong University | Wang M.,University of Swansea
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2013

In this paper, center conditions and bifurcation of limit cycles at the nilpotent critical point in a class of quintic polynomial differential system are investigated. With the help of the computer algebra system MATHEMATICA, the first 11 quasi-Lyapunov constants are deduced. As a result, sufficient and necessary conditions in order to have a center are obtained. The fact that there exist 11 small amplitude limit cycles created from the three-order nilpotent critical point is also proved. Henceforth, we give a lower bound of cyclicity of three-order nilpotent critical point for quintic Lyapunov systems. The results of Jiang et al. (Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos 19:2107-2113, 2009) are improved. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Yu Z.,Shandong University
ESAIM - Control, Optimisation and Calculus of Variations | Year: 2013

This paper is concerned with the stochastic linear quadratic optimal control problems (LQ problems, for short) for which the coefficients are allowed to be random and the cost functionals are allowed to have negative weights on the square of control variables. We propose a new method, the equivalent cost functional method, to deal with the LQ problems. Comparing to the classical methods, the new method is simple, flexible and non-abstract. The new method can also be applied to deal with nonlinear optimization problems. © 2012 EDP Sciences, SMAI. Source


Feng L.,Shandong University
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2013

In this paper, a class of polynomial differential system with high-order critical point are investigated. The system could be changed into a system with a 3-order nilpotent critical point. Finally, an example was given, with the help of computer algebra system MATHEMATICA, the first three quasi-Lyapunov constants are deduced. As a result, sufficient and necessary conditions in order to have a center are obtained. The fact that there three small amplitude limit cycles created from the 3-order nilpotent critical point is also proved. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Zhang Y.,Shandong University
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos | Year: 2013

The dynamical and fractal behaviors of the complex perturbed rational maps $z-{n+1} = {1}{2}(zn + {λ}{z}n })$ are discussed in this paper. And the optimal control function method is taken on the Julia set of this system. In this control method, infinity is regarded as a fixed point to be controlled. By substituting the driving item for an item in the optimal control function, synchronization of Julia sets of two such different systems is also studied. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source


Li H.,Shandong University
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2013

Employing the inverse integral factor method, the first 13 quasi-Lyapunov constants for the three-order nilpotent critical point of a sextic Lyapunov system are deduced with the help of MATHEMATICS. Furthermore, sufficient and necessary center conditions are obtained, and there are 13 small amplitude limit cycles, which could be bifurcated from the three-order nilpotent critical point. Henceforth, we give a lower bound of limit cycles, which could be bifurcated from the three-order nilpotent critical point of sextic Lyapunov systems. At last, an example is given to show that there exists a sextic system, which has 13 limit cycles. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Li F.,Shandong University
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos | Year: 2013

We investigate the planar cubic Kolmogorov systems with three invariant algebraic curves which have a equilibrium at (1,1). With the help of computer algebra system MATHEMATICA, we prove that five limit cycles can be bifurcated from a critical point in the first quadrant. Moreover, the necessary conditions of center are obtained, by technical transformation, and its sufficiencies are proved. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company. Source


Li H.,Shandong University | Wang M.,University of Swansea
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2013

In this technical note, the Hopf bifurcation in a new Lorenz-type system is studied. By analyzing the characteristic equations, the existence of a Hopf bifurcation is established. Some corresponding dynamics are also discussed briefly. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the main theoretical results. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Lu J.J.,Shandong University
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2013

To investigate the economic burden of patients with acute and chronic hepatitis B, cirrhosis and liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). Cluster sampling was used on cases consecutively collected during the study period. Questionnaire survey was conducted and information on the expenses during hospitalization was collected from the hospital records and through interviewing those patients. Yearly costs related to patients with acute hepatitis B, severe hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis B, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma were 66.7, 138.1, 127.4, 151.7 and 377.2 thousand Yuan, respectively. from multiple linear regression model showed that the type of medical insurance scheme, annual days of hospitalization, classifications of HBV-related diseases and personal income were major influencing factors on the cost. HBV infection caused considerable burden to families and the society, indicating that HBV infection control programs would bring huge potential benefits. The reform of insurance scheme should be administrated to promote social fairness. Source


Zhang W.,University of Jinan | Yang S.,Shandong University
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

This paper investigated the causal relationship between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) in China at both aggregated and disaggregated levels during the period of 1978-2009 by using a modified version of the Granger (1969) causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995) within a multivariate framework. The empirical results suggested the existence of a negative bi-directional Granger causality running from aggregated energy consumption to real GDP. At disaggregated level of energy consumption, the results were complicated. For coal, empirical findings suggested that there was a negative bi-directional Granger causality running from coal consumption to real GDP. However, for oil and gas, empirical findings suggested a positive bi-directional Granger causality running from oil as well as gas consumption to real GDP. Though these results supported the feedback hypothesis, the negative relationship might be attributed to the growing economy production shifting towards less energy intensive sectors and excessive energy consumption in relatively unproductive sectors. The results indicated that policies with reducing aggregated energy consumption and promoting energy conservation may boost China's economic growth. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


To observe the impacts of electroacupuncture (EA) on oocyte quality and pregnant outcome for the patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) and explore its potential mechanism. Sixty-six patients with PCOS and undergoing IVF-ET were divided into two groups randomly, including an observation group (34 cases) and a control group (32 cases). Ethinylestradiol and cyproterone acetate tablets and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist were administered for long-program superovulation in either group. In observation group, the intervention of EA was applied to Guanyuan (CV 4), Zhongji (CV 3), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Zigong (EX-CA 1) and Taixi (KI 3) additionally. The pregnant outcome and the levels of stem cell factor (SCF) in the serum and follicular fluid on the day of egg collection were compared between two groups. The score of kidney deficiency symptoms reduced remarkably after treatment in either group and the improvement in observation group was superior to that in control group (P < 0.01). The fertilization rate [(76.25 +/- 20.33)% vs (66.34 +/- 15.44)%], cleavage rate [(98.66 +/- 3.70)% vs (94.47 +/- 9.45)%] and the rate of high-quality embryos [(60.20 +/- 22.20)% vs (50.55 +/- 16.15)%] in observation group were all superior to those in control group separately (all P < 0.05). Clinical pregnancy rate (46.67%, 14/30) in observation group was higher than that (37.93%, 11/29) in control group, but without statistical difference (P > 0.05). SCF levels in the serum and follicular fluid on the day of ovary collection were higher obviously than those in control group (all P < 0.05). Electroacupuncture plays an active role in the pregnant outcomes of PCOS patients undergoing IVF-ET and it can relieve the symptoms of kidney deficiency in terms of TCM and improve clinical pregnant rate. The results are relevant with the overall adjustment of organic endocrinal system and the local micro-environment of ovary and the improvement of oocyte quality through the up-regulation of SCF level in mechanism. Source


Xu Z.,Shandong University | Wang H.,Miami University Ohio
Synlett | Year: 2011

This paper describes the development of an efficient and atom-economic asymmetric inverse-electron-demand hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of six-membered ketones with β,γ-unsaturated α-keto esters via enamine-metal Lewis acid bifunctional catalysis. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York. Source


Pan H.,Shandong Agricultural University | Rui H.,Shandong University
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2013

Mixed element such as Raviart-Thomas element, Brezzi-Douglas-Marini element is used to handle the Darcy-Forchheimer equation and standard finite element is used to approximate concentration. Error estimates for velocity, pressure and concentration in different norms are established. Numerical experiments are given to verify the efficiency of the presented scheme. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Zhang X.,Shandong University | Cheng K.,Shandong Polytechnic University
Journal of Coordination Chemistry | Year: 2012

Two metal-organic coordination polymers, [Co(tda)(ip)(H 2O) 2] n (1) and [Mn(tda)(ip)(H 2O)] n (2) [H 2 tda=thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid, ip=1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]- phenanthroline], have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, PXRD, and X-ray diffraction. Single-crystal X-ray analyses reveal that 2,5-tda is a bridging ligand, exhibiting two coordination modes to link metal ions: μ 1-ν 1:ν 0/μ 1- ν 1:ν 0 and μ 2-ν 1: ν 1/μ 1-ν 1:ν 0. Compound 1 demonstrates a 1-D structure in which Co 2+ centers are connected via tda anions into 1-D chains; the chains are further connected via hydrogen-bonding and interactions. Compound 2 displays a 2-D structure in which tda connects two Mn ions forming a dinuclear molecule. In 2 the 3-D supramolecular structure arrays through hydrogen-bonding and interactions. In addition, photoluminescence for 1 and 2 is also investigated in the solid state at room temperature. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Li H.,Henan University of Science and Technology | Wang Y.,Shandong University
Optics and Lasers in Engineering | Year: 2011

A novel double-image encryption algorithm is proposed, based on discrete fractional random transform and chaotic maps. The random matrices used in the discrete fractional random transform are generated by using a chaotic map. One of the two original images is scrambled by using another chaotic map, and then encoded into the phase of a complex matrix with the other original image as its amplitude. Then this complex matrix is encrypted by the discrete fractional random transform. By applying the correct keys which consist of initial values, control parameters, and truncated positions of the chaotic maps, and fractional orders, the two original images can be recovered without cross-talk. Numerical simulation has been performed to test the validity and the security of the proposed encryption algorithm. Encrypting two images together by this algorithm creates only one encrypted image, whereas other single-image encryption methods create two encrypted images. Furthermore, this algorithm requires neither the use of phase keys nor the use of matrix keys. In this sense, this algorithm can raise the efficiency when encrypting, storing or transmitting. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Liu Y.-R.,Shandong University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

In the heavy quark limit, we discuss the spin of the charm-anticharm pair Jcc̄ in an S-wave meson-antimeson molecule or resonance. One finds two cases in which Jcc̄ cannot be 0: (a) J=|j 2-j4|-1 or J=j2+j4+1, where J is the total spin of the system and j2 (j4) is the total angular momentum of the light degree of freedom in a charmed meson (antimeson); and (b) JC=1+,2-,3+,⋯, if the two different mesons belong to the same doublet. The decays to spin-singlet charmonium states are suppressed when one of the two conditions is satisfied. We discuss constrained decay properties for selected systems. © 2013 American Physical Society. Source


The aim of this study was to characterize the different structures of microbial communities between 20 healthy women and 17 bacterial vaginosis (BV)-positive women of reproductive age using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Vaginal samples from 17 BV-positive and 20 BV-negative women were subjected to DNA extraction, and amplified with eubacterial 16S rRNA gene-specific primers via polymerase chain reaction. The polymerase chain reaction products were separated using DGGE. Bands were excised, re-amplified, purified and sequenced. DNA sequences were compared with GenBank database. Phylip software packages were used to calculate sequencing data and form a phylogenetic tree to identify the genetic relations for microbiota inhabited in vaginal ecosystems of BV-positive women. In total, 28 kinds of organisms were detected that comprised BV(+) vagina microbial community, varying from three to nine kinds with an average of 5.71 kinds per woman. Only seven species were detected in BV(-) women, ranging between one and five species with an average of 2.40 species per woman, which was significantly lower than that detected in BV(+) women (t = 7.39, P < 0.001). A strain of Uncultured Lactobacillus sp. clone EHFS1_S05c (29/37; 78.38%) was most commonly presented in both BV-negative and BV-positive women, but the mean proportion of this Lactobacillus sp. strain to the whole microbial population colonized in the vaginal tract of BV(-) women was sharply higher than that calculated from BV(+) women (t = 2.92, P < 0.01). The findings indicate further diversity in the category of vaginal microorganisms associated with BV. The presence of Gardnerella vaginalis is not necessary as a sign for gynecologists to determine whether or not a woman is affected by BV. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Source


Ma Z.M.,Shandong University | Hu B.Q.,Hubei University
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2014

Filters play an important role in studying logical systems and the related algebraic structures. Various filters have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we aim to develop a unifying definition for some specific filters called I-filters which provide us with a meaningful method to study these filters and corresponding logical algebras. In particular, trivial characterizations of I-filters, non-trivial characterizations of classes of I-filters, such as implicative, fantastic and Boolean filters, and characterizations of homologous logical algebras are obtained. Next, three new types of I-filters named divisible filters, strong and n-contractive filters in residuated lattices are introduced. Particularly, it is verified that n-fold implicative BL-algebras and n-contractive BL-algebras coincide. Finally, we investigate the relationships between these specific I-filters. It is shown that a filter is a fantastic filter if and only if it is both a divisible filter and a regular filter. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Ji Y.J.,Shandong University
Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology | Year: 2013

To investigate whether quantifiable changes in serum levels of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) in response to 24 weeks of pegylated-interferon alfa-2a (Peg-IFN-a 2a) treatment are predictive of therapeutic efficacy at 48 weeks of treatment in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and to investigate the efficacy of using an individualized antiviral treatment strategy. Ninety-six HBeAg-positive CHB patients with detectable HBeAg at week 24 of Peg-IFN-a 2a treatment were categorized according to the quantitative change in HBeAg (vs. pre-treatment baseline): group A, HBeAg decline more than 2 log; group B, HBeAg decline between 1 - 2 log; group C, HBeAg decline less than 1 log, which was then randomly divided into two sub-groups: C1 and C2. Group A, B, and C1 patients continued the original therapy for an additional 24 weeks, while group C2 patients were supplemented with lamivudine (3TC + Peg-IFN-a 2a) for the additional 24 weeks of treatment. All patients underwent liver biopsy at the end of treatment (week 48), and HBV covalently-closed circular (ccc)DNA was quantified as a measure of therapeutic efficacy. A, B, and C1 between-group multiple comparisons were made by the Nemenyi test; C1 and C2 between-group comparison was made by the Mann-Whitney U test. The significance of between-group differences in decreased HBV cccDNA vs. HBeAg/anti-HBe seroconversion was made by the Chi-squared test. At week 48, the mean decrease of serum HBV cccDNA in each group was: A, 5.8 log10 copy/ml; B, 3.8 log10 copy/ml; C1, 2.8 log10 copy/ml; C2, 5.7 log10 copy/ml. Statistically significant differences were observed for group A vs. B and C1 (P less than 0.01) and C1 vs. C2 (P less than 0.01); however, the difference between group B and C1 did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.19). The mean decrease of HBeAg in each group was: A, 2.7 log10 S/CO; B, 1.9 log10 S/CO; C1, 0.9 log10 S/CO; C2, 1.6 log10 S/CO. Statistically significant differences were observed for group A vs. B and C1 (P less than 0.01) and C1 vs. C2 (P less than 0.01). The rate of patients who achieved undetectable HBV DNA in each group was: A, 87.5%; B, 34.5%; C1, 17.4%; C2, 85.0%. Statistically significant differences were observed for group A vs. B and C1 (P less than 0.01) and C1 vs. C2 (P less than 0.01). The HBeAg seroconversion rates were: A, 75.0%; B, 24.1%; C1, 13.0%; C2, 25.0%. Statistically significant differences were observed only for group A vs. B and C1 (P less than 0.01). Finally, group A achieved greater reduction in levels of cccDNA in liver tissues than B or C1 (P less than 0.01); however, the differences between B and C1 and between C1 and C2 did not reach statistical significance. CHB patients who showed an HBeAg decline of more than 2 log at week 24 of Peg-IFN-a 2a treatment had better treatment outcome at week 48 than those who showed HBeAg decline less than 2 log at week 24. Augmenting the Peg-IFN-a 2a treatment with 3TC can improve the clinical response. A change of quantifiable HBeAg at week 24 of Peg-IFN-a 2a treatment may be a useful predictor of therapeutic efficacy of a 48-week antiviral regimen. Source


Wang H.,University of South Carolina | Du N.,Shandong University
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2013

Fractional diffusion equations model phenomena exhibiting anomalous diffusion that cannot be modeled accurately by second-order diffusion equations. Because of the non-local property of fractional differential operators, numerical methods for space-fractional diffusion equations generate dense or even full coefficient matrices with complicated structures. Traditionally, these methods were solved with Gaussian elimination, which requires computational work of O(N3) per time step and O(N2) of memory to store where N is the number of spatial grid points in the discretization. The significant computational work and memory requirement of these methods makes a numerical simulation of three-dimensional space-fractional diffusion equations computationally prohibitively expensive.In this paper we develop an efficient and faithful solution method for the implicit finite difference discretization of time-dependent space-fractional diffusion equations in three space dimensions, by carefully analyzing the structure of the coefficient matrix of the finite difference method and delicately decomposing the coefficient matrix into a combination of sparse and structured dense matrices. The fast method has a computational work count of O(Nlog. N) per iteration and a memory requirement of O(N), while retaining the same accuracy as the underlying finite difference method solved with Gaussian elimination. Numerical experiments of a three-dimensional space-fractional diffusion equation show the utility of the fast method. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Sun L.,Shandong University
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT: Although previous studies have discussed the risk factors of unplanned suicide behavior in several countries, the unplanned suicide attempt in China was not explored in a large sample. We aim to look into the characteristics of unplanned suicide attempters in China and compare them with those suicide attempters with plans. Subjects were 791 medically serious suicide attempters aged 15–54 years in rural China. The sixth item of Beckʼs Suicide Intent Scale was used to estimate the planned and unplanned suicide attempt. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the factors related to planned or unplanned suicide attempt. The results showed that the planned suicide attempts were associated with higher education, hopelessness, and previous suicide act. The unplanned suicide attempt tends to be suicide by pesticide and store pesticide at home. A ban of lethal pesticides may be a method for suicide prevention in rural China. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Kong Y.,Shandong University | Zhang J.,York College
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2010

Suicide is a leading cause of death in individuals 15-34. years of age in China. Highly lethal pesticides are a common method used for suicide in Chinese rural areas. This case-control study aimed to test hypotheses concerning the suicide risks associated with pesticide access. Subjects included 370 rural completed suicides aged 15-34. years and 370 living controls matched on age, gender and residence (rural/urban location). Data were collected by a psychological autopsy design with proxy respondents. Pesticide access was a significant risk factor for suicide even after controlling for other known risk factors in social and psychiatric domains, such as education level, living situation, marital status, family annual income and mental disorder. Increased risk was accounted for by access to insecticide rather than other types of pesticides. Suicide intervention in China should focus on restricting access to pesticides, especially highly toxic insecticide, improving the resuscitation skills of rural primary-care health providers, promoting psychological and social support networks in rural areas and educating the general public about the suicide risk of having pesticides stored at the households. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Fu S.,Shandong University | Zhang C.,Shandong University of Finance and Economics
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

Filtering off noise from a fringe pattern is one of the key tasks in optical interferometry. In this Letter, using some suitable function spaces to model different components of a fringe pattern, we propose a new fringe pattern denoising method based on image decomposition. In our method, a fringe image is divided into three parts: low-frequency fringe, high-frequency fringe, and noise, which are processed in different spaces. An adaptive threshold in wavelet shrinkage involved in this algorithm improves its denoising performance. Simulation and experimental results show that our algorithm obtains smooth and clean fringes with different frequencies while preserving fringe features effectively. © 2012 Optical Society of America. Source


Ren M.-Y.,Shandong Provincial Chest Hospital | Sui S.-J.,Shandong University
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2012

The pathophysiological basis of heart failure is cardiac remodeling, a process that comprises structural and functional changes including cardiomyocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, necrosis, apoptosis, autophagy, interstitial fibrosis, contractile dysfunction and ventricular dilatation. Accumulating evidence demonstrate that tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is involved in the process by binding its receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible molecule 14 (Fn14). In this review, we will discuss the potential role of the TWEAK/Fn14 axis in cardiac remodeling, elucidate its possible mechanisms and explore new therapeutic targets for heart failure. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012. Source


Zhao M.,Shandong University | Zhang R.,Beijing Computational Science Research Center | Zhang R.,City University of Hong Kong
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2014

Silicon carbide and other group-IV binary materials with 1:1 stoichiometry are trivial semiconductors. Using first-principles calculations combined with a tight-binding model, we demonstrate two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide materials (siligraphenes) with 1:3 and 3:1 stoichiometries are topological insulators (TIs) superior to graphene. Dirac cones and topologically nontrivial electronic structures are predicted in these binary honeycomb lattices. The band gaps opened at the Dirac points due to the spin-orbital coupling (SOC) are several orders of magnitude larger than the graphene value. Such interesting properties also exist in their analogs of other group-IV elements, such as g-GeC3, g-Ge3C, g-GeSi3, and g-Ge3Si. The TI states predicted in these unique lattices broaden the application field of group-IV binary materials and open the door to searching for 2D TIs with enhanced SOC. © 2014 American Physical Society. Source


Yuan X.-L.,Shandong University | Zuo J.,University of South Australia
Renewable Energy | Year: 2011

The global warming and climate change have put enormous pressure on both governments and industries to re-think their attitudes and behaviours towards sustainability issues. The past decades have witnessed a number of renewable energy developments across the world. Even though these developments are not issue-free, it is generally recognized that the benefits outweigh disadvantages. However, there is an increasing level of concern on the high initial cost associated with the renewable energies, which was claimed as one of critical barriers to the promotion of its further developments. A case study approach is adopted in this study to investigate the pricing and affordability issues associated with the renewable energy in China. The policy framework and related statistics are critically reviewed in order to discuss these issues from different stakeholders' perspective in Shandong province, China. It is concluded that the affordability remains a critical issue despite numerous efforts have been made by the Chinese Government and Shandong Provincial Government on renewable power pricing. This study offers a useful reference to pricing and affordability of renewable energy. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Wang W.,Fujian Agriculture and forestry University | Wang W.,Carnegie Institution for Science | Bai M.-Y.,Carnegie Institution for Science | Bai M.-Y.,Shandong University | Wang Z.-Y.,Carnegie Institution for Science
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2014

Many hormonal and environmental signals regulate common cellular and developmental processes in plants. While the molecular pathways that transduce these signals have each been studied in detail, how these pathways are wired into regulatory networks to provide the coordinated responses has remained an outstanding question. Recent studies of the brassinosteroid signaling network have revealed extensive signal integration through direct interactions between components of different signaling pathways. In particular, a circuit of interacting transcription regulators integrates many signaling pathways to enable coordinated and coherent regulation of seedling morphogenesis by hormonal and environmental signals. The recent studies support an emerging theme that complex networks of highly integrated signaling pathways underlie the high levels of developmental plasticity and environmental adaptability of plants. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Forward particle production and correlation measurements at RHIC can probe low-x gluons. The suppression observed in back-to-back forward π0 + forward π0 correlations at STAR in central d + Au collisions at STAR is consistent with a prediction of the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) calculation, indicating the gold nucleus probed at such low-x is in a dense gluon state. The forward π0 + near-forward jet-like cluster azimuthal correlations in 200 GeV p + p and d + Au collisions at STAR are studied, which are sensitive to the intermediate x region between forward+mid-rapidity correlations and forward + forward correlations. Together with the other measurements from STAR, which probe different regions of x, forward + near-forward di-hadron correlations can provide information to understand how sharp is the transition from dilute parton gas to dense gluon state. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Bernreuther W.,RWTH Aachen | Si Z.-G.,Shandong University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

A number of top-spin observables are computed within the Standard Model (SM), at next-to-leading order in the strong and weak gauge couplings for hadronic top-quark anti-quark (.tt-) production and decay at the LHC for center-of-mass energies 7 and 8 TeV. For dileptonic final states we consider the azimuthal angle correlation, the helicity correlation, and the opening angle distribution; for lepton plus jets final states we determine distributions and asymmetries that trace a longitudinal and transverse polarization, respectively, of the t and t- samples. The QCD-induced transverse polarization of the top quarks leads to an asymmetry of about 8% that should be detectable with existing data. In addition, we investigate the effects of a non-zero chromo-magnetic and chromo-electric dipole moment of the top quark on these and other top-spin observables and associated asymmetries. These observables allow to disentangle the contributions from the real and imaginary parts of these moments. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Chen M.,Shandong University
Sheng li xue bao : [Acta physiologica Sinica] | Year: 2010

Diabetes mellitus is caused by deficiency of insulin secretion from the pancreatic islet beta cells and/or insulin resistance in liver, muscle and adipocytes, resulting in glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Several protein tyrosine phosphatases, such as PTP1B (PTPN1), TCPTP (PTPN2), LYP (PTPN22), PTPIA-2, PTPMEG2 (PTPN9) or OSTPTP are involved in insulin signaling pathway, insulin secretion and autoreactive attack to pancreatic beta cells. Genetic mutation or overexpression of these phosphotases has been found to cause or increase the risk of diabetes mellitus. Some population with high risk for type 2 diabetes has overexpressed PTP1B, a prototypical tyrosine phosphatase which down-regulates insulin and leptin signal transduction. Animal PTP1B knockout model and PTP1B specific inhibitor cellular studies indicate PTP1B may serve as a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes. TCPTP shares more than 70% sequence identity with PTP1B in their catalytic domain. TCPTP dephosphorylates tyrosine phosphorylated substrates overlapping with PTP1B but also has its own distinct dephosphorylation sites and functions. Recent research indicates TCPTP may have role in type 1 diabetes via dysregultaion of cytokine-mediated immune responses or pancreatic beta cell apoptosis. The tyrosine phosphatase LYP, which down-regulates LCK activity in T cell response, can become mutated as R620W which is highly correlated to type 1 diabetes. LYP R620W may be a gain of function mutation which suppresses TCR signaling. Patients bearing the R620W mutant have impaired T cell responses and increased populations of (CD45RO+CD45RA-) CD4+ T cells. A detailed elucidation of mechanism of R620W in type 1 diabetes and specific LYP inhibitor development will help characterize LYP R620W as a therapeutic target. A receptor tyrosine phosphatase, PTPIA-2/beta is a major autoantigen of type 1 diabetes. A diagnosis kit identifying PTPIA-2/beta autoantibodies is valuable in early detection and prevention of type 1 diabetes. In addition, other phosphatase like OSTPTP and PTPMEG2 are involved in type 2 diabetes via regulation of insulin production, beta cell growth or insulin signaling. Research into understanding the mechanism of these tyrosine phosphatases in diabetes, such as their precise functions in the regulation of insulin secretion, the insulin response and the immune response will strengthen our knowledge of diabetes pathophysiology which may result in new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for diabetes. Source


Zheng L.,Institute of Pharmacy | Cui H.-F.,Shandong University
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine | Year: 2010

Many studies have been dedicated to the development of scaffolds for improving post-traumatic nerve regeneration. The goal of this study was to develop and test chitosan conduit to use in peripheral nerve reconstruction, either alone or combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). In this study, the roles of the degree of deacetylation (DD) and molecular weight of chitosan on some biological properties of chitosan films, including hydrophilicity, degradation and BMSCs affinity were investigated. The molecular weight of Chitosans used are 5 × 104 Da, 2 × 10 5 Da, 5 × 105 Da, 1 × 106 Da, the deacetylation degrees are 85, 95%, respectively. The affinity of eight kinds of Chitosans to the BMSCs was assessed by MTT assay, the contact angle and the degradation time of the materials in vivo were also measured. Chitosans with the molecular weight of 1 × 106 Da and DD of 95% can significantly promote the survival and outgrowth of cells, which have better hydrophilicity and can remain integrity even after 8 to 16 weeks, all of above meet the requirement of nerve engineering. The BMSCs we transplanted can differentiate into neural stem cells in vivo, and the materials we selected combined with BMSCs can bridge 8-mm-long neural gap better resulting from the differentiation effects of the BMSCs. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010. Source


Wang F.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Tan J.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Wang Z.,Shandong University
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2014

The local thermal non-equilibrium model is adopted to solve the steady state heat and mass transfer problems of porous media solar receiver. The fluid entrance surface is subjected to concentrated solar radiation, and CH 4/H2O mixture is adopted as feeding gas. The radiative heat transfer equation between porous strut is solved by Rosseland approximation. The impacts of variation in transport and thermophysical characteristics model of gas mixture on thermal performance of porous media receiver are investigated. The transport and thermophysical characteristics models which are not included in software Fluent are programmed by user defined functions (UDFs). The numerical results indicate that models of momentum source term for porous media receiver have significant impact on pressure drop and static pressure distribution, and the radiative heat transfer cannot be omitted during the thermal performance analysis of porous media receiver. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Yang R.,Shandong University | Liu G.-P.,University of South Wales | Liu G.-P.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Shi P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2014

This paper studies the problem of predictive output feedback control for networked control systems (NCSs) with random communication delays. A networked-predictive-control scheme is employed to compensate for the network-induced delay. Furthermore, the time-varying predictive controller with mixed random delays for networked systems is introduced. Then, the system is formulated as a Markovian jump system. New techniques are presented to deal with the distributed delay in the discrete-time domain. Based on the analysis of closed-loop NCSs, the designed predictive time-varying output feedback controller can guarantee system stability. Simulation example demonstrates the compensation for random communication delays and data loss in networked systems using the proposed predictive scheme. © 1982-2012 IEEE. Source


Yuan X.,Shandong University | Zuo J.,University of South Australia
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

Energy policy plays a critical role not only in the energy development, but also in the social and environmental aspects of a nation. Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development is one of the most important government plans, which documents the national strategy during that period. This study presents a critical review of 12 Five-Year Plans that have been released by the Chinese central government in last 58 years. In particular, the recently released Twelfth Five-Year Plan is reviewed. The results clearly show a pattern of increasingly level of attention of Chinese government to energy efficiency improvement, air pollutant emission reduction, new and renewable energy development, carbon dioxide emission and climate change. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Xin J.J.,Shandong University
Zhen ci yan jiu = Acupuncture research / [Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan Yi xue qing bao yan jiu suo bian ji] | Year: 2012

To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) and moxibustion-like thermal stimulation with different temperatures at "Zusanli" (ST 36) on pain reactions in transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 knock-out (TRPV 1 -/-) mice so as to study its mechanisms underlying analgesia. Ten C 57 BL/6 mice and 10 TRPV 1 -/- mice were respectively divided into control and TRPV 1 -/- groups. EA (0.3 mA, 1.0 mA, 3.0 mA) or thermal water-bath (38 degrees C, 43 degrees C, 46 degrees C) stimulation was applied to the right ST 36 for 20 min and 10 min, respectively. Mechanical and thermal pain thresholds of the bilateral paws were detected before and immediately after stimulation, and 5 min after EA stimulation at 0.3 mA, 3.0 mA and thermal water-bath stimulation at 38 degrees C, 46 degrees C, separately. (1) The thermal threshold was significantly higher in TRPV 1 -/- mice than in C 57 BL/6 mice (P < 0.001). (2) In C 57 BL/6 mice, both homolateral and contralateral mechanical and thermal pain thresholds were significantly increased following 1.0 mA, 3.0 mA EA, and 43 degrees C and 46 degrees C thermal stimulation of the right Zusanli (ST 36) (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001); while only homolateral mechanical and thermal pain thresholds were increased after 0.3 mA EA and 38 degrees C thermal stimulation of ST36 (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). In TRPV 1 -/- mice group, both homolateral and contralateral mechanical and thermal pain thresholds were significantly increased by 3.0 mA EA stimulation of ST 36 (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Bilateral mechanical thresholds and homolateral thermal threshold were significantly increased by 1.0 mA EA stimulation of ST 36 (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), while only homolateral mechanical and thermal pain thresholds were increased by 0.3 mA EA, and 43 degrees C and 46 degrees C thermal stimulation (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Additionally, only the homolateral mechanical threshold was increased by 38 degrees C thermal stimulation (P < 0.05). (3) The mechanical and thermal pain thresholds of the bilateral limbs were increased to some extent in TRPV 1 -/- mice compared with those of C 57 BL/6 mice following EA and thermal stimulation of the right ST 36. (4) Five minutes after 0.3 mA, 3.0 mA EA and 38 degrees C, 46 degrees C thermal water-bath stimulation, both mechanical and thermal pain thresholds recovered to their baseline levels in both TRPV 1 -/- and C 57 BL/6 mice. Both EA and thermal stimulation of the right ST 36 can raise mechanical and thermal pain thresholds in TRPV 1 -/- and C 57 BL/6 mice, but needing a stronger stimulation in TRPV 1 -/- mice, suggesting an involvement of TRPV 1 receptors in analgesia. Source


Yuan X.,Shandong University | Zuo J.,University of South Australia
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

The last decade has witnessed a growing public awareness of sustainability. The sustainability issue in higher education is no exception. This study was designed to investigate the awareness of students on sustainability and their perceptions on Higher Education for Sustainable Development. Particular focus was placed on university students' perceptions of factors that contribute towards the Higher Education for Sustainable Development. 1134 students from all divisions of the Shandong University were invited to participate in this study. The results showed that university students were generally aware of sustainability issues. The top priorities for Higher Education for Sustainable Development from the students' perceptions are generally environmentally oriented. However, students highlighted the importance of social aspects of sustainability by ranking security within the campus and providing access to disability people two of top 10 factors of Higher Education for Sustainable Development. Similarly, students perceived that students opportunities and conducting sustainability related researches as critical to Higher Education for Sustainable Development goal. On the contrary, sustainability curricula, the faculty and staff development, and rewards are perceived by students as less important compared to other factors. These research findings provide a useful reference to both the top management and educational authorities for their decision-making processes to further develop Higher Education for Sustainable Development. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Zhang C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Bai M.-Y.,Shandong University | Chong K.,CAS Institute of Botany
Plant Cell Reports | Year: 2014

Key message: Brassinosteroids have important roles in plant development. This review focuses on the agronomic traits regulated by brassinosteroids in rice. Abstract: Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of steroid phytohormones with wide-ranging biological activity. Genetic, genomic and proteomic studies have greatly advanced our understanding of BR signaling in Arabidopsis and revealed a connected signal transduction pathway from the cell surface receptor kinase BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) and BRI1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (BAK1) to the BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1) family of transcription factors and their targets mediating physiological functions. However, compared with the dicot model plant Arabidopsis, much less is known about BR signaling in rice, which is a monocot. In this review, we provide an update on the progress made by BR studies in rice and discuss how BR regulates various important agronomic traits to determine rice grain yield. Specifically, we discuss the function of novel components including LEAF AND TILLER ANGLE INCREASED CONTROLLER (LIC), DWARF and LOW-TILLERING (DLT), DWARF1 (D1) and TAIHU DWARF1 (TUD1) in rice BR signaling, and provide a rice BR-signaling pathway model that involves a BRI1-dependent pathway as well as a G-protein α subunit-mediated signaling pathway. The recent significant advances in our understanding of BR-mediated molecular mechanisms underlying agronomic traits will be of great help for rice molecular breeding. © 2014, The Author(s). Source


Zhang X.,Shandong University
IEEE Wireless Communications Letters | Year: 2013

This letter presents a new method for analyzing nonsaturated IEEE 802.11 DCF networks: the behavior of each station in a WLAN is modeled as a Markov renewal process, and the throughput expression is derived from the traffic conservation principle for queueing systems in equilibrium. The Markov renewal process model simplifies the derivation of the closed form solution for the probability that each station attempts to transmit in a slot. The throughput expression shows a relatively explicit relation between the throughput and the offered load. The accuracy of the method is verified by ns-2 simulation. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Liu Z.-P.,Shandong University
Biomarkers in Medicine | Year: 2016

In this work, we review the main available computational methods of identifying biomarkers of complex diseases from high-throughput data. The emerging omics techniques provide powerful alternatives to measure thousands of molecules in cells in parallel manners. The generated genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and phenomic data provide comprehensive molecular and cellular information for detecting critical signals served as biomarkers by classifying disease phenotypic states. Networks are often employed to organize these profiles in the identification of biomarkers to deal with complex diseases in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy as well as mechanism deciphering from systematic perspectives. Here, we summarize some representative network-based bioinformatics methods in order to highlight the importance of computational strategies in biomarker discovery. © 2016 Future Medicine Ltd. Source


Song D.-G.,University of Pennsylvania | Song D.-G.,Shandong University | Ye Q.,University of Pennsylvania | Poussin M.,University of Pennsylvania | And 3 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2012

The costimulatory effects of CD27 on T lymphocyte effector function and memory formation has been confined to evaluations in mouse models, in vitro human cell culture systems, and clinical observations. Here, we tested whether CD27 costimulation actively enhances human T-cell function, expansion, and survival in vitro and in vivo. Human T cells transduced to express an antigen-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-T) containing an intracellular CD3 zeta (CD3ζ) chain signaling module with the CD27 costimulatory motif in tandem exerted increased antigen-stimulated effector functions in vitro, including cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity, compared with CAR-T with CD3ζ alone. After antigen stimulation in vitro, CD27-bearing CAR-T cells also proliferated, upregulated Bcl-X L protein expression, resisted apoptosis, and underwent increased numerical expansion. The greatest impact of CD27 was noted in vivo, where transferred CAR-T cells with CD27 demonstrated heightened persistence after infusion, facilitating improved regression of human cancer in a xenogeneic allograft model. This tumor regression was similar to that achieved with CD28- or 4-1BB-costimulated CARs, and heightened persistence was similar to 4-1BB but greater than CD28. Thus, CD27 costimulation enhances expansion, effector function, and survival of human CAR-T cells in vitro and augments human T-cell persistence and antitumor activity in vivo. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology. Source


"Oncogene addiction" is an unexplained phenomenon in the area of cancer targeted therapy. In this study, we have tested a hypothesis that rapid apoptotic response of cancer cells following acute inhibition of the addicted oncogenes is because of loss of multiple short-lived proteins whose activity normally maintain cell survival by blocking caspase activation directly or indirectly. It was shown that rapid apoptotic response or acute apoptosis could be induced in both A431 and MiaPaCa-2 cells, and quick down-regulation of 17 proteins, which were all members of the central proteome of human cells, was found to be associated with the onset of acute apoptosis. Knockdown of PSMD11 could partially promote the occurrence of acute apoptosis in both MiaPaCa-2 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. These findings indicate that maintaining the stability of central proteome may be a primary mechanism for addicted oncogenes to maintain the survival of cancer cells through various signaling pathways, and quick loss of some of the short-lived members of the central proteome may be the direct reason for the rapid apoptotic response or acute apoptosis following acute inhibition of the addicted oncogenes in cancer cells. These findings we have presented can help us better understand the phenomenon of oncogene-addiction and may have important implications for the targeted therapy of cancer. Source


Cheng B.,Shandong University
Zhen ci yan jiu = Acupuncture research / [Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan Yi xue qing bao yan jiu suo bian ji] | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: To observe the dynamic distribution of the extravasated Evans Blue (EB) dye points (neurogenic inflammatory response) at the skin after acute gastric mucosal injury (AGMI) and its relation to the related regular acupoints in the locations in rats. METHODS: A total of 70 Wistar rats were randomized into normal control (n=10), normal saline (n=10), and AGMI (n=50) groups. The AGMI group was further divided into 5 h, 2 d, 3 d, 4 d and 5 d subgroups with 10 rats in each. AGMI model was duplicated by intragastric perfusion of diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl, 0.5 mol/L). Evans Blue Dye (50 mg/kg, 50 mg/mL in 0.9% saline) was given to the rats before AGMI modeling. The plasma extravasated EB points at the skin of the whole body were observed after removal of the hair. RESULTS: The extravasated EB points presented a nerve-segmental distribution, with the proportion of the points in the location being 47.5% for "Geshu" (BL 17),58. 82% for "Jizhong" (GV 6), 88.23% for "Pishu" (BL 20), 82.35% for "Weishu" (BL21), 17.64% for "Zhongwan" (CV 12), and 5.88% for "Shangwan" (CV 13), respectively. The plasma extravasation of EB seldom appeared in normal rats and only fewer points were found in rats accepted administration of 0.9% saline. Significant differences were found between model and normal control groups, and between model and normal saline groups in the numbers of the extravasated EB points (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). The number of the extravasated EB points was related to the phase of gastric mucosa injury, being most on the 2nd and 3rd day after modeling and disappearing gradually along with the natural repair of AGMI. CONCLUSION: AGMI promotes the plasma extravasation of EB and the extravasated EB points present a nerve-segmental distribution and have a higher corresponding rate with some acupoints including "Pishu" (BL 20), "Weishu" (BL 21), etc., suggesting an activation of the normally silent acupoints under diseased conditions. Source


Zhu X.L.,Shandong University
Zhen ci yan jiu = Acupuncture research / [Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan Yi xue qing bao yan jiu suo bian ji] | Year: 2010

To investigate neuroanatomical characteristics of the primary sensory afferent and the motor neurons coming from and innervating acupoint "Chengshan" (BL 57) area in the rat by using cholera toxin subunit B conjugated with Alexa Fluor 488 (CTB-Alexa 488), a new generation of fluorescent neural tracing reagent. Four male SD rats were used in the present study. Under anesthesia, 0.05% CTB-Alexa 488 (5 ML) was injected into the central part of the rear of the hind leg, a corresponding site of "Chengshan" (BL 57) in the human body. After 40-48 surviving hours, the rat's brain, spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of the lumbar segments (L1-L6) were dissected following perfusion with 4% paraformaldehyde, cut into sections and observed under fluorescent microscope equipped with a digital camera. The neurons labeled by CTB-Alexa 488 were counted. All CTB-Alexa 488 labeled neurons appeared in green under fluorescent filters of 450-490 and were located ipsilaterally on the injection side. The labeled primary sensory neurons were found in the DRGs at L4 (11 neurons) and L5 (35 neurons). Among them, 29 neurons (63.04%) were bigger, with their cell body diameters being 35-50 microm and 17 (36.96%) smaller, with their body diameters being lower than 35 microm. The labeled motor neurons were found to distribute in the mediolateral portion of lamina IX, forming a longitudinal column from L4 to L5. Of the observed 316 motor neurons, 259 (81.96%) belong to alpha type with their body diameters being 25-40 microm and 57 (18.04%) to gamma type with their body diameters being lower than 25 microm. The CTB-Alexa 488-labeled primary sensory and motor neurons innervating acupoint "Cheng-shan" (BL 57) distribute in the DRGs of L4-L5. The present fluorescent tracing technique may be quite useful for investigating the neural characteristics of acupoints. Source


Li Y.-J.,Shandong University
Meitan Xuebao/Journal of the China Coal Society | Year: 2011

A new cyclic CO2 capture system based on calcium looping cycle using gas/steam combined cycle for coal-fired plant was proposed. The CO2 capture system was divided into four subsystems: coal gasification subsystem, gas subsystem, calcium cyclic capturing CO2 subsystem and HRSG and steam-water circulation subsystem. The thermodynamic modeling and simulation for the subsystems were performed by Aspen Plus software platform. The results show that the net efficiency of the CO2 capture system reaches 41. 81% at the CO2 capture efficiency of 90% with the certain flow parameter of calcium-based sorbent. The oxygen/carbon molar ratio and steam/carbon molar ratio exhibit a significant effect on the volume fraction of CO, H2 and CH4 in the gas from the gasifier. The heat value of the gas and net efficiency of the CO2 capture system show a decrease with increasing the oxygen/carbon and team/carbon molar ratios. The molar ratio of oxygen/carbon should be less than 0.24 in order to keep the high system net efficiency. Source


Wang Z.F.,University of Utah | Chen L.,Shandong University | Chen L.,Tsinghua University | Liu F.,University of Utah
Nano Letters | Year: 2014

Based on first-principles and tight-binding calculations, we report that the topological edge states of zigzag Bi(111) nanoribbon can be significantly tuned by H edge adsorption. The Fermi velocity is increased by 1 order of magnitude, as the Dirac point is moved from the Brillouin zone boundary to the Brillouin zone center, and the real-space distribution of Dirac states are made twice more delocalized. These intriguing changes are explained by an orbital filtering effect of edge H atoms, which pushes certain components of the p orbital of edge Bi atoms out of the band gap regime that reshapes the topological edge states. In addition, the spin texture of the Dirac states is also modified, which is described by introducing an effective Hamiltonian. Our findings not only are of fundamental interest but also have practical implications in potential applications of topological insulators. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source


Zhang J.,Shandong University
The Science of the total environment | Year: 2013

In this study, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil profiles and the soil properties were analyzed in Hunpu, a typical wastewater irrigation area, northeast of China. The total concentrations of 16 priority control PAHs ranged from 7.88 to 2,231.42 μg/kg. Among 16 PAHs, the most abundant was Phenanthrene and the 3- or 4- ring PAHs were predominant. The PAH concentrations were higher in the upland fields near the oil wells, whereas leaching of PAH into the groundwater caused low concentrations in the paddy fields. The geochemical indices and the results from the principal component analysis of all 16 PAHs indicated that PAHs were mainly from atmospheric dusts in the top soil in I-1P/I-3P/I-7P and through soil profiles in I-4U/I-5P/I-8U, whereas those in the bottom layers were mainly from petroleum production and wastewater irrigation in I-1P/I-3P/I-7P and through soil profiles in I-2U and I-6U. In the redundancy analysis, PAHs exhibited negative correlation with pH, depth, silt, and clay, but had positive correlation with sand and organic matter. Finally, total toxic equivalent in the soil profiles and the calculated health risk of PAHs in the surface soil using contaminated land exposure assessment model elucidated the cancer risk that PAHs pose on human health in the Hunpu region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Wang C.,Shandong University
International Conference on Signal Processing Proceedings, ICSP | Year: 2012

Many consumer digital color cameras use a single light sensitive sensor and a Color Filter Array (CFA) with each pixel element recording intensity information of one color component. The captured data is then interpolated into a full color image. Bayer patterned CFA and a few kinds of compression-first interpolation-later approaches were introduced. On the basis of previous studies, Bayer patterned color image compression algorithm based on 9/7 biorthogonal wavelet transform and all phase interpolation was proposed and realized. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is more suitable for Bayer image compression. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Xing P.,Shandong University | Zhao Y.,Nanyang Technological University
Advanced Materials | Year: 2016

Supramolecular self-assembly shows significant potential to construct responsive materials. By tailoring the structural parameters of organic building blocks, nanosystems can be fabricated, whose performance in catalysis, energy storage and conversion, and biomedicine has been explored. Since small organic building blocks are structurally simple, easily modified, and reproducible, they are frequently employed in supramolecular self-assembly and materials science. The dynamic and adaptive nature of self-assembled nanoarchitectures affords an enhanced sensitivity to the changes in environmental conditions, favoring their applications in controllable drug release and bioimaging. Here, recent significant research advancements of small-organic-molecule self-assembled nanoarchitectures toward biomedical applications are highlighted. Functionalized assemblies, mainly including vesicles, nanoparticles, and micelles are categorized according to their topological morphologies and functions. These nanoarchitectures with different topologies possess distinguishing advantages in biological applications, well incarnating the structure-property relationship. By presenting some important discoveries, three domains of these nanoarchitectures in biomedical research are covered, including biosensors, bioimaging, and controlled release/therapy. The strategies regarding how to design and characterize organic assemblies to exhibit biomedical applications are also discussed. Up-to-date research developments in the field are provided and research challenges to be overcome in future studies are revealed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Wang S.,Shandong University
Mathematical Problems in Engineering | Year: 2013

The permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is a complex controlled object that is difficult to drive and control. In this study, the vector control strategy is adopted to drive the PMSM. The active disturbance rejection controller is used to achieve the closed-loop control of PMSM, which simplifies the computational complexity. A load torque observer and feedforward compensation component are designed to overcome the PMSM speed fluctuation of the load disturbance. An experimental system based on the DSP board is designed to test the controller performance. The results validate the control algorithm. © 2013 Song Wang. Source


Li W.J.,Shandong University | Li W.J.,China University of Mining and Technology | Li W.J.,Arizona State University | Shao L.Y.,China University of Mining and Technology | Buseck P.R.,Arizona State University
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2010

Emissions from agricultural biomass burning (ABB) in northern China have a significant impact on the regional and global climate. The monthly average aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm in northern China in 2007 had a maximum of 0.7 in June. The AOD measurements are consistent with regional brown hazes that occurred at that time, which was a period of severe aerosol pollution. Aerosol particles were collected in urban Beijing from 12 to 30 June 2007, during a period of high haze, and studied using transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The dominant particle types collected in the fine fraction (diameter <1 μm) were ammonium sulfate, soot, K2SO4, KNO3, and organic matter, except that the K salts were minor between 21 and 30 June. K-rich particles as tracers of biomass burning, together with wildfire maps, show that intense regional ABB in northern China contributed significantly to the regional haze between 12 and 20 June. We therefore grouped the episodes into type-1 and -2 haze, with the former occurring between 12 and 20 June and the latter between 21 and 30 June. After long-range transport, ABB particles in the type-1 haze exhibited marked changes in morphology, composition, and mixing state. KCl particles were absent, presumably having been converted by heterogeneous reactions to K2SO4 and KNO3. Soot particles were mixed with the other particle types. Abundant organic matter and soluble salts emitted by ABB increased their sizes during transport and resulted in more hygroscopic aerosol particles in downwind areas, becoming additional cloud condensation nuclei. The high AOD (average value 2.2) in Beijing during 12 to 20 June is partly explained by the hygroscopic growth of fine aerosol particles and by the strong absorption of internally mixed soot particles, both coming from regional ABB emissions. Therefore, it is important to consider the origins of the haze, which in turn leads to the different particle types. © Author(s) 2010. Source


Li S.,Shandong University
Sheng wu yi xue gong cheng xue za zhi = Journal of biomedical engineering = Shengwu yixue gongchengxue zazhi | Year: 2011

The automatic detection and classification of EEG epileptic wave have great clinical significance. This paper proposes an empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and support vector machine (SVM) based classification method for non-stationary EEG. Firstly, EMD was used to decompose EEG into multiple empirical mode components. Secondly, effective features were extracted from the scales. Finally, the EEG was classified with SVM. The experiment indicated that this method could achieve good classification result with accuracy of 99 % for interictal and ictal EEGs. Source


Meng Q.,Shandong University
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from healthcare costs when they are ill. However, coverage is often low, particularly in people most in need of protection. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of outreach strategies for expanding insurance coverage of children who are eligible for health insurance schemes. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) Specialised Register (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2), PubMed (January 1951 to January 2010), EMBASE (January 1966 to April 2009), PsycINFO (January 1967 to April 2009) and other relevant databases and websites. In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews, and carried out a citation search for included studies to find more potentially relevant studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series which evaluated the effects of outreach strategies on increasing health insurance coverage for children. We defined outreach strategies as measures to improve the implementation of existing health insurance to enrol more eligible populations. This included increasing awareness of schemes, modifying enrolment, improving management and organis ation of insurance schemes, and mixed strategies. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias . We narratively summari sed the data. MAIN RESULTS: We included two studies, both from the United States. One randomised controlled trial study with a low risk of bias showed that community- based case managers who provided health insurance information, application support, and negotiated with the insurer were effective in enrolling and maintaining enrolment of Latino American children into health insurance schemes (n = 257). The second quasi-randomised controlled trial, with an unclear risk of bias (n = 223), indicated that handing out insurance application materials in hospital emergenc y departments can increase enrolment of children into health insurance. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The two studies included in this review provide evidence that in the US providing health insurance information and application assistance, and handing out application materials in hospital emergency departments can probably both improve insurance coverage of children. Further studies evaluating the effectiveness of different outreach strategies for expanding health insurance coverage of children in different countries are needed, with careful attention given to study design. Source


Xia S.-Q.,University of Delaware | Xia S.-Q.,Shandong University | Bobev S.,University of Delaware
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2010

Reported are structure and property studies on a series of isostructural compounds with general formulas Yb9Mn4+xSb9 (x ≈ 0.2), A9Mn4+xBi9 (A = Ca and Yb; x = 0), and the Zn-substituted derivatives Yb9(Mn,Zn)4+xSb 9 (0 < x < 0.4). They have been synthesized from the corresponding elements by high-temperature reactions, and their structures have been established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Despite being nearly stoichiometric phases, whose average crystallographic arrangement can be described with the orthorhombic Ca9Mn4Bi9 type structure (space group Pbam, No. 55), these ternary materials exist within narrow homogeneity ranges, whereupon an interstitial site is partially occupied by the transition metal. Electronic structure calculations confirm that the "empty" A9Mn4Sb9 or A 9Mn4Bi9 structures are electron deficient, making them suitable hosts for small dopant atoms. The expected poorly metallic behavior is evidenced from temperature-dependent resistivity data gathered from single-crystals. Magnetic susceptibility measurements in the range 2-350 K reveal complex antiferromagnetically coupled structures. These experimental results are further corroborated by theoretical calculations based on the linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) and the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) methods. © 2009 American Chemical Society. Source


Yuan X.,Shandong University | Zuo J.,University of South Australia | Huisingh D.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

There has been an increasing level of attention to sustainability issues in higher education by academic leaders, students and by policy makers and the public, at large due to significant impacts of university activities have upon society environmentally and socially in the short and long-term. The last decade has witnessed the promotion of "Green University" in China with an aim of fostering sustainable development in higher education. This paper was developed, based upon research designed to investigate the awareness of faculty, alumni and student's parents on sustainable development and their perceptions on the 'Green University'. A large-scale questionnaire survey was conducted with representatives of each of these three groups of stakeholders in the Shandong University, one of the largest academic institutions in China. The main focus of this study was placed on exploring the most important factors that contribute towards achieving 'Green University' goals from different stakeholders' points of view. These factors were broadly grouped into seven categories, i.e. management systems, environmental sustainability, sustainable curricula, research and development, staff development and rewards, student opportunities and social responsibility. This research compared the perceptions of these three stakeholder groups with those of the student's perspectives, which were also researched several months earlier at Shandong University. Implications on the 'Green University' development are presented. The research findings provide a useful reference to improve both the sustainability performance in higher education at Shandong University as well as for 'Green Universities' more broadly throughout China and other parts of the world. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Yuan D.,Texas A&M University | Zhao D.,Texas A&M University | Sun D.,Shandong University | Zhou H.-C.,Texas A&M University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2010

(Figure Presented) Holding gas: One of the isoreticular metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) that have been synthesized and characterized structurally, PCN-68 (see structure), has a Langmuir surface area of as high as 6033 m 2 g-1. The MOFs also display excellent gas (H2, CH4, and CO2) adsorption capacity. © 2010 Wiley-vCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Source


Liu L.-J.,Shandong University
Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online | Year: 2011

In the title compound, [Cu(NCS)(C 17H 20N 4)]BF 4, the Cu II ion is five-coordinated by the four N atoms of the tetra-dentate Schiff base ligand and one N atom of a thio-cyanate ligand, thereby forming a square-pyramidal CuN5 ccoordination geometry. The dihedral angle between the pyridine rings of the Schiff base is 55.58 (14)°. The F atoms of the tetra-fluoridoborate anion are disordered over two sets of sites with occupancies of 0.614 (3) and 0.386 (3). In the crystal, the components are linked by C - H⋯F inter-actions. © Li-Jun Liu 2011. Source


An existence and uniqueness result for one kind of forward-backward stochastic differential equations with double dimensions was obtained under some monotonicity conditions. Then this result was applied to the linear-quadratic stochastic optimal control and nonzero-sum differential game of forward-backward stochastic system. The explicit forms of the optimal control and the Nash equilibrium point are obtained respectively. We note that our method is effective in studying the uniqueness of Nash equilibrium point. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley and Sons Asia Pte Ltd. Source


Wang Y.H.,Shandong University
Acupuncture in medicine : journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society | Year: 2014

Myofascial trigger points contribute significantly to musculoskeletal pain and motor dysfunction and may be associated with accelerated muscle fatiguability. The aim of this study was to investigate the electrically induced force and fatigue characteristics of muscle taut bands in rats. Muscle taut bands were dissected out and subjected to trains of electrical stimulation. The electrical threshold intensity for muscle contraction and maximum contraction force (MCF), electrical intensity dependent fatigue and electrical frequency dependent fatigue characteristics were assessed in three different sessions (n=10 each) and compared with non-taut bands in the biceps femoris muscle. The threshold intensity for muscle contraction and MCF at the 10th, 15th and 20th intensity dependent fatigue stimuli of taut bands were significantly lower than those of non-taut bands (all p<0.05). The MCF at the 15th and 20th intensity dependent fatigue stimuli of taut bands were significantly lower than those at the 1st and 5th stimuli (all p<0.01). The MCF in the frequency dependent fatigue test was significantly higher and the stimulus frequency that induced MCF was significantly lower for taut bands than for non-taut bands (both p<0.01). The present study demonstrates that the muscle taut band itself was more excitable to electrical stimulation and significantly less fatigue resistant than normal muscle fibres. Source


This paper is concerned with the forward-backward stochastic optimal control problem with Poisson jumps. A necessary condition of optimality in the form of a global maximum principle as well as a sufficient condition of optimality are presented under the assumption that the diffusion and jump coefficients do not contain the control variable, and the control domain need not be convex. The case where there are some state constraints is also discussed. A financial example is discussed to illustrate the application of our result. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley and Sons Asia Pte Ltd and Chinese Automatic Control Society. Source


Zhang D.,Shandong University
Journal of Systems Science and Complexity | Year: 2011

This paper studies the existence and uniqueness of solutions of fully coupled forward-backward stochastic differential equations with Brownian motion and random jumps. The result is applied to solve a linear-quadratic optimal control and a nonzero-sum differential game of backward stochastic differential equations. The optimal control and Nash equilibrium point are explicitly derived. Also the solvability of a kind Riccati equations is discussed. All these results develop those of Lim, Zhou (2001) and Yu, Ji (2008). © 2011 Institute of Systems Science, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Chen Y.,Shandong University
ICIC Express Letters, Part B: Applications | Year: 2011

This paper proposes a piecewise optimal trajectory planning method of pan mechanism for cooking robot. The optimal objective function is given by the weighted sum of the acceleration and jerk. Some computing techniques are proposed to determine the optimal solution. Both the time intervals between two interpolation points and the control points of B-spline function are taken as optimal variables, and kinematic constraints are redefined as functions of optimal variables. Numerical studies illustrate the feasible of the optimal trajectory planning method. A few of cuisine experiments are carried out to verify the effectiveness of those optimal results. © 2011 ISSN 2185-2766. Source


Huang H.-L.,Shandong University | Liu G.,Nanjing University | Ye Y.,Anhui University of Science and Technology
Communications in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2011

We study finite quasi-quantum groups in their quiver setting developed recently by the first author. We obtain a classification of finite-dimensional pointed Majid algebras of finite corepresentation type, or equivalently a classification of elementary quasi-Hopf algebras of finite representation type, over the field of complex numbers. By the Tannaka-Krein duality principle, this provides a classification of the finite tensor categories in which every simple object has Frobenius-Perron dimension 1 and there are finitely many indecomposable objects up to isomorphism. Some interesting information of these finite tensor categories is given by making use of the quiver representation theory. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Yang Q.,Shandong University
Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology] | Year: 2013

To investigate the therapeutic effect of total en bloc spondylectomy (TES) for thoracolumbar tumors and the results of spinal stability reconstruction. From January 2007 to June 2011 there were 18 patients with thoracolumbar tumors distributed in the thoracic vertebrae (n = 10) and lumbar vertebrae (n = 8). There were 7 haemangiomas, 5 giant cell tumors of bone, 1 malignant schwannoma, 1 solitary plasmocytoma, 1 neuroblastoma, 1 osteoblastoma, 1 metastatic malignant fibrous histiocytoma, and 1 metastasis of breast cancer. All the 18 patients were treated with improved TES under electrophysiological monitoring of spinal cord. Four patients were treated through one-stage combined anteroposterior approach and 14 patients through one-stage posterior approach. The anterior reconstructions included titanium mesh cages filled with bone or bone cement in 15 cases, titanium mesh cage with strengthened rings in 2 cases and artificial vertebral body replacement in 1 case. The posterior reconstruction included multiple segmental fixation with pedicle screw-rod system in 15 cases and short segmental fixation in 3 cases. Massive bone auto-graft was employed in 13 cases and fragmental bone graft in 5 cases. The total en bloc spondylectomy was performed successfully in 15 patients and unsuccessful in 3 whose spinal tumors were resected by piecemeal technique. In 15 patients with successfully performed TES, the duration of surgery was from 340 to 610 min (average, 450.7 min), the blood loss was from 3000 to 10 200 ml (average, 4850 ml), and the intraoperative blood transfusion was from 2800 to 9600 ml (average, 4200 ml). The operation-related complications comprised hemopneumothorax, intercostal nerve pain, stress ulcer and bleeding, and so on. One year after operation, the patients with neurological dysfunction recovered from grade A to grade D in one patient, and to grade E in the other 14 cases. The average visual analog scale (VAS) scores was 0.5. One patient with plasmacytoma and another one with L5 metastatic tumor suffered progression of the disease and were living with the diseases. The patient with metastatic malignant fibrous histiocytoma died of local recurrence and lung metastasis 16 months postoperatively. One patient with L4 neuroblastoma died of other reason and all the rest were free from relapse. The Cobb angle of upper and lower vertebral body adjacent to the involved vertebrae in sagittal plane was from -26.7° to 12.0° (average, -2.57°) just postoperatively and from -17.5° to 57.2° (average, 11.5°) at the last follow-up or before reoperation. There were 2 patients with screw-rod breakdown and 2 patients with internal fixation loosening. The measurement of titanium mesh cage subsided into adjacent vertebral bodies was average 7.5 mm. The revision surgery was performed in 3 patients, through combined anteroposterior approach in 2 and only posterior approach in 1 patient. TES significantly increases the therapeutic effect of spinal tumors, although accompanied with high difficulty and massive bleeding. In spinal stability reconstruction after total spondylectomy, it should be emphasized that posterior long segment fixation with pedicle screw-rod system, massive bone bridging graft and the application of thoracolumbosacral orthosis can achieve short-term firm fixation and long-term fusion-stabilization. Source


Sun X.,University of British Columbia | Sun X.,Shandong University | Bromley-Brits K.,University of British Columbia | Song W.,University of British Columbia
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2012

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder leading to dementia. Neuritic plaques are the hallmark neuropathology in AD brains. Proteolytic processing of amyloid-β precursor protein at the β site by beta-site amyloid-β precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is essential to generate Aβ, a central component of the neuritic plaques. BACE1 is increased in some sporadic AD brains, and dysregulation of BACE1 gene expression plays an important role in AD pathogenesis. This review will focus on the regulation of BACE1 gene expression at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translation initiation, translational and post-translational levels, and its role in AD pathogenesis. Further studies on BACE1 gene expression regulation will greatly contribute to our understanding of AD pathogenesis and reveal potential novel approaches for AD prevention and drug development. © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry. Source


This article proposes a linear programming model that is based on the wastewater treatment input-output model (W2IO) to identify the lowest-emission choice among alternative feasible options for wastewater treatment; this model can be considered as an application of the waste input-output linear programming model (WIO-LP) to wastewater issues. Using the data of the Tokyo metropolitan W2IO table, I apply this model to obtain the optimal wastewater treatment options under alternative scenarios. The Pareto frontiers of environmental loads are derived to show the trade-off relationships among various types of environmental load and the effect of the introduction of high-temperature incineration of dewatered sludge on the generation of environmental loads. The main conclusion of the study is that when all three types of environmental load (landfill level, global warming potential, and chemical oxygen demand) are considered, the introduction of high-temperature incineration causes the widening of the Pareto frontier of environmental loads and also causes it to move closer to the origin. © 2011 by Yale University. Source


Jin S.,Shandong University
Journal of applied clinical medical physics / American College of Medical Physics | Year: 2013

Accurate registration of 18F-FDG PET (positron emission tomography) and CT (computed tomography) images has important clinical significance in radiation oncology. PET and CT images are acquired from (18)F-FDG PET/CT scanner, but the two acquisition processes are separate and take a long time. As a result, there are position errors in global and deformable errors in local caused by respiratory movement or organ peristalsis. The purpose of this work was to implement and validate a deformable CT to PET image registration method in esophageal cancer to eventually facilitate accurate positioning the tumor target on CT, and improve the accuracy of radiation therapy. Global registration was firstly utilized to preprocess position errors between PET and CT images, achieving the purpose of aligning these two images on the whole. Demons algorithm, based on optical flow field, has the features of fast process speed and high accuracy, and the gradient of mutual information-based demons (GMI demons) algorithm adds an additional external force based on the gradient of mutual information (GMI) between two images, which is suitable for multimodality images registration. In this paper, GMI demons algorithm was used to achieve local deformable registration of PET and CT images, which can effectively reduce errors between internal organs. In addition, to speed up the registration process, maintain its robustness, and avoid the local extremum, multiresolution image pyramid structure was used before deformable registration. By quantitatively and qualitatively analyzing cases with esophageal cancer, the registration scheme proposed in this paper can improve registration accuracy and speed, which is helpful for precisely positioning tumor target and developing the radiation treatment planning in clinical radiation therapy application. Source


Tian H.,Shandong University
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research | Year: 2016

Background: The study was aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of osteocyte death in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Methods: GSE27372 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, including three HOB-01 (osteocyte cell line) control samples and three HOB-01 samples co-cultured with JJN3 (human MM cell line). After the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by Student's t test method, enrichment analyses were performed for them using DAVID software. Using TRANSFAC, TSGene, and tumor-associated gene (TAG) databases, functional annotation was conducted for the DEGs. Additionally, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and sub-network analyses were performed using STRING database and Cytoscape software. Results: Total 393 DEGs were identified, including 22 transcription factors (e.g., KLF4 and IRF8) and 37 TAGs. Enrichment analysis suggested that EGF, S1PR1, and NPY1R were enriched in the function of circulatory system development. EGF (degree = 31) and EGR1 (degree = 19) had high degrees and interactions in the PPI network. In the sub-network, S1PR1, C3AR1, and NPY1R could interact with each other. Conclusions: These DEGs might participate in the osteocyte apoptosis induced by myeloma cells. These findings might provide a theoretical basis for a better understanding of the osteolysis in MM patients. © 2016 The Author(s). Source


Fu Z.-Q.,Shandong University
Jianzhu Cailiao Xuebao/Journal of Building Materials | Year: 2012

Based on the research on heat transfer mechanism of wheat straw-bale wall, the thermal conductivity of wheat straw-bale wall of different densities was measured. As the thermal conductivity of wheat straw-bale wall is low, it can be used as a sustainable, economic and insulation material of low energy consumption. Meanwhile, test results also show that the thermal conductivity decreases at first and then increases with increasing density of wheat straw-bale walls. Also, according to the manufacture, masonry of wheat straw-bale walls and test results, reasonable range of density with low thermal conductivity of wheat straw-bale walls was suggested. Source


Hu C.W.,Shandong University
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2012

In the present study, aggregation and dissolution of 30 nm ZnO nanoparticles with concentration of 10 mg/L in different solutions were investigated. The solutions used were four types, three of among, which were double distilled water with the pH values adjusted to 5.5 (acid), 7.0 (neutral) and 8.5 (alkaline), respectively. The forth solution is modified Hoagland's solution. Changes of particle size of the ZnO nanoparticles in the solutions were determined and the concentrations of Zn2+ at 96 h were detected. The results show that aggregation occurred immediately after preparation and there were basically no ZnO nanoparticles in the supernatants after 12 h excerpt for the alkaline solution, suggesting pH value and ionic strength may influence the aggregation. Dissolution of the nanoparticles was highly pHdependent. Acid facilitated and accelerated the process. Present results could provide supports for the ecotoxicological tests of the ZnO nanoparticles. Source


Zhao Y.-P.,New York University | Zhao Y.-P.,Shandong University | Tian Q.-Y.,New York University | Liu C.-J.,New York University
FEBS Letters | Year: 2013

PGRN and its derived engineered protein, Atsttrin, were reported to antagonize TNFα and protect against inflammatory arthritis [Tang, W. et al. (2011) The growth factor progranulin binds to TNF receptors and is therapeutic against inflammatory arthritis in mice. Science 332 (6028) 478-484]. Here we found that PGRN level was also significantly elevated in skin inflammation. PGRN-/- mice exhibited more severe inflammation following induction of oxazolone (OXA). In contrast, recombinant Atsttrin protein effectively attenuated inflammation in mice dermatitis model. In addition, the protective role of PGRN and Atsttrin in dermatitis was probably due to their inhibition on NF-κB signaling. Collectively, PGRN, especially its derived engineered protein, Atsttrin, may represent a potential molecular target for prevention and treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Wang H.,Yonsei University | Wang C.,Shandong University
Ceramics International | Year: 2013

The effect of ytterbium doping on the thermoelectric properties of La 0.1Sr0.9TiO3 ceramics has been investigated at the temperature range between 300 K and 1000 K. Samples with different ytterbium concentrations have been synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction technique. An X-ray diffraction pattern suggests that the dominant crystal structure is of perovskite, with a small amount of pyrochlore phase of Yb 2Ti2O7. The electrical resistivities of all samples exhibit a minimum in the temperature range between 300 K and 1000 K. The minimum values of electrical resistivity are 1.5 mΩ cm, 2.0 mΩ cm, 3.9 mΩ cm, 7.1 mΩ cm, and 9.0 mΩ cm for x=0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, and 0.10, respectively. With the increasing ytterbium content, the electrical resistivity enhanced dramatically, the Seebeck coefficients are increased marginally, and the thermal conductivities are reduced moderately. The lowest thermal conductivity of 3.9 W/mK is obtained in sample of La 0.1Sr0.89Yb0.01TiO3, which exhibits maximum figure of merit 0.20 at 963 K. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. Source


To evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed to investigate the relationship between dietary factors and diseases in the adult Chinese population in East China. A total of 78 males and 129 females aged 30-75 years completed four inconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HRs, served as a reference method) and two FFQs (FFQ1 and FFQ2) over a nine-month interval. The reproducibility of the FFQ was estimated with correlation coefficients, cross-classification, and weighted kappa statistic. The validity was assessed by comparing the data obtained from FFQ and 24-HRs. The median nutrient intakes assessed with FFQs were higher than the average of four 24-HRs. For the food groups, Spearman, Pearson, and intraclass correlation coefficients between FFQ1 and FFQ2 ranged from 0.23 to 0.61, 0.27 to 0.64, and 0.26 to 0.65, respectively. For total energy and nutrient intakes, the corresponding coefficients ranged from 0.25 to 0.61, 0.28 to 0.64, and 0.28 to 0.62, respectively. The correlations between FFQ1 and FFQ2 for most nutrients decreased after adjustment with total energy intake. More than 70% of the subjects were classified into the same and adjacent categories by both FFQs. For food groups, the crude, energy-adjusted, and de-attenuated Spearman correlation coefficients between FFQ2 and the 24-HRs ranged from 0.17 to 0.59, 0.10 to 0.57, and 0.11 to 0.64, respectively. For total energy and nutrient intakes, the corresponding coefficients ranged from 0.20 to 0.58, 0.08 to 0.54, and 0.09 to 0.56, respectively. More than 67% of the subjects were classified into the same and adjacent categories by both instruments. Both weighted kappa statistic and Bland-Altman Plots showed reasonably acceptable agreement between the FFQ2 and 24-HRs. The FFQ developed for adults in the Taizhou area is reasonably reliable and valid for assessment of most food and nutrient intakes. Source


Hu S.Y.,Shandong University
Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery | Year: 2012

The research on natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and laparoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) are current worldwide focuses international areas of minimally invasive surgery. NOTES needs further investigation, and as the most available of no scar techniques, LESS provides a transition. Currently, both laparoscopy-assisted NOTES colorectal resection and totally NOTES colorectal resection have been reported, however, the techniques are still mainly under animal investigation. Multiple LESS colorectal resections have been reported worldwide, and the feasibility has been proved by those reports. What's more, whether LESS colorectal resection can fulfil the requirements of radical tumor resection needs further investigation. Source


Ding L.,Shandong University
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2012

To explore the epidemic features of scrub typhus between year 2006 and 2010 in Shandong Province. Based on the data collected through Diseases Reporting Information System between year 2006 and 2010 in Shandong province, 1291 cases of scrub typhus were selected. The study described the population distribution features of the scrub typhus patients, and explored the temporal and spatial distribution features of the disease by applying the methods of spatial thematic mapping, inverse distance weighted, spatial autocorrelation analysis, spatial clustering analysis, temporal clustering analysis and spatial variation analysis in temporal trends based on Geographic Information software (ArcGIS 9.3) and Spatial Clustering Software (SatScan 7.0). The onset age of the 1291 patients ranged between 1 and 92 years old.639 out of 1291 patients were over 55 years old, accounting for 49.5%.640 patients were male and the other 651 patients were female, occupying 49.6% and 50.4% respectively. The gender ratio was 1:1.02. Patients were found in farmers, workers, students and preschool children. However, most of the cases were farmers, up to 84.8% (1095/1291). Global Moran's I index was 0.324 (P < 0.01). The local Moran's I index in 8 locations were proved to have statistical significance (P < 0.01); all of which were H-H clustering areas. Gangcheng (38 cases), Laicheng (154 cases), Xintai (160 cases) and Donggang (105 cases) were important locations, whose local Moran's I index were 2.111, 1.642, 1.277 and 0.775 respectively. The clustering period of scrub typhus in respective year were as follows: 2006.09.23 - 2006.11.20 (202 cases), 2007.10.02 - 2007.11.11 (197 cases), 2008.09.30 - 2008.11.07 (302 cases), 2009.09.25 - 2009.11.10 (204 cases), and 2010.10.05 - 2010.11.13 (226 cases), whose RR values were separately 45.55, 34.60, 50.64, 53.09 and 79.84 (P < 0.01). Two spatial clustering area were found in the study, one was the area centered Taian and Xintai with radiation radius at 58.28 km (542 cases) and the other one was the area centered Rizhao and Donggang with radiation radius at 22.68 km (134 cases), whose RR values were 4.52 and 3.96 (P < 0.01). The spatial features of the two clustering areas were inland low hills area and coastal hills area. The highest annual growth rate of the disease was 45.04%, found in the area centered Linyi and Mengyin counties, with the radiation radius at 45.82 km. The RR value was 3.68 (P < 0.01). The majority of the scrub typhus patients were middle-aged and elderly farmers. The epidemic peak was between the last 10 days of September and the first 10 days of November. A positive spatial correlation of the disease was found; and most cases clustered in inland low hills area and costal hills area; especially the area around Linyi and Mengyin, with the highest annual growth rates of the disease. Source


Kong F.Y.,Shandong University
Zhongguo zhen jiu = Chinese acupuncture & moxibustion | Year: 2012

To explore the impacts of electroacupuncture on embryo implanted potential and its molecular mechanism in the patients with infertility of different symptom complex. Among the patients with infertility treated with electroacupuncture and in vitro fertilization and embryo transplantation (IVF-ET), 82 cases of kidney deficiency (group A), 74 cases of liver qi stagnation (group B) and 54 cases of phlegm dampness (group C) were selected. All of the patients in three groups received long-program ovarian hyper-stimulation. Additionally, electroacupuncturecan was applied before controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation (COH) and in the process of ovarian hyper-stimulation. The levels of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) in the serum were determined on the 2nd day of the menstruation (M2), on the day of human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) injection and on the day of embryo transplantation in the culture solution in three groups separately. The fertilization rate, implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate were observed for the patients in three groups. The levels of HLA-G in the serum on hCG injection day and in the culture solution on embryo transplantation day in group A and B were significantly higher than those in group C (all P < 0.05). But, there was no significant difference in serum HLA-G levels on M2 day among three groups. The high-quality embryo rate in either group A (73.6%, 352/478) or group B (70.6%, 379/537) was higher significantly than that in group C (54.2%, 208/384) separately, presenting statistical significant difference (all P < 0.01). But there were no significant differences in clinical pregnancy rate, fertilization rate and cleavage rate among three groups. Electroacupuncture can increase the contents of HLA-G in the body and the level of HLA-G secreted in embryos for the patients in the process of IVF-ET. Eventually, the pregnancy outcome and the pregnancy rate are improved. The clinical effects of electroacupuncture for the patients of kidney deficiency and liver qi stagnation are better than those for the patients of phlegm dampness. Source


Zhu Q.,Shandong University | Han C.C.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular
Polymer | Year: 2010

Well architectured polyurethanes containing fluorine are expected to be applied in medical devices as well as other fields. A telechelic polyurethane end-capped with perfluoropolyether segments was prepared from polyether glycol as a soft segment, 4, 4′-methylene-bis-(phenylisocyanate), and monofunctional perfluorinated oligomer. The telechelic polyurethane was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XPS results indicated that the surface of the fluorine containing polyurethane was enriched with fluorine component. It exhibited a hydrophobic property with a water contact angle of 113°. The polyurethane terminated with perfluoropolyether segments showed a better thermal stability. A mechanism was proposed to explain thermal decomposition of polyurethanes. DSC results suggested that the tail-like perfluoropolyether segments would disrupt main chain packing, then raise crystallization potential barrier, and the perfluoropolyether segments did not affect the bulk microphase-separated structure. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Jia C.,University of Jinan | Yang P.,University of Jinan | Huang B.,Shandong University
ChemCatChem | Year: 2014

Ag/AgCl necklace-like nano-heterostructures with an average diameter of 55 nm were prepared by a facile in situ oxidation process. As a result of the presence of multiple crystalline Ag nanowires with lots of grain boundaries, uniform Ag/AgCl necklace-like heterostructures can be successfully obtained in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Ag and AgCl are evenly distributed in the necklace-like structures, which were divided into a number of tiny units that consisted of Ag and AgCl and enabled easy electron transfer. In contrast, a loose Ag/AgCl structure with large particles was prepared without the addition of PVP. A formation mechanism of the Ag/AgCl nano-heterostructures was proposed. Furthermore, the molar ratio of Ag and AgCl plays an important role in the photocatalytic activity of the nano-heterostructures, which can be tuned simply. The results of photocatalytic investigations demonstrate that the Ag/AgCl heterostructures with an 85% AgCl component have an excellent activity for the decomposition of organic pollutants and water splitting to produce oxygen. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Zhang Z.,Shandong University
Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online | Year: 2011

The molecule of the title compound, C14H11N 3O5, assumes an E configuration with respect to the methylidene unit. An intramolecular O -H⋯O hydrogen bond is present in the molecule. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the two benzene rings is 5.46 (15)°. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O -H⋯O, O -H⋯N, and N -H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Source


Zhang Z.,Shandong University
Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online | Year: 2011

The title compound, C14H11N3O5, crystallized with two independent molecules per asymmetric unit. Each molecule assumes an E configuration with respect to the methylidene unit. Intramolecular O -H⋯O and N -H⋯O hydrogen bonds are present in each molecule and they are linked by an O -H⋯O hydrogen bond. The dihedral angles between the mean planes of the two benzene rings are 4.45 (16) and 1.7 (2)° in the two molecules. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O -H⋯O and N -H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Source


Wang G.,Shandong Normal University | Yu Z.,Shandong University | Yu Z.,University of Evry Val dEssonne
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2010

This technical note is concerned with a maximum principle for a new class of non-zero sum stochastic differential games. The most distinguishing feature, compared with the existing literature, is that the game systems are described by backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs). This kind of games are motivated by some interesting phenomena arising from financial markets and can be used to characterize the players with different levels of utilities. We establish a necessary condition and a sufficient condition in the form of maximum principle for open-loop equilibrium point of the foregoing games respectively. To explain the theoretical results, we use them to study a financial problem. © 2006 IEEE. Source


Although obesity and insulin resistance are closely correlated, their temporal sequences in early life and influence on adult hypertension are largely unknown. This study aims to delineate the temporal relationship patterns between body mass index (BMI) and insulin in childhood and their impact on adult hypertension. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 990 adults (630 whites and 360 blacks) who had BMI and fasting insulin measured twice 5.4 years apart in childhood (mean age, 10.5 years at baseline and 15.9 years at follow-up) and blood pressure measured 14.7 years later in adulthood (mean age, 30.5 years). Cross-lagged panel and mediation analysis models were used to examine the temporal relationship between childhood BMI and insulin and its impact on adult hypertension. After adjusting for age, race, sex, and follow-up years, the cross-lagged path coefficient (β=0.33; P<0.001) from baseline BMI to follow-up insulin was significantly greater than the path coefficient (β=−0.02; P>0.05) from baseline insulin to follow-up BMI in childhood with P<0.001 for the difference in βs. Blacks and whites showed similar patterns of the temporal relationship. The path coefficient (β=0.59; P<0.001) from BMI to insulin in the hypertensive group was significantly greater than that (β=0.24; P<0.001) in normotensive group, with P<0.001 for the difference in βs between these 2 groups. The mediation effect of childhood insulin on the childhood BMI–adult hypertension association was estimated at 21.1% (P<0.001). These findings provide evidence that higher BMI levels precede hyperinsulinemia during childhood, and this 1-directional relation plays a role in the development of hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc Source


This paper examines villagers' efforts to secure a reliable supply of drinking water in Ten Mile Inn, a rural community in North China. For most village residents, the Maoist era was a period of attacks on their religious beliefs and practices. It was also a time of often costly attempts to secure a more reliable supply of water. Village politics and factional disputes attended all these efforts and closely track the rise, fall, and ultimate reinstatement of the Ninth Dragon God, an important deity in Chinese pantheon, who many believe has full charge of rainwater, rivers, lakes, and seas. Those associated with the god constitute a source of authority and respect in addition to that of local state sanctioned leaders. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Ling Z.,Shandong University | Wang A.,Washington University in St. Louis
Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets | Year: 2015

Miller Range (MIL) 03346 is a nakhlite meteorite that has been extensively studied due to its unique complex secondary mineral phases and their potential implications for the hydrologic history of Mars. We conducted a set of Raman spectroscopic and Raman imaging studies of MIL 03346,168, focusing on the secondary mineral phases and their spatial distributions, with a goal to better understand the possible processes by which they were generated on Mars. This study revealed three types of calcium sulfates, a solid solution of (K, Na)-jarosite and two groups of hydrated species with low crystallinity (HSLC) in the veins and/or mesostasis areas of the meteorite. The most abundant Ca-sulfate is bassanite that suggests two possible paths for its direct precipitation from a Ca-S-H2O brine, either having low water activity or with incomplete development (producing bassanite with gypsum microcrystals) on Mars. The second most abundant Ca-sulfate is soluble γ-CaSO4 which raises a new question on the origins of this phase in the Martian meteorite, since γ-CaSO4 readily hydrates in the laboratory but is apparently stable in Atacama Desert. The close spatial relationship of (K, Na)-jarosite solid solutions with rasvumite (KFe2S3), magnetite, HSLC, and fine-grained low-crystallinity alkali feldspar in mesostasis suggests a potential in situ formation of mesostasis jarosite from these Fe-K,Na-S-O-H2O species. ©2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source


Pefanis E.,Columbia University | Pefanis E.,Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Regeneron Genetics Center | Wang J.,Columbia University | Rothschild G.,Columbia University | And 11 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2015

We have ablated the cellular RNA degradation machinery in differentiated B cells and pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by conditional mutagenesis of core (Exosc3) and nuclear RNase (Exosc10) components of RNA exosome and identified a vast number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) with emergent functionality. Unexpectedly, eRNA-expressing regions accumulate R-loop structures upon RNA exosome ablation, thus demonstrating the role of RNA exosome in resolving deleterious DNA/RNA hybrids arising from active enhancers. We have uncovered a distal divergent eRNA-expressing element (lncRNA-CSR) engaged in long-range DNA interactions and regulating IgH 3′ regulatory region super-enhancer function. CRISPR-Cas9-mediated ablation of lncRNA-CSR transcription decreases its chromosomal looping-mediated association with the IgH 3′ regulatory region super-enhancer and leads to decreased class switch recombination efficiency. We propose that the RNA exosome protects divergently transcribed lncRNA expressing enhancers by resolving deleterious transcription-coupled secondary DNA structures, while also regulating long-range super-enhancer chromosomal interactions important for cellular function. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Kang Q.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Shen Y.,Shandong University | Bai L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Natural Product Reports | Year: 2012

Covering: 1957 to 2011 3-Amino-5-hydroxy benzoic acid (3,5-AHBA) is a precursor for a large group of natural products, including the family of naphthalenic and benzenic ansamycins, the unique saliniketals, and the family of mitomycins. This review covers the biosynthesis of AHBA-derived natural products from a molecular genetics, chemical, and biochemical perspectives, and 174 references are cited. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Sun T.,Shandong University
Zhen ci yan jiu = Acupuncture research / [Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan Yi xue qing bao yan jiu suo bian ji] | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the expression of spinal glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in chronic constriction injury (CCI) rats. METHODS: Seventy-two SD rats were randomized into sham operation (sham), CCI (model) and EA groups (n = 24/group). The mechanical and thermal pain thresholds were measured by using Von Frey filaments and radiant-heat irridiation separately. The immunoactivity of GFAP of spinal dorsal horn (L4-L5) was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and the expression of spinal TNF-alpha mRNA and IL-1beta mRNA was detected by real time-PCR. RESULTS: Compared with pre-CCI and sham group, both mechanical and thermal pain thresholds decreased considerably in rats with CCI (P < 0.05), and in comparison with model group, those of EA group increased markedly (P < 0.05). Compared with sham group, GFAP immunoactivity (mainly in the lamina I-II of the spinal dorsal horn), TNF-alpha mRNA and IL-1beta mRNA expression in the ipsilateral spinal cord on the CCI side in model group increased considerably (P < 0.05), while compared with model group, the expression of GFAP, TNF-alpha mRNA and IL-1beta mRNA in EA group was down-regulated remarkably (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: EA can effectively suppress CCI-induced up-regulation of expression of spinal GFAP, TNF-alpha mRNA and IL-1beta mRNA, which may contribute to its effect in reducing mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in neuropathic pain rats. Source


Li P.,Shandong University
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology | Year: 2013

Mo5(Si, Al, Ti)3C-TiC reinforced alloying layer was fabricated by laser alloying of the Mo-Al-Fe+TiC-SiC+Y2O3 mixed powders on pure Ti in an open system. Experimental results indicated that the precipitates, such as Mo5(Si, Al, Ti)3C and TiC were able to withstand the external normal load, which decreased the wear volume loss of laser alloying layer. And SiC-Y2O3 played an important role in refining the microstructure of alloying layer. An improvement of wear resistance of titanium surface was obtained under the actions of the hard precipitates and fine grain strengthening. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source


Shi K.,Shandong University | Li X.,Shandong University of Finance and Economics
Advances in Systems Science and Applications | Year: 2010

P-sets(packet sets) are a set pair which are composed of internal P-sets(internal packet sets) and outer P-sets(outer packet sets). P-sets have dynamic characteristics. By using P-sets, the concepts of Camouflaged information and Camouflaged information generation were given; also Camouflaged information metric and Camouflaged information recovery-restore theorem were proposed; then the identification law and identification method of Camouflaged information which was restored into true information were given. With these results, their applications were given. P-sets are a new theorem and method in the research of the dynamic information system. Source


Wei G.,Shandong University
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2013

CUL4A encodes a core component of a cullin-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that regulates many critical processes such as cell cycle progression, DNA replication, DNA repair and chromatin remodeling by targeting a variety of proteins for ubiquitination and degradation. In the research described in this report we aimed to clarify whether CUL4A participates in multiple drug resistance (MDR) in breast cancer cells. We first transfected vectors carrying CUL4A and specific shCUL4A into breast cancer cells and corresponding Adr cells respectively. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions and western blots, we found that overexpression of CUL4A in MCF7 and MDA-MB-468 cells up-regulated MDR1/P-gp expression on both the transcription and protein levels, which conferred multidrug resistance to P-gp substrate drugs, as determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. On the other hand, silencing CUL4A in MCF7/Adr and MDA-MB-468/Adr cells led to the opposite effect. Moreover, ERK1/2 in CUL4A-overexpressing cells was highly activated and after treatment with PD98059, an ERK1/2-specific inhibitor, CUL4A-induced expression of MDR1/P-gp was decreased significantly. Lastly, immunohistochemistry in breast cancer tissues showed that P-gp expression had a positive correlation with the expression of CUL4A and ERK1/2. Thus, these results implied that CUL4A and ERK1/2 participated in multi-drug resistance in breast cancer through regulation of MDR1/P-gp expression. Source


Li Y.,Shandong University
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2013

Objectives: The 30-plus years of the One Child Policy has brought about a new "childless" elderly phenomenon in China and this group is expanding rapidly. These elderly parents who lose their only child are forced to endure psychological suffering and cope with health problems alone, as they are often ignored by society. The aim of this study is to explore the psychological trauma and living dilemma among older Chinese people who lose their only child and to discuss the support and health care to this newly vulnerable group in China. Methods: In-depth interviews with 34 childless older people were conducted in three districts in Beijing. Results: The study shows that the death of only child causes an unbearable psychological trauma for elderly parents, who display prominent clusters of symptoms. Moreover, the childless elderly frequently encounter discrimination in their lives and they feel neglected by the government and society. Conclusions: Although several local governments have launched schemes to support the childless elderly, the gap in assistance is still vast. Support from the government is essential in relieving the difficulties currently faced by the childless elderly, and the difficulties they face in the future. This includes two major aspects: health and life care, and spiritual comfort. © 2013 the Nordic Societies of Public Health. Source


Deguire S.M.,Vanderbilt University | Ma S.,Shandong University | Sulikowski G.A.,Vanderbilt University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

By design: A carbanion-mediated cyclization reaction cascade serves as the key final step in the total synthesis of a novel oxylipin, which features a strained bicyclo[1.1.0]butane conjugated to a labile vinyl epoxide. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Zhang X.,Shandong University
BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology | Year: 2014

More than 200 articles have been published in the past 20 years on associations between genetic variants and risk of cervical cancer but the results have generally been inconsistent. To provide a synopsis of the current understanding of the genetic architecture of the risk of cervical cancer by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. We conducted a systematic literature search by a two-stage strategy using PubMed and other databases on or before 31 March 2012. Cross-sectional, case-control or cohort studies about the relationship between genetic variants and cervical cancer were included. Study outcomes were presented as odds ratios (ORs) with a 95% confidence interval.We did the meta-analysis for genetic variants which had at least three data sources and for which the significant associations were assessed using the Venice criteria. A total of 5605 publications were screened, of which 286 were eligible. Meta-analysis was conducted for 58 variants in 25 genes or loci. Fourteen variants in 11 genes or loci could increase the risk of cervical cancer and five variants in three genes or loci could decrease the risk. The epidemiological evidence of the association was graded as strong for four variants in CTLA4 and HLA DQB1, moderate for five variants in IL-1B, IL-10, XRCC3 and HLA DQA1, and weak for 10 variants. Many genetic variants were associated with the risk of cervical cancer as supported by the epidemiological evidence in this meta-analysis. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Source


Zhao P.,Shandong University
Advances in Information Sciences and Service Sciences | Year: 2012

The Economic Lot Scheduling Problem (ELSP) is concerned with scheduling the production of several products on a single machine in order to minimize the sum of the setup and holding costs for all products per unit time. Power of Two(PoT) policy requires the replenishment frequency of each item to be a PoT integer. It restricts the solution choice but provides a good solution to the ELSP. Due to difficulty of obtaining the optimal solution especially for medium and large-sized problems, we investigate a new hybrid optimization algorithm that combines the particle swarm optimization(PSO) algorithm and gradient-based local search algorithms for the ELSP under PoT policy to achieve faster convergence and better accuracy of final solution. Numerical examples indicate the superiority of the proposed improved PSO in compare to the standard PSO with respect to the solution efficiency. Source


Guo Y.L.,Shandong University
Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi jiehe zazhi = Chinese journal of integrated traditional and Western medicine / Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he xue hui, Zhongguo Zhong yi yan jiu yuan zhu ban | Year: 2011

To explore the effects of picrodide II on the expressions of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear transcription factor kappaB (NFkappaB) in brain tissue of rat after cerebral ischemic reperfusion (I/R) injury. Ten rats from 60 adult healthy female Wistar rats received sham-operation were set as the sham-operative group. Established as middle cerebral I/R model (MCAO/R) by thread tying method, the 30 successfully modeled rats were equally randomized into the negative control group, the positive control group and the treatment group. Besides, rats in the treatment group and the positive control group were respectively intervened with picrodide II (10 mg/kg) and salvianic acid A sodium (10 mg/kg) via caudal vein injection before I/R injury, while rats in the sham-operative group and the negative group were injected with equal volume of 0.1 mol/L PBS. Immunohistochemistry stain was used to determine the expressions of TLR4 and NFkappaB, and the apoptotic cells were counted by TUNEL-immunofluorescence assay. In the sham-operative group, the TLR4 and NFkappaB expressed weakly with few TUNEL positive cells scattering in the cortex, striatum and hippocampus. As compared with the sham-operative group, TLR4 and NFkappaB in the negative control group were significantly higher both in absorption A) value and cell number (P < 0.05). In the treatment group and the positive control group, the expressions of TLR4 and NFkappaB and the number of TUNEL positive cells were significantly lower than those in the negative control group (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was shown between the two treated groups (P > 0.05). Picroside II could down-regulate the expressions of TLR4 and NFkappaB, and inhibit the inflammatory response induced apoptosis in cerebral I/R injured rats. Source


Cui M.,Shandong University
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2012

High-order compact finite difference scheme with operator splitting technique for solving two-dimensional time fractional diffusion equation is considered in this paper. A Grünwald-Letnikov approximation is used for the Riemann-Liouville time derivative, and the second order spatial derivatives are approximated by the compact finite differences to obtain a fully discrete implicit scheme. Alternating direction implicit (ADI) method is used to split the original problem into two separate one-dimensional problems. The local truncation error is analyzed and the stability is discussed by the Fourier method. The proposed scheme is suitable when the order of the time fractional derivative γ lies in the interval 12,1. A correction term is added to maintain high accuracy when γ∈0,12. Numerical results are provided to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source


Gao J.-H.,Shandong University | Wang Q.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Wang Q.,Brookhaven National Laboratory
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2015

We demonstrate the emergence of the magnetic moment and spin-vorticity coupling of chiral fermions in 4-dimensional Wigner functions. In linear response theory with space-time varying electromagnetic fields, the parity-odd part of the electric conductivity can also be derived which reproduces results of the one-loop and the hard-thermal or hard-dense loop. All these properties show that the 4-dimensional Wigner functions capture comprehensive aspects of physics for chiral fermions in electromagnetic fields. © 2015. Source


Tan C.K.K.,Shandong University
Urban Studies | Year: 2015

Since the mid-1990s, Singapore’s Chinatown has been serving as the country’s de facto gay district. Gay businesses thrive in one of Singapore’s most socially conservative neighbourhoods, because the state allows relative free rein on the usage of preserved buildings after conserving the ethnic enclave as a bastion of Chineseness. Invoking Lefebvrian spatial concepts, I argue that the uneasy interface between moral conservatism and economic neoliberalism opened up intersticial spaces of business opportunities. Gay entrepreneurs took advantage of these spaces and their thriving businesses became the cluster today. I further maintain that as spaces of social interactions for gay men and lesbians, these enterprises help develop Singaporean queer identities. Yet, they simultaneously retard the country’s nascent LGBT rights movement by remaining largely closeted. By granting access to privatised consumption without challenging the heteronormative status quo of Singaporean society, gay Chinatown buttresses homonationalism (Kulick, 2009; Puar, 2007). © 2014, © Urban Studies Journal Limited 2014. Source


Donkena K.V.,Rochester College | Yuan H.,Shandong University | Young C.Y.,Rochester College
Current Cancer Drug Targets | Year: 2010

Androgen deprivation therapy has been the major treatment for advanced prostate cancer (PCa) and has shown to prolong life. However, remissions are temporary and patients almost inevitably progress to become castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). CRPC is almost incurable even when treated with docetaxel that may have a slight life prolonging effect on CRPC patients. Interestingly, most of CRPC still express androgen receptor (AR) and depend on the AR for growth. Recently it has been suggested that AR may act as a tumor suppressor in normal prostatic epithelial cells, while in PCa cells AR becomes oncogenic, even under androgen deprivation states. The mechanisms for the latter are still under intensive investigations. A number of studies showed that, in fact, AR signaling is increased under an androgen-depleted environment. The mechanisms suggested in these studies including AR mutations, AR overexpression by gene amplification and other mechanisms that allow activation by low androgen levels or by other endogenous steroids, increased local de novo synthesis of androgens will be discussed. Moreover, developments and tests in clinical trials in CRPC of a number of novel agents interrupting AR signaling mediated PCa growth will also be discussed. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source


Liu F.,Tongji University | Liu F.,Shandong University | Xu J.,Tongji University | Yang Y.,Tongji University
Journal of the Optical Society of America B: Optical Physics | Year: 2014

Based on the special electromagnetic properties of a 3D strong topological insulator (TI), we discuss, theoretically, the reflection of electromagnetic wave at the interface between a dielectric and a TI, and focus on the polarization conversion between the incident field and reflected field. Two cases, linear polarization and elliptical polarization at oblique incidence are considered. We derive the conditions required for the complete polarization conversion from incident s polarization into reflected p polarization, and vice versa. Furthermore, elliptical polarization incidence also can be modulated to linear or circular polarization after reflection, under special conditions, and the corresponding reflectivity can approach 1. All these special polarization behaviors originate from the intrinsic topological magnetoelectric coupling response in TI. This work provides promising applications of TIs on polarized devices and the polarization splitters. © 2014 Optical Society of America. Source


Liu F.,University of Georgia | Liang Y.,University of Georgia | Liang Y.,Shandong University | Pan Z.,University of Georgia
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

Up-conversion luminescence and long-persistent luminescence are two well-studied, special luminescence processes. By combining the unique features of these two luminescence processes, here we design a new luminescence process called up-converted persistent luminescence (UCPL), which enables us to generate persistent luminescence having an emission energy higher than the excitation energy. Guided by the UCPL concept, we create the first UCPL phosphor Zn3Ga2GeO8:1%Cr3+, 5%Yb3+, 0.5%Er3+ by incorporating an up-converting ion pair Yb3+/Er3+ into a Zn3Ga2GeO8:1%Cr3+ near-infrared persistent phosphor. After being excited by a 980 nm laser, the phosphor emits long-lasting (>24h) near-infrared persistent emission peaking at 700 nm. The UCPL concept and the associated phosphors are expected to have important implications for several fields such as biomedical imaging. © 2014 American Physical Society. Source


To describe the evolution of ventricular septal defects in infants from intra-uterine diagnosis to the age of 3 years or until documented echocardiographic closure of the defect, as well as any relationship between closure rate, time and foetal echocardiographic features. Between January, 2004 and December, 2006, 268 cases of congenital cardiac defect were detected in 14,993 pregnancies referred to our hospital for routine foetal echocardiography; of these cases, 125 had isolated ventricular septal defect. The mothers were scheduled for regular ultrasonography every 2 weeks from diagnosis until the ventricular septal defect closed or 3 years postnatally. Of the 125 cases of ventricular septal defects, the pregnancy was terminated in 25, four resulted in death, two defects closed spontaneously in utero, 55 closed at a mean age of 13.7 months postnatally, 17 were treated with surgery, nine remained unclosed, and 13 cases were lost to follow-up. Only 7.7% of muscular ventricular septal defects remained patent as compared with 35.7% of perimembranous ventricular septal defects (p is less than 0.01). Muscular ventricular septal defects closed earlier than perimembranous ventricular septal defects. All the ventricular septal defects less than or equal to 3 millimetres closed, whereas only 79.5% of the defects greater than 3 millimetres closed before the age of 3 years; 60.9% of the defects less than or equal to 3 millimetres closed before the age of 1 year as compared with 41.7% of the defects greater than 3 millimetres. The velocity of right-to-left flow was negatively correlated with closure rate but not related to closure period. Ventricular septal defects can close in utero or during the postnatal period, and both the size and site play a role in the natural history, with small and muscular ventricular septal defects having a high closure rate and early closure. Source


Liu J.-L.,Shandong University
Guangxue Jingmi Gongcheng/Optics and Precision Engineering | Year: 2016

For the poor consistency of traditional no-reference color image quality assessment methods and human visual perceptive results, a new no reference color image quality assessment method was proposed based on the colorfulness, sharpness and contrast of images. A new sharpness measuring model for a color image was proposed based on the local feature of sharpness. Then, a novel contrast measuring model for the color image was established based on the local feature of contrast and the feature of Buchsbaum curve. Finally, a novel no-reference color image quality assessment function was constructed based on the linear combination of the colorfulness measuring model, sharpness measuring model and the contrast measuring model. The performance of the sharpness measuring model, contrast measuring model and the no-reference color image quality assessment function was verified by three kinds of degraded images (Gaussian blurred image, contrast changed image and noise image). The experiment results indicate that comparing the traditional methods, the performance of the proposed sharpness measuring model and the contrast measuring model is better than that of the traditional ones. The Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient (SROCC), Kendall Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient (KROCC), and the Pearson Linear Correlation Coefficient (PLCC) of the proposed color image quality assessment function are 0.904, 0.865 and 0.922, respectively, which has better consistency as compared with those of the traditional methods. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved. Source


Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) plays an important role in maintaining intestinal barrier homeostasis and accelerating intestinal restitution. However, studies of MFG-E8 expression in humans with ulcerative colitis are lacking. We examined MFG-E8 expression in colonic mucosal biopsies from ulcerative colitis patients and healthy controls (n = 26 each) by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. MFG-E8 mRNA and protein expression was lower in ulcerative colitis patients than in controls. MFG-E8 expression was inversely correlated with mucosal inflammatory activity and clinical disease activity in patients. MFG-E8 was present in human intestinal epithelial cells both in vivo and in vitro. Apoptosis induction was also detected in the intestinal epithelium of ulcerative colitis patients by terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick-end labeling assay. We used lentiviral vectors encoding human MFG-E8 targeting short hairpin RNA to obtain MFG-E8 knockdown intestinal epithelia cell clones. MFG-E8 knockdown could promote apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cell lines, accompanied by a decrease in level of the antiapoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) and induction of the proapoptotic protein BCL2-associated protein X (BAX). The addition of recombinant human MFG-E8 led to decreased BAX and cleaved caspase-3 levels and induction of BCL-2 level in intestinal epithelia cells. MFG-E8 knockdown also attenuated wound healing on scratch assay of intestinal epithelial cells. The mRNA level of intestinal trefoid factor 3, a pivotal factor in intestinal epithelial cell migration and restitution, was downregulated with MFG-E8 knockdown. In conclusion, we demonstrated that decreased colonic MFG-E8 expression in patients with ulcerative colitis may be associated with mucosal inflammatory activity and clinical disease activity through basal cell apoptosis and preventing tissue healing in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Source


Jiang Y.,Shandong University
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B | Year: 2013

Busulfan/cyclophosphamide (Bu/Cy) conditioning regimen has been widely used to treat cancer patients, while their effects on major internal organs in females are not fully understood. We treated female mice with Bu/Cy, and examined the histopathology of major internal organs on Day 30 after the treatment. The results show that Bu/Cy treatment affected the ovaries most extensively, while it had less effect on the spleen, lungs, and kidneys, and no effect on the heart, liver, stomach, and pancreas. To better understand the effect of Bu/Cy on the ovaries, we counted follicles, and determined the levels of ovarian steroids. The Bu/Cy-treated mice showed a reduction of primordial and primary follicles (P<0.01) on Day 30 and a marked loss of follicles at all developmental stages (P<0.01) on Day 60. Plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone in Bu/Cy-treated mice decreased by 43.9% and 61.4%, respectively. Thus, there was a gradual process of follicle loss and low estradiol in Bu/Cy-treated mice; this is a profile similar to what is found in women with premature ovarian failure (POF). The Bu/Cy-treated mice may serve as a useful animal model to study the dynamics of follicle loss in women undergoing POF. Source


Shi H.,Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute | Sun M.,Shandong University | Liu L.,Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute | Wang Z.,Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2014

Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are recombinant receptors that combine the specificity of an antigen-specific antibody with the T-cell's activating functions. Initial clinical trials of genetically engineered CAR T cells have significantly raised the profile of T cell therapy, and great efforts have been made to improve this approach. In this review, we provide a structural overview of the development of CAR technology and highlight areas that require further refinement. We also discuss critical issues related to CAR therapy, including the optimization of CAR T cells, the route of administration, CAR toxicity and the blocking of inhibitory molecules. © 2014 Shi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Li Y.-Q.,Shandong University
Cellular Reprogramming | Year: 2010

The present article reviews master stem cell transcription factors, their expression regulation network, and related signaling pathways with the aim of understanding the molecular mechanisms of pluripotent cell fate decisions. Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog are master transcription factors for maintenance of the undifferentiated state and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). In the mouse, they form a regulatory circuitry with coregulators, such as β-catenin, Stat3, Myc, Klfs, Sall4, and Esrrb to control the expression of pluripotency-related genes including themselves. The threshold expression of Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog for sustaining ESC properties depends on the synergistic effects among Stat3, β-catenin, and Smad signaling pathway under the specific conditions of the ESC cytoplasmic microenvironment. Some of the salient differences in human ESC signaling pathways affecting their fate commitment are highlighted. © 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source


Xu Q.,Shandong University
Computers and Industrial Engineering | Year: 2014

Marine collision accidents cause a great loss of lives and property. As a possible solution, the danger immune algorithm is used to achieve ship collision avoidance strategy optimization, which is a multi-objective problem concerning safety and economy. Collision avoidance operations are encoded as the individuals of optimization algorithm. In the system, ship domain and ship arena, among others, are used for collision risk evaluation to assess the fitness of individuals. Through the optimization, the navigator will obtain the optimal collision avoidance strategy to achieve safe and efficient collision avoidance. The simulations indicate that the optimization algorithm is valid. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Liu H.C.,Shandong University
Journal of molecular histology | Year: 2013

Decreased levels of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been proven to cause osteoporosis. Gene transfer of IGF-1 offers an attractive technology to treat skeletal metabolic disorders including osteoporosis, but the viral vectors are limited by their high antigenicity and immune response. Our purpose was to investigate the expression of a non-invasive vector, recombinant plasmid enhanced green fluorescent protein-N1 (pEGFP-N1) that transferred IGF-1 gene into ovariectomized (OVX) rats in vivo and evaluate the effect of this therapy on osteoporosis. OVX or sham operations were performed in 60 female, 7-month-old unmated SD rats. 12 weeks after OVX operation, the vectors were transfected to the 10-month-old rats and experimental data were detected from 48 h to 7 week after transfection. Our results showed that remarkable expression of fluorescence and serum IGF-1 was observed in the rats transfected by recombinant plasmids, indicating that IGF-1 gene was successfully transferred to OVX rats by injecting the vector through hydrodynamic method via the tail vein. The bone metabolism index including serum alkaline phosphatase, the histomorphometric parameters of lumbar vertebra including trabecular area percentage, trabecular thickness, trabecular number and trabecular separation, and the bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical parameters of lumbar vertebra including BMD, maximum condensing force, crushing strength in OVX rats transfected by pEGFP-N1-IGF-1 were improved remarkably compared with OVX+pEGFP-N1 rats, indicating that the transfection of recombinant plasmid pEGFP-N1-IGF-1 played a significant role in alleviating osteoporosis in rats induced by OVX. This encouraged a potential approach of IGF-1 gene therapy to the treatment of osteoporosis. Source


Cui X.-Z.,Shandong University
International Journal of Geomechanics | Year: 2010

As a permeable base material of pavement, the large stone porous asphalt mixture (LSPM) is used widely in China to lessen the moisture damage of the asphalt pavement. However, the dynamics mechanism of the inhibitory effect of permeable base on moisture damage is not clear yet. The dynamic fluid-solid coupling analysis of the saturated pavement with LSPM base course, considering the asphalt mixtures as the porous medium, was performed using the finite difference numerical code FLAC3D. Numerical results revealed that the positive and negative dynamic pore pressure alternated in the pavement with the approaching and leaving of the wheel loads. The phenomenon of water pumping out of and sucking into the pavement under the moving loads was proved. The flow of fluid in pavement can be regarded as the laminar flow. The presence of the LSPM base course greatly decreased the dynamic pore pressure and the scouring force in the surface course because of the large permeability coefficient of the LSPM. The location of the maximum dynamic pore pressure also changed due to the LSPM base course. Due to the permeable base, the dissipation of the dynamic pore pressure was accelerated and thus the moisture damage was lessened. © 2010 ASCE. Source


Wang X.,Shandong University | Cao X.,Tianjin Medical University
Tumor Biology | Year: 2014

The molecular mechanism underlying metastasis of pediatric multiple myeloma (MM) remains elusive. Here, we showed that the levels of MMP13 are significantly higher in MM from young patients than those from adult patients. Moreover, a strong correlation of the MMP13 and phosphorylated fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) levels was detected in MM from young patients. To prove a causal link between activation of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) signaling pathway and MMP13 expression, we used a human MM line, RPMI-8226 (8226), to study the underlying molecular basis. We found that FGF1-induced FGFR4 phosphorylation in 8,226 cells resulted in significant activation of MMP13, and consequently, an increase in cancer invasiveness. FGFR4 inhibition in 8,226 cells abolished FGF1-stimulated MMP13 expression, suggesting that activation of FGFR signaling pathway in MM may promote cancer metastasis by inducing MMP13 expression. To define the signaling cascades downstream of FGFR4 activation for MMP13 activation, we applied specific inhibitors for PI3K, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and ERK/MAPK, respectively, to the FGF1-stimulated 8,226 cells. We found that only inhibition of ERK1/2 significantly decreased the activation of MMP13 in response to FGF stimulation, suggesting that activation of FGFR signaling may activate ERK/MAPK, rather than JNK or PI3K pathway to activate MMP13 expression in 8,226 cells. Our study thus highlights FGFR4 signaling pathway and MMP13 as novel therapeutic targets for MM. © 2014, International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM). Source


Zhang Y.-T.,Shandong University | Cui S.-Y.,Ludong University
Physics of Plasmas | Year: 2011

In this paper, a one-dimensional model is explored to investigate the frequency effects on the characteristics of atmospheric radio frequency discharges at a given power. The simulation data and analytical results show that the improvement of electron density can be observed with better discharge stability by increasing excitation frequency in an appropriate range. Using the analytical equations deduced from the model, the mean electron density could be inferred by means of the measured parameters. The - mode transition especially in high frequency discharges is also analytically discussed based on the theoretical equations. © 2011 American Institute of Physics. Source


Liu Z.-Q.,Jining Medical College | Xing S.-S.,Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Zhang W.,Shandong University
Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the spinal cord is a serious complication that can result from thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. Objective: To investigate the neuroprotective effect of curcumin against I/R injury in a rabbit model. Methods: A total of 36 rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: sham, I/R, and curcumin-treated group. Rabbits were subject to 30-min aortic occlusion to induce transient spinal cord ischemia. Neurological function was observed after reperfusion and spinal cord segment (L3-L5) was collected for histopathological evaluation. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were also assayed. Results: Rabbits in I/R group were induced to paraplegia. While after 48-hour treatment, compared with I/R group, curcumin significantly improved neurological function, reduced cell apoptosis and MDA levels as well as increased SOD activity (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results suggest that curcumin, at least in an animal model, can attenuate transient spinal cord ischemic injury potentially via reducing oxidative damage, which may provide a novel approach in the treatment of spinal cord ischemic injury. © The Academy of Spinal Cord Injury Professionals, Inc. 2013. Source


Su G.,Shandong Polytechnic University | Liu Z.,Shandong University
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2013

Saw tooth chip is a typical characteristic encountered in high-speed machining. It consists of nearly undeformed segments and highly sheared concentrated shear bands. However, no consensus on the formation of the concentrated shear band has been reached though several saw tooth chip formation models have been built. In this paper, the concentrated shear band formation procedure is analyzed based on a new proposed saw tooth chip formation model. Cutting experiments have been conducted to validate the proposed mode. It shows that the plastic side flow and elastic compression of the uncut chip are crucial for the concentrated shear band formation. The localized shear at the inner end (tool tip side) of the primary shear plane firstly takes place under the indentation of cutting tool. Then, the second localized shear is produced at the outer end (free surface side) of the primary shear plane due to stress concentration there, after which the whole concentrated shear band forms. The stress transition at the outer end of the primary shear plane makes the second localized shear easier evolve into cracks. Influences of material brittleness and cutting speed on initiation and propagation of the concentrated shear band are also analyzed. © 2012 Springer-Verlag London Limited. Source


Li Y.,Shandong University
Zhongguo Dianji Gongcheng Xuebao/Proceedings of the Chinese Society of Electrical Engineering | Year: 2011

The limestone modified by acetic acid solution was used to as a CO2 sorbent at high temperature. The change regularity of fractal dimension of CaO derived from modified limestone during cyclic calcination/carbonation reactions was investigated by N2 absorption method. The results show that the fractal dimension of CaO derived from limestone increases after the modification by acetic acid. The fractal dimension of CaO derived from the natural limestone exhibits a rapid decrease with the number of cycles, while that of the CaO derived from the modified sorbent shows a slow reduction at the same reaction conditions. CaO obtained from the modified limestone displays higher fractal dimension than that from the natural sorbent after the same number of cycles. The obvious interrelation between the fractal dimensions of CaO derived from the modified and natural limestones and their CO2 capture capacity was found. Also, the relationship between fractal dimension and specific surface area was discovered. The modified calcium-based sorbent possesses greater cyclic CO2 capture capacity, in essence, because CaO derived from the modified sorbent remains higher fractal dimension during cyclic calcination/carbonation reactions. © 2011 Chinese Society for Electrical Engineering. Source


Shen C.Z.,Shandong University
Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases | Year: 2010

To detect the DNA damage of mice endometrial cells induced by carbon disulfide with single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and explore the mechanism of embryo implantation disorder. Endometrial cells, obtained by mechanical scrape, were used to test cell viability by trypan blue. Single cell suspension was exposed to the different concentrations of carbon disulfide (CS(2)) at four dose groups (0, 500, 1000, 2500 micromol/L). DNA damage was detected by SCGE. The SCGE results were analyzed by CASP software. Different dosages of CS(2) concentration induced different varying degrees of damage, forming typical normal cell and comet cell images. Compared with the control group, HDNA% decreased by 7.49%, 12.19% and 24.36% respectively, and TDNA%, TL, OTM increased by 7.13, 11.60, 23.18, 3.68, 5.98, 9.62, and 9.16, 16.84, 39.32 times respectively, in the groups of 500, 1000, 2500 micromol/L CS(2) (P < 0.01). Compared with the group of 500, 1000 micromol/L CS(2), TDNA%, TL, CL, TM, OTM in the group of 2500 micromol/L CS(2) increased by 1.98, 0.92, 1.27, 0.52, 0.37 and 0.17, 5.31, 1.90, 2.97, 1.26 times respectively(P < 0.01). Compared with the group of 500 micromol/L CS(2), TDNA%, TL, CL, TM, OTM in the group of 1000 micromol/L CS(2) increased by 0.55, 0.49, 0.16, 1.18, 0.76 times respectively (P < 0.01). The result of regression analysis showed that regression coefficients between HDNA%, TDNA%, TL, TM, OTM and the doses were -13.78, 13.78, 0.05, 4.38 and 3.23 respectively. CS(2) exposure could induce DNA damage in the endometrial cells of mice at the phase of implantation. The degree of DNA damage increases with the increasing CS(2) concentration. CS(2) might affect the implantation of embryo by doing harm to the endometrial cells. Source


BACKGROUND:: Each year in China, approximately 700,000 children under 5 years old are diagnosed with pneumonia, and 30,000 die from the disease. Although 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23) are available in China, the costs are borne by the consumer, resulting in low coverage for PCV-7. We aimed to conduct a simulation study to assess the cost-effectiveness and health benefits of PCV-7, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) and PPV-23 to prevent childhood pneumonia and other vaccine-preventive diseases in China. METHODS:: An economic evaluation was performed using a Markov simulation model. Parameters including demographic, epidemiological data, costs and efficacy of vaccines were obtained from previous studies. A hypothetical cohort of 100,000 newborns (focusing on pneumococcal diseases ≤7 years old) was followed up until death or 100 years of age. The model incorporated the impact of vaccination on reduction of incidence of pneumococcal diseases and mortality of children ≤7 years. Outcomes are presented in terms of disease cases averted, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). RESULTS:: Under baseline assumptions, PPV-23 is currently the only cost-effective option, while PCV-13 showed the greatest impact on pneumococcal disease burden, reducing invasive pneumococcal diseases by 31.3%, pneumonia by 15.3% and gaining 73.8 QALYs (10,000 individuals at discount rate of 3%). ICERs of PCV-13 and PCV-7 are US$29,460/QALY and US$104,094/QALY, respectively, showing no cost-effectiveness based on the World Health Organization recommended willingness-to-pay threshold. On the other hand, the ICERs of PCVs were most sensitive to vaccination costs: if it reduces 4.7% and 32.2% for PCV-7 and PCV-13 respectively, the vaccination will be cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS:: To scale up current vaccination strategies and achieve potential health benefits, the replacement of PCV-7 with PCV-13 should be considered. As well, PCVs costs needs to be reduced by increasing public subsidies and providing financial support to poor families. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Li X.,Shandong University | Li J.,Liaocheng University
Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010

Pyrrolidine scaffold has been widely used to design a variety of N-heterocyclic derivatives towards various targets. Amongst them, matrix metalloproteins (MMPs) and aminopeptidase N (APN) represent two kinds of important metalloproteinase targets which have been proved to be tightly related to tumor proliferation, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. As a result, their respective inhibitors, namely MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) and APN inhibitors (APNIs), have been systematically studied in our group for many years. Recent advances in the elucidation of MMPIs and APNIs based on the pyrrolidine platforms are briefly reviewed in this paper. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source


Jinning H.,Shandong University
Anti-Cancer Drugs | Year: 2016

In our previous study, we found that LJNK showed potent aminopeptidase N (APN)-inhibitory activity. In the current study, we further evaluated the antitumor effects of LJNK both in vitro and in vivo. Enzyme experiments showed that LJNK showed better inhibitory activity than bestatin against APN both from human carcinoma cells’ surface and from porcine kidney microsomes. In addition, LJNK could suppress rat aortic ring microvessel growth and HUVEC tubular structure formation, which showed its stronger antiangiogenesis effects than bestatin. [(3-[4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide)] assay and clonogenic assay showed that LJNK suppressed cancer cell growth both in the short and the long term. Mice bearing H22 transplantation tumor proved its antitumor effects in vivo. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay showed that LJNK could induce 28.1% PLC/PRF/5 cell apoptosis and the apoptotic pathway was probably identified by western blot. The above-mentioned results suggested that LJNK inhibited cell proliferation and angiogenesis, and induced apoptosis by decreasing APN activity. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Kahsai A.W.,Duke University | Kahsai A.W.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Rajagopal S.,Duke University | Sun J.,Shandong University | Xiao K.,Duke University
Nature Protocols | Year: 2014

An understanding of the mechanism accompanying functional conformational changes associated with protein activation has important implications for drug design. Here we describe a powerful method, conformational changes and dynamics using stable-isotope labeling and mass spectrometry (CDSiL-MS), which involves chemical labeling by isotope-coded forms of N-ethylmaleimide or succinic anhydride to site-specifically label the side chains of cysteines or lysines, respectively, in native proteins. Subsequent MS analysis allows the quantitative monitoring of reactivity of residues as a function of time, providing a measurement of the labeling kinetics and thereby enabling elucidation of conformational changes of proteins. We demonstrate the utility of this method using a model G protein-coupled receptor, the Î 2 2-adrenergic receptor, including experiments that characterize the functional conformational changes associated with activation of distinct signaling pathways induced by different Î 2-adrenoceptor ligands. The procedure requires 5 d, and it can easily be adapted to systems in which soluble and detergent-solubilized membrane protein targets, which undergo function-dependent conformational changes, can be interrogated structurally to allow drug screening. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. Source


Acquired factor V deficiency (AFVD) is a rare haemostatic disorder that is primarily because of the development of factor V inhibitors. Approximately, 200 cases have been reported and the greatest portion of these cases was because of bovine thrombin exposure. We report a case of a man who presented with haematuria followed by multiple haemorrhages associated with an elevated prothrombin time and an activated partial thromboplastin time. A workup revealed reduced factor V activity and a factor V inhibitor level of 1.9?BU, which were likely secondary to a urinary tract infection. Using corticosteroids, we successfully eliminated the inhibitor and controlled the bleeding. We review the published literature to identify the conditions that are associated with nonbovine thrombin AFVD. We assume that AFVD should be kept in mind for patients who present with multiple haemorrhages. Copyright © 2016 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Pan W.,Shandong University
Chinese Journal of Oncology | Year: 2014

Objective The aim of this study was to identify six miRNAs expressed in plasma of patients with pancreatic cancer (PCa) and analyze their value as a diagnostic index of pancreatic cancer. Methods Plasma total RNAs were extracted from 30 PCa patients and 26 normal controls, and the ahundance of six microRNAs was measured using real-time PCR. The possibility to combine them with CA19-9 as diagnostic biomarkers was analyzed. Results The expression level of miR-21, miR-210, miR-155, miR-20a, miR-25 and miR-196a in plasma of patients with pancreatic cancer were 1.65 × 106, 5.98 × 104, 2. 83 × 103, 3.47 × 106, 2. 76 × 106, and 1. 03 × 103 (copies/μl), while the normal controls were 4.08×105, 2.54×104, 8.55×102, 1.79×106, 9. 32 × 105, and 4. 67 × 102 (copies/μl), respectively, withh a significant difference between the two groups (P <0. 05). The areas under the ROC curve of miR-21, miR-210, miR-155, miR-20a, miR-25 and miR-196a were 0. 893, 0. 810, 0. 820, 0. 766, 0. 816 and 0-729, respectively. MiR-21 had the highest diagnostic value when it was used as diagnostic marker alone. The combination of miR-155 and miR-25 was more effective to distinguish PCa from normal than to be used alone, and the area under the ROC curve was 0.913(95% CI 0. 838-0. 988). When CA199 associated with miR -210 and miR-25, respectively, the areas under the ROC curves were 0. 96 (95% CI was 0-1. 0) and 0.942(95% CI was 0. 876-1. 0), which were higher than CA199 alone (0. 862,95% Cl was 0. 748-0-975). There was a high improvement in diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy when miR-210 and miR-25 were combind with CA19-9, respectively. Conclusions Plasma miR-21, miR-155, miR-25, miR-210 have diagnostic value for pancreatic cancer, and deserve further study. Source


Zhao W.,Shandong University
FEBS Letters | Year: 2013

TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) plays pivotal roles in antiviral innate immunity. TBK1 mediates the activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3, leading to the induction of type I IFNs (IFN-α/β) following viral infections. TBK1 must be tightly regulated to effectively control viral infections and maintain immune homeostasis. TBK1 activity can be regulated in a variety of ways, such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, kinase activity modulation and prevention of functional TBK1-containing complexes formation. Furthermore, multiple viruses have evolved elaborate strategies to circumvent IFN responses by targeting TBK1. Here we provide an overview of TBK1 in antiviral immunity and recent developments on the regulation of TBK1 activity. © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Coatings containing borides were fabricated on titanium alloy by laser boriding treatment. SEM images indicate that some rod-like TiB crystals with a hollow core (filled with α-Ti before etched) are formed in the coatings. The formation of rod-like hollow TiB is attributed to the following aspects: first, because the chemical composition in some areas in the laser melt pool is hypoeutectic and in some other areas is hypereutectic due to the boron atoms dissolved in the melt distributing unevenly during rapid solidification, β-Ti firstly crystallizes as primary phases in the hypoeutectic areas of the melt pool and acts as a heterogeneous nucleus for TiB to crystallize on it, and second, because the bond between B-B is stronger than that between Ti-B and between Ti-Ti. TiB grows along the B-B zig-zag chain as well as normal to the direction of the B-B zig-zag chain to form a tubular structure with a β-Ti core in it. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Wang Y.-B.,Shandong University
Dianli Xitong Baohu yu Kongzhi/Power System Protection and Control | Year: 2012

The study on boost DC/DC converter, which can be used in the first-stage of single-phase grid-connected inverter, is presented. The topology and principle of this interleaved multiphase DC/DC converter is first analyzed in detail, the system average model is then derived. To ensure steady output and fast dynamic response, the voltage controller is designed to be typical lead-lag compensation circuit based on the derived average model. To simplify system hardware, digital signal processor (DSP) is used to implement the controller algorithm and PWM signals, and the overall configuration and controller's implementation based on DSP are finally given. The effectiveness of theoretical analysis and control strategy is verified by prototype experiments. Source


Zhu Y.,Pusan National University | Zhu Y.,Shandong University | Chandra P.,Pusan National University | Shim Y.-B.,Pusan National University
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells were detected using an electrochemical immunosensor combined with hydrazine and aptamer-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The sensor probe was fabricated by covalently immobilizing anti-HER2 onto a nanocomposite layer that was composed of self-assembled 2,5-bis(2-thienyl)-1H-pyrrole-1-(p- benzoic acid) (DPB) on AuNPs. The hydrazine-AuNP-aptamer bioconjugate, where the hydrazine reductant was directly attached onto AuNPs to avoid the nonspecific deposition of silver on the sensor surface, was designed and used to reduce silver ion for signal amplification selectively. The silver-stained target cells were visualized easily by the bare eye and an optical microscope, and the cells were quantitatively analyzed using stripping voltammetry. The parameters affecting the analytical response were optimized. The proposed sensor was capable of differentiating between HER2-positive breast cancer cells and HER2-negative cells. This method exhibited an excellent diagnosis method for the ultrasensitive detection of SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells in human serum samples with a detection limit of 26 cells/mL. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Wang P.,Shandong University
Drug discoveries & therapeutics | Year: 2012

A new series of 5-(indole-2-yl)-3-substituted 1,2,4-oxadiazoles were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activities. Structures of the compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic methods. Structural modifications were done to improve the antiproliferative activity of compound 1. The results indicated that a benzyloxyl substituent on the C-4 position was better than a methyl substituent on the C-6 position of the indole component. Compounds 10a, 10b, 10g, 10i, 10l, 10n, 10o, and 10p were found to be more active than lead compound 1 in the PC-3 cell line. These compounds may serve as lead candidates in the development of novel chemotherapeutics for cancer treatment. Source


Yang Z.,Shandong University
Advanced Materials Letters | Year: 2011

A controlled sol-gel approach was developed to encapsulate luminescent CdTe and magnetic Fe3O4 nanocrystals (NCs) into SiO2 beads. The preparation procedure included the preparation of SiO2-coated Fe3O4 NCs, the attachment of the CdTe NCs on the SiO2-coated Fe3O4 NCs, the assembly of the CdTe NCs-attached Fe3O4 NCs, and the growth of a SiO2 shell. To prevent the photoluminescence (PL) quenching, Fe3O4 NCs were coated with a thin SiO2 layer before encapsulating into SiO2 beads together with CdTe NCs. The CdTe NCs retained high PL efficiency (30%) in dual functional SiO2 beads. These SiO2 beads also revealed superparamagnetic behavior. The result would be utilizable for further application because of their high PL efficiency and magnetic property. The strategy described here should give a useful enlightenment for the design and fabrication of multiple functional SiO2 beads. © 2011 VBRI press. Source


Acharya B.R.,Pennsylvania State University | Jeon B.W.,Pennsylvania State University | Zhang W.,Pennsylvania State University | Zhang W.,Shandong University | Assmann S.M.,Pennsylvania State University
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

Open Stomata 1 (OST1) (SnRK2.6 or SRK2E), a serine/threonine protein kinase, is a positive regulator in abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated stomatal response, but OST1-regulation of K+ and Ca2+ currents has not been studied directly in guard cells and it is unknown whether OST1 activity is limiting in ABA-mediated stomatal responses. We employed loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches to study native ABA responses of Arabidopsis guard cells. We performed stomatal aperture bioassays, patch clamp analyses and reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurements. ABA inhibition of inward K+ channels and light-induced stomatal opening are reduced in ost1 mutants while transgenic plants overexpressing OST1 show ABA hypersensitivity in these responses. ost1 mutants are insensitive to ABA-induced stomatal closure, regulation of slow anion currents, Ca2+-permeable channel activation and ROS production while OST1 overexpressing lines are hypersensitive for these responses, resulting in accelerated stomatal closure in response to ABA. Overexpression of OST1 in planta in the absence of ABA application does not affect basal apertures or ion currents. Moreover, we demonstrate the physical interaction of OST1 with the inward K+ channel KAT1, the anion channel SLAC1, and the NADPH oxidases AtrbohD and AtrbohF. Our findings support OST1 as a critical limiting component in ABA regulation of stomatal apertures, ion channels and NADPH oxidases in Arabidopsis guard cells. © 2013 New Phytologist Trust. Source


Chao W.,Peking University | Zheng Y.-J.,Shandong University | Zheng Y.-J.,Beijing University of Technology
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2013

Inspired by the indication of a relatively large θ 13 from accelerator and reactor neutrino oscillation experiments, we provide a systematic study of general modifications to the three well-studied neutrino mixing patterns, i.e., tri-bimaximal, bimaximal and democratic lepton mixing matrices. The correlation between θ 13 and the other two neutrino mixing angles are derived for each types of additional rotations. Predictions on θ 12 and θ 23 are also studied. Our study shows that, although some types of additional rotations are already excluded by the current global fit data of neutrino mixing angles, several types of additional rotations still survive. Our results may provide a guideline for the model building in neutrino physics. © 2013 SISSA, Trieste, Italy. Source


Deng Y.,Miami University Ohio | Liu L.,Miami University Ohio | Sarkisian R.G.,Miami University Ohio | Wheeler K.,Eastern Illinois University | And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Powerful combination: Arylamines and metal Lewis acids are used as catalysts in the highly chemo- and enantioselective three-component inverse-electron-demand aza-Diels-Alder reaction of cyclic ketones with enones. The enantioselectivity is introduced by a simple chiral anion (see scheme). Arylamines can also serve as effective enamine catalysts in combination with either a metal Lewis acid or a Brønsted acid. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Xia H.,Shandong University | Su G.,University of South Australia | Wang D.,University of South Australia
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Big and small, short and tall: Nanoparticles (NPs) coated with pH-sensitive polymers underwent reversible chain growth as a result of varying electrostatic interparticle repulsion as determined by the pH value. Tuning of the pH value also enabled the coupling of differently sized NPs to form linear composite chains reminiscent of block copolymers (see picture). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


A general maximum principle for optimal control problems derived by forward-backward stochastic systems is established, where control domains are non-convex and forward diffusion coefficients explicitly depend on control variables. These optimal control problems have broad applications in mathematical finance and economics such as the recursive mean-variance portfolio choice problems. The maximum principle is applied to study a forward-backward linear-quadratic optimal control problem with a non-convex control domain; an optimal solution is obtained. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Ding L.,Shandong University | Ding L.,University of Manchester | Gonzalez-Longatt F.M.,University of Manchester | Wall P.,University of Manchester | Terzija V.,University of Manchester
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2013

Controlled islanding is an active and effective way of avoiding catastrophic wide area blackouts. It is usually considered as a constrained combinatorial optimization problem. However, the combinatorial explosion of the solution space that occurs for large power systems increases the complexity of solving it. This paper proposes a two-step controlled islanding algorithm that uses spectral clustering to find a suitable islanding solution for preventing the initiation of wide area blackouts by un-damped electromechanical oscillations. The objective function used in this controlled islanding algorithm is the minimal power-flow disruption. The sole constraint applied to this solution is related to generator coherency. In the first step of the algorithm, the generator nodes are grouped using normalized spectral clustering, based on their dynamic models, to produce groups of coherent generators. In the second step of the algorithm, the islanding solution that provides the minimum power-flow disruption while satisfying the constraint of coherent generator groups is determined by grouping all nodes using constrained spectral clustering. Simulation results, obtained using the IEEE 9-, 39-, and 118-bus test systems, show that the proposed algorithm is computationally efficient when solving the controlled islanding problem, particularly in the case of a large power system. © 1969-2012 IEEE. Source


Qi Y.,Shandong University
The International journal of periodontics & restorative dentistry | Year: 2013

To explore the role of the IL-23/IL-17 axis in the relationship between periodontitis and coronary heart disease (CHD), 97 subjects were recruited and divided into four groups: (1) CHD + periodontitis, (2) CHD, (3) periodontitus alone, and (4) healthy. The demographic characteristics and periodontal status of all subjects were recorded, and the serum levels of IL-23/IL-17 were detected by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Results showed that the serum levels of IL-23/IL-17 in groups 1, 2, and 3 were higher compared with group 4. Group 1 manifested the highest level of serum IL-23/IL-17. A significant positive correlation between IL-23 and IL-17 levels was seen in the three patients groups; groups 1 and 3 also had significant positive correlations with probing depth and attachment loss. The results indicate that there may be an association between periodontitis and CHD, and the IL-23/IL-17 axis may play an important role in the pathologic process of both diseases. Source


Dai P.,Boston College | Xie J.,Boston College | Mayer M.T.,Boston College | Yang X.,Boston College | And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Covered with Pt: A uniform catalyst profile that ensures effective radial charge collection from high-aspect-ratio Si nanowires was achieved by atomic layer deposition of Pt nanoparticles. The resulting photoelectrode permits the measurement of high photovoltages and low overpotentials, and leads to very good stability against photooxidation of Si nanowires in solar water-reduction reactions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Loh P.C.,Nanyang Technological University | Zhang L.,Nanyang Technological University | Gao F.,Shandong University
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2013

Distributed generation systems usually include local energy sources, storages, and loads. Almost always, these entities have their own power converters for grid interfacing and energy processing. Having individual converters has advantages like more flexible individual control and simpler design but does not encourage functionality merging. Reduction of semiconductors to arrive at a more compact integrated design is thus not possible. Addressing this concern, a number of integrated energy generation systems that use 25% lesser semiconductors are proposed. The systems can be single or three phase depending on the types of sources, storages, and loads assembled. They can operate in the grid-tied or stand-alone mode with no compromise in performances expected, when compared with other solutions using more switches. For verifying the practicalities of the proposed integrated systems, experimental testing has already been performed on two example systems assembled in the laboratory. © 1982-2012 IEEE. Source


Tang C.-L.,Shandong University
Chinese Physics Letters | Year: 2011

We present the direct connection between the wave-like auroral structure around the time of auroral expansion onset and the ballooning mode waves in the near-Earth magnetotail. Based on the NASA mission time history of events and macroscale interactions during substorms (THEMIS) ground-based all-sky imagers, we show that around the time of auroral expansion onset, a wave-like auroral structure first has four luminosity peaks separated by 2-3° magnetic longitude (MLON). Subsequently, the wave-like structure propagates in the azimuthal direction and an overall bright arc spans approximately 1 h magnetic local time. The wavelength is estimated to be 120-180 km. Finally, a noticeable poleward auroral expansion is observed. The ballooning mode waves are identified by two THEMIS probes in the near-Earth magnetotail. The observed wavelength of the ballooning mode waves is approximately equal to the order of the ion Larmor radius. The wavelength of 1500-3000 km in the near-Earth magnetotail is comparable with the wave-like auroral structure estimate. This study suggests that the ballooning mode waves might play a crucial role in auroral expansion onset, corresponding to the wave-like auroral structure in this study. © 2011 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd. Source


Conductive TiN/Si3N4 nanocomposite ceramics hot pressed composites were processed by wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) and their microstructure was investigated. The dependence of surface texture, surface roughness, and materials removal rate on wire electrical discharge machining conditions including power transistor numbers and pulse off-time was also analyzed. More power transistor numbers result in greater material removal rate and greater roughness. More pulse off-time result in lower material removal rate. The surface microstructures machined by the new process were examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the TiN/Si 3N4 nanocomposite ceramics are removed by melting, evaporation and thermal spalling; the material from the wire electrode is transferred to the workpiece, and a combination reaction takes place during wire electrical discharge machining of the TiN/Si3N4 nanocomposite ceramics. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. Source


Chang Y.-C.,Shandong University
Ocean Development and International Law | Year: 2012

With the increasing use of the oceans and coastal areas, there is a need to pay greater attention to and reexamine the issue of ocean governance. Through comparing the framework of ocean governance in mainland China with that in Taiwan in terms of legislation, administration, and law enforcement, this article establishes that there are advanced practices concerning ocean governance in Taiwan and lessons that may be applicable for mainland China. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Li Y.,Shandong University
Physica E: Low-Dimensional Systems and Nanostructures | Year: 2014

Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that metallic nanowires (NWs) can activate and guide the self-assembly of graphene nanoribbon rings (GNR), allowing them to adopt a bilayered helical configuration on NWs. This unique technology attributes to the combined effects of the van der Waals force and the π-π stacking interaction. The size and chirality effects of GNR on the self-assembly of GNR-NW system are calculated. Diverse NWs, acting as an external force, can initiate the conformational change of the GNRs to form bilayered helical structures. The stability of the formed nanosystems is further analyzed for numerous possible applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Chen P.,Shandong University
Journal of Computers (Finland) | Year: 2012

DICOM is an international standard for the storage and transmission of medical image. With the popularity of pictorial and computerized medical equipments and the development of hospital management information system, the standard is widely used. The technologies of medical image display and processing based on DICOM standard are studied. On the basis of analyzing the DICOM standards and file formats, the general idea of converting between the DICOM format and BMP format is brought forward, and the medical images can be displayed in the windows platform. The grayscale processing technologies of medical image are focused on and implemented by programming. The main methods of edge detection are discussed and the implementation steps are given. The software of DICOM medical image processing is realized by Visual C++ which can convert the medical images to BMP formats and display these medical images. The grayscale processing, anti-color, strength testing and other basic functions of medial images can be come true. It can provide convenience for medical diagnostics. © 2012 ACADEMY PUBLISHER. Source


Venter H.,University of South Australia | Mowla R.,University of South Australia | Ohene-Agyei T.,University of Cambridge | Ma S.,Shandong University
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Drug efflux protein complexes confer multidrug resistance on bacteria by transporting a wide spectrum of structurally diverse antibiotics. Moreover, organisms can only acquire resistance in the presence of an active efflux pump. The substrate range of drug efflux pumps is not limited to antibiotics, but it also includes toxins, dyes, detergents, lipids, and molecules involved in quorum sensing; hence efflux pumps are also associated with virulence and biofilm formation. Inhibitors of efflux pumps are therefore attractive compounds to reverse multidrug resistance and to prevent the development of resistance in clinically relevant bacterial pathogens. Recent successes on the structure determination and functional analysis of the AcrB and MexB components of the AcrAB-TolC and MexAB-OprM drug efflux systems as well as the structure of the fully assembled, functional triparted AcrAB-TolC complex significantly contributed to our understanding of the mechanism of substrate transport and the options for inhibition of efflux. These data, combined with the well-developed methodologies for measuring efflux pump inhibition, could allow the rational design, and subsequent experimental verification of potential efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs). In this review we will explore how the available biochemical and structural information can be translated into the discovery and development of new compounds that could reverse drug resistance in Gram-negative pathogens. The current literature on EPIs will also be analyzed and the reasons why no compounds have yet progressed into clinical use will be explored. © 2015 Venter, Mowla, Ohene-Agyei and Ma. Source


Gu T.,Shandong University
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2013

The effect of oxygen vacancies in TiO2 on the electronic properties of Pt/TiO2/Pt heterojunctions were investigated using first-principles methods. The arrangement of oxygen vacancies in TiO2 slabs is a crucial factor for conducting filament formation. Extended defect induced by the aligned neutral oxygen vacancies results in defect states being located at the Fermi level of the Pt electrodes in Pt/TiO2/Pt heterostructures, and produces a conducting filament connecting two Pt electrodes in the TiO2 film via the oxygen-deficient Ti ions. As oxygen vacancies in intrinsic state, the O-deficient Ti ions, which remain in a high valence state, like those in perfect TiO2, do not contribute to the conducting filament formation. Electronic structure analysis suggests that metallic filament formation in Pt/TiO2/Pt resistive switching cells might be closely related to the charge state and the arrangement of oxygen vacancies in TiO2 films. © 2013 American Institute of Physics. Source


Atherosclerosis begins as local inflammation of arterial walls at sites of disturbed flow, such as vessel curvatures and bifurcations with low shear stress. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) is a major regulator of flow-dependent gene expression in endothelial cells in atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the in vivo role of JNK in low shear stress in atherosclerosis. We aimed to observe the effect of JNK on low shear stress-induced atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice and investigate the potential mechanism in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We divided 84 male ApoE(-/-) mice into two groups for treatment with normal saline (NS) (n = 42) and JNK inhibitor SP600125 (JNK-I) (n = 42). Perivascular shear stress modifiers were placed around the right carotid arteries, and plaque formation was studied at low shear stress regions. The left carotid arteries without modifiers represented undisturbed shear stress as a control. The NS group showed atherosclerotic lesions in arterial regions with low shear stress, whereas the JNK-I group showed almost no atherosclerotic lesions. Corresponding to the expression of proatherogenic vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), phospho-JNK (p-JNK) level was higher in low shear stress regions with NS than with JNK-I inhibitor. In HUVECs under low shear stress, siRNA knockdown and SP600125 inhibition of JNK attenuated nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity and VCAM-1 expression. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) (CD31) reduced p-JNK and VCAM-1 levels after low shear stress stimulation. JNK may play a critical role in low shear stress-induced atherogenesis by a PECAM-1-dependent mechanosensory pathway and modulating NF-κB activity and VCAM-1 expression. Source


Shi K.,Shandong University
International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics | Year: 2011

P-sets (packet sets) is improved by introducing function into it, and the concept and structure of function P-sets (function packet sets) is proposed, which is a set pair composed of the function internal P-set SF̄ (function internal packet set SF̄) and the function outer P-set SF (function outer packet set SF). Function P-sets has dynamic characteristics and law characteristics. Under certain conditions, function P-sets can return to the "origin" of function ground sets S. In the paper, it is proved that function P-sets is extension of P-sets, conversely, P-sets is special case of function P-sets. Applications of function P-sets in discovery of unknown information laws hidden information systems, are provided. Function P-sets is a new theory and a new method to research dynamic information laws for information systems. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Jiang Q.,Shandong University
Optoelectronics Letters | Year: 2011

In this paper, we present a novel oil level monitoring sensor based on string tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG). The measurement range and sensitivity of oil level monitoring can be modulated via changing the length and number of string tilted fiber gratings. The transmission spectrum of string TFBGs immersed in oil changes obviously with the oil level variation. Experiments are conducted on three 2 cm-length serial TFBGs with the same tilted angle of 10°. A sensitivity of 3.28 dB/cm in the string TFBG sensor is achieved with good linearity by means of TFBG spectrum characteristic with peak-low value. The cladding mode transmission power and the amplitude of high order cladding mode resonance are nearly linear to the oil level variation. This kind of sensor is insensitive to temperature and attributed to be employed in extremely harsh environment oil monitoring. © 2011 Tianjin University of Technology and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Yin C.P.,Shandong University
Zhonghua shi yan he lin chuang bing du xue za zhi = Zhonghua shiyan he linchuang bingduxue zazhi = Chinese journal of experimental and clinical virology | Year: 2011

To understand the related factors of rabies epidemic and provide the basic data for rabies control and prevention in China by statistic and retrospective analysis of rabies surveillance data in 2010. We used descriptive epidemiology method and statistic analysis to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of rabies in 2010 of China. 2048 rabies cases were rabies cases were reported in 817 counties (districts) in 2010, which dropped 7.46% compares to 2009. The incidences in children and elder people were high; farmers are main occupation of the cases, the male to female ratio of the cases was 2.44:1. Children and older people are higher acquired rabies than other age population. 640 cases reported through national rabies sentinel surveillance system, 87.50% cases were caused by exposed to dogs, bite was the main exposure reason. The situation of deposing wounds was poor, and the use of vaccine was still low in individual cases, but in the rabies clinic cases under surveillance, the vaccine usage can reach 98%, the usage of immunoglobulin (RIG) or anti-serum for category III exposure in either group cases was not high. The epidemic of the rabies in 2010 was eased, Out-patient post-exposure prophylaxis was in good station, but there are still lots of problem existed: post-exposure prophylaxis of individual case was not desirable yet. Source


Li Y.,Shandong University
Qualitative Health Research | Year: 2013

The main purpose of this article is to examine the understanding and experience of health and health care among rural-to-urban migrants in China, and to explain the impact of the internal factors of migrants themselves and the external factors of their social environment. Understanding the perceptions and consciousness of health issues among migrants is crucial to prevention, intervention, and other health-related measures for the migrant population in China, but this has rarely been explored in studies. On the basis of a case study of a migrant community in Beijing, I explore the migrants' understandings of health and health care and analyze factors in the social environment, including exclusion from the social system and the possibility of health participation, exclusion from social relation networks, obstructed channels of health maintenance, and exclusion of crowd psychology, which impact heavily on their health understanding and health behavior. I argue that the internal and the external factors are linked together closely and interact as reciprocal causation. However, the migrants should not be seen as primarily responsible, because their poor understanding of health mainly results from the socioeconomic environment in which they live and work. © The Author(s) 2013. Source


Ji F.,Soochow University of China | Ji F.,University of California at Davis | Li Z.,University of California at Davis | Nguyen H.,University of California at Davis | And 6 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2013

Background-Cardiac surgery is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular and other complications that translate into increased mortality and healthcare costs. This retrospective study was designed to determine whether the perioperative use of dexmedetomidine could reduce the incidence of complications and mortality after cardiac surgery. Methods and Results-A total of 1134 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery and coronary artery bypass surgery plus valvular or other procedures were included. Of them, 568 received intravenous dexmedetomidine infusion and 566 did not. Data were adjusted with propensity scores, and multivariate logistic regression was used. The primary outcomes measured included mortality and postoperative major adverse cardiocerebral events (stroke, coma, perioperative myocardial infarction, heart block, or cardiac arrest). Secondary outcomes included renal failure, sepsis, delirium, postoperative ventilation hours, length of hospital stay, and 30-day readmission. Dexmedetomidine use significantly reduced postoperative in-hospital (1.23% versus 4.59%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.192-0.614; P>0.0001), 30-day (1.76% versus 5.12%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.226-0.655; P>0.0001), and 1-year (3.17% versus 7.95%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.312-0.701; P=0.0002) mortality. Perioperative dexmedetomidine therapy also reduced the risk of overall complications (47.18% versus 54.06%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.96; P=0.0136) and delirium (5.46% versus 7.42%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.75; P=0.0030). Conclusion-Perioperative dexmedetomidine use was associated with a decrease in postoperative mortality up to 1 year and decreased incidence of postoperative complications and delirium in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Source


Guo X.,South China University of Technology | Zhang Q.,South China University of Technology | Sun Y.,Peking University | Zhao Q.,Peking University | And 2 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2012

Selective growth/etching of hybrid materials is very important for the rational synthesis of hierarchical structures and precise modulation of their physical properties. Here, the lateral etching of the core-shell Au@Ag nanorods is achieved by FeCl 3 at room temperature, producing a number of dumbbell-like Ag-tipped Au nanorods. This selective etching at the side of the core-shell nanorods is attributed to the increased reactivity of the side facets, due to less surface passivation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. The similar synthetic strategy has also been demonstrated to be successful for the Pd-tipped Au nanorods that have not been reported before, indicating the great potential of this selective etching. The Ag-tipped Au nanorods are examined as a catalyst for the reduction of p-nitrophenol at room temperature. The Ag-tipped Au nanorods exhibit a higher catalytic activity than Au nanorods and core-shell Au@Ag nanorods, which could be attributed to the electronic effect and the unique structure in the Ag-tipped Au nanorods. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Zhao X.,Shandong University
Plant signaling & behavior | Year: 2012

In our previous study, we found wheat TaCHP confers salt tolerance through regulating salt responsive signaling pathways. TaCHP possesses three divergent C1 domains that can specifically bind to phospholipid signaling molecule diacylglycerol (DAG) in animal cells, and most of proteins with this domain have kinase activity. Here, we found that TaCHP localizes both at cytoplasmatic membrane and in nuclei; it has no kinase activity but transcriptional activation activity, and the latter owes to C-terminal two C1 domains. TaCHP transcription was reduced by H2O2 application, but its ectopic expression in Arabidopsis improved both ROS production and scavenging capacity, and enhanced tolerance to H2O2 application. We suggest that TaCHP serve as both a transcription factor and a putative DAG binding protein to confer salt tolerance in part through improving ROS scavenging capacity; which is a component of the cross-talk machinery in the phospholipids-ROS-salt responsive signaling pathways. Source


Zhao G.W.,Shandong University
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials | Year: 2012

To investigate the bioactive constituents in the stem of Piper wallichii. Compounds were separated by column chromatography of silica gel, ODS-A and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were elucidated based on spectral analysis. DPPH scavenging activity and AchE inhibitory activity were tested. 10 compounds were isolated and their structures were identified as 3,4-methylenedioxy-benzoic acid (1), vanillic acid (2), benzoic acid (3), N-p-coumaroyltyramine (4), futoenone (5), futoquinol (6), isofutoquinol A (7), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-benzoic acid (8), futoamide (9), dihydropiperlonguminine (10). Compounds 1-6 are isolated from P. wallichii for the first time. Vanillic acid (2) and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-benzoic acid (8) show scavenging activity against DPPH radical with ED50 at 224.33 microg/mL and 11.44 microg/mL, respectively. No compound shows inhibition activity against AchE. Source


Chen H.,China University of Mining and Technology | Gu J.J.,Dalhousie University | Gu J.J.,Shandong University
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics | Year: 2013

This paper describes the developed three-phase 6/8 poles switched reluctance external rotor motor drive for a fan in air conditioner. The external rotor core structure and the internal stator core structure, the three-phase windings arrangement, the slotted claw, and the setting structure of the photoelectric transducers on the rotor position detector are illustrated. The electromagnetic field calculation results are given. The three-phase asymmetric bridge power converter was used in the drive system. The block diagram of the switched reluctance external rotor motor drive with closed-loop rotor speed control is given. The closed-loop rotor speed control is implemented using a fuzzy logic algorithm. The experimental tests of the developed prototype are made for driving the fan from 200 to 950 r/min. The comparison results of the two systems show that the input power and input phase current RMS value are lower in the developed three-phase 6/8 poles external rotor switched reluctance motor drive prototype with the fan than those in the induction motor variable-frequency variable-speed drive with the fan. © 1996-2012 IEEE. Source


Cui C.Z.,Shandong University
Drug discoveries & therapeutics | Year: 2012

Solasodine glycosides, such as solamargine, have been proved to be very important anti-cancer agents. In order to discover more potent cytotoxic agents and explore the preliminary structure activity relationship, a new series of solasodine glycosides 2-9 were synthesized via a transglycosylation strategy, and their cytotoxic activity against a panel of human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, KB, K562, and PC3 cells) were evaluated by MTT assays. The results indicated that compounds 2, 8, and 9 with the substitute moiety of rhamnose, 2-hydroxyethoxymethyl, and 1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yloxy-methyl, respectively, exhibited quite strong anticancer activity. The underlying mechanism tests demonstrated that these compounds could induce apoptosis detected by DAPI staining, and Annexin V and propidium iodide binding. Cell cycle analysis indicated that the cancer cells were predominantly arrested at the G2/M phase when exposure to these compounds was examined by flow cytometry. These compounds may serve as lead candidates in the development of novel chemotherapeutics for cancer treatment. Source


Zhao P.,Shandong University | Zhang C.-Q.,West Virginia University
Pattern Recognition Letters | Year: 2011

In a graph theory model, clustering is the process of division of vertices into groups, with a higher density of edges within groups than between them. In this paper, we introduce a new clustering method for detecting such groups and use it to analyse some classic social networks. The new method has two distinguished features: non-binary hierarchical tree and the feature of overlapping clustering. A non-binary hierarchical tree is much smaller than the binary-trees constructed by most traditional methods and, therefore, it clearly highlights meaningful clusters which significantly reduces further manual efforts for cluster selections. The present method is tested by several bench mark data sets for which the community structure was known beforehand and the results indicate that it is a sensitive and accurate method for extracting community structure from social networks. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Sun F.,Guangxi Normal University | Yin Z.,Guangxi Normal University | Wang Q.-Q.,Guangxi Normal University | Sun D.,Shandong University | And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Inside and outside: Two consecutive postsynthetic modifications, first an elimination reaction in the channels and then bromination at the surface, were realized in a new hybrid metal-organic framework. The dramatic effects of the different groups in the channels and at the surface were studied using gas sorption and the loading/release of solvent and iodine. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Bai L.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention | Morton L.